Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Freda Dudley Ward
Winifred May, Marquesa de Casa Maury, universally known by her first married name as Freda Dudley Ward, was an English socialite best known for being a married paramour of the Prince of Wales, who became King Edward VIII. Born Winifred'Freda' May Birkin, she was the second child and eldest of three daughters of British Colonel Charles Wilfred Birkin and his American wife, Claire Lloyd Birkin. Freda was the mistress of the Prince of Wales from 1918 to 1934, when he fell in love with Wallis Simpson; the relationship between the Prince of Wales and the married Ward was common knowledge in aristocratic circles. Winston Churchill observed in 1927, after travelling with them on a train, "It is quite pathetic to see the Prince and Freda, his love is so obvious and undisguisable." 9 July 1913 to Rt. Hon. William Dudley Ward, Liberal MP for Southampton, they had two daughters. Her first husband's family surname was Ward, but'Dudley Ward' became their official surname through common usage, their divorce took place on the ground of adultery in 1931.
20 October 1937 to Pedro Jose Isidro Manuel Ricardo Mones, Marques de Casa Maury. From 1938 the couple took up residence in St Johns Wood, London, at 58 Hamilton Terrace, which they commissioned from the architects Burnet, Tait & Lorne, they divorced in 1954. Penelope Ann Rachel Dudley Ward, the actress Penelope Dudley-Ward Lady Reed, known as Pempie, who married firstly in 1939 Anthony Pelissier, by whom she had a daughter, secondly in 1948 film director Sir Carol Reed, by whom she had a son shown below. Tracy Reed, actress. Max Reed Claire Angela Louise Dudley Ward Lady Laycock, or Angie, who married in 1935 the commando leader Major-General Sir Robert Laycock, by whom she had two sons and three daughters. Of her five children, her son: Joseph William Peter Laycock was married to actress Lucy Fleming, niece of the writer Ian Fleming, the creator of James Bond. A portrait of her by the artist John Singer Sargent was discovered on the television series Antiques Roadshow in 2016. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage 107th Edition Volume III at Burke's Peerage – Preview Family Record King of Fools by John Parker Media related to Freda Dudley Ward at Wikimedia Commons
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Sir Carol Reed was an English film director best known for Odd Man Out, The Fallen Idol, The Third Man, Oliver!. For Oliver!, he received the Academy Award for Best Director. Odd Man Out was the first recipient of the BAFTA Award for Best British Film; the Fallen Idol won the second BAFTA Award for Best British Film. The British Film Institute voted The Third Man the greatest British film of the 20th century. Carol Reed was born in Putney, south-west London, he was his mistress, May Pinney Reed. He was educated at Canterbury, he embarked on an acting career while still in his late teens. A period in the theatrical company of the thriller writer Edgar Wallace followed, Reed became his personal assistant in 1927. Apart from acting in a few Wallace derived films himself, Reed became involved in adapting his work for the screen during the day while he was a stage manager in the evenings; the connection with Wallace ended with his death in Hollywood during February 1932. Taken on by Basil Dean, Reed worked for his Associated Talking Pictures, successively for ATP as a dialogue director, second-unit director and assistant director.
His films in the role working under Dean were Autumn Crocus, Lorna Doone and Loyalties and Java Head. His earliest films as director were "quota quickies". Of his experience making Midshipman Easy his first solo directorial project he was harsh on himself. "I was indefinite and indecisive", he said later. "I thought I had picked up a lot about cutting and camera angles, but now, when I had to make all the decisions myself and was not just mentally approving or criticising what somebody else decided, I was pretty much lost. I realised that this was the only way to learn – by making mistakes." Graham Greene reviewing films for The Spectator, was much more forgiving, commenting that Reed "has more sense of the cinema than most veteran British directors". Of Reed's comedy Laburnum Grove, he wrote: "Here at last is an English film one can unreservedly praise", he was perceptive about Reed's potential, describing the film as "thoroughly workmanlike and unpretentious, with just the hint of a personal manner which makes one believe that Mr. Reed, when he gets the right script, will prove far more than efficient."Reed's career began to develop with The Stars Look Down, from the A. J. Cronin novel, which features Michael Redgrave in the lead role.
Greene wrote that Reed "has at last had his chance and magnificently taken it." He observed that "one forgets the casting altogether: he handles his players like a master, so that one remembers them only as people." The scripts of several of Reed's films in this period were written by Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliat, with the screenwriters and director working for producer Edward Black, who released through the British subsidiary of 20th Century Fox. The best known of these films are Night Train to Munich, with Rex Harrison; the film, although inaccurate, is set during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. From 1942, Reed served in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps: he was granted the rank of Captain and placed with the film unit, with the Directorate of Army Psychiatry. For the latter body a training film, The New Lot, was made, recounting the experiences of five new recruits, it had a script by Eric Ambler and Peter Ustinov, with contributions from Reed, was produced by Thorold Dickinson.
It was remade as The Way Ahead. Reed made his three most regarded films just after the war, beginning with Odd Man Out, with James Mason in the lead, it is the tale of an injured IRA leader's last hours in an unidentified Northern Irish city. In fact, Belfast was used for the location work, it was the producer Alexander Korda, to whom Reed was now signed, who introduced the director to the novelist Graham Greene. The next two films were made from screenplays by Greene: The Third Man; the Third Man was co-produced by David O. Selznick and Korda, with the American actors Orson Welles and Joseph Cotten in two of the leading roles. Reed insisted on casting Welles as Harry Lime, although Selznick had wanted Noël Coward for the role; the film required six weeks of location work in Vienna, during which time it was Reed himself who accidentally discovered Anton Karas, the zither player responsible for the film's music, in a courtyard outside a small Viennese restaurant. Reed once said: "A picture should end.
I don’t think anything in life ends'right'". While Greene wanted Holly Martins and Anna Schmidt to reconcile at the end of the film, after Lime, her lover, is killed by Martins, Reed insisted that Anna should ignore him and walk on. "The whole point of the Valli character in that film is that she’d experienced a fatal love – and comes along this silly American!"According to the film critic Derek Malcolm, The Third Man is the "best film noir made out of Britain". The film won the Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival, the predecessor of the Palme d'Or. Outcast of the Islands, based on a novel by Joseph Conrad, is thought to mark the start of his creative decline; the Man Between is dismissed as a rehash of The Third Man. It "makes no startling impact, such as we have learned to expect from its director, on either the mind or the heart", complained Virginia Graham in The Spectator. While the fable A Kid for Two Farthings, Re
Hell's Cargo is a 1939 British adventure film directed by Harold Huth and starring Walter Rilla, Kim Peacock and Robert Newton. It was made at Elstree Studios; the film is a remake of the 1938 French hit Alert in the Mediterranean. Kim Peacock reprised his role as a Royal Navy Commodore from the earlier film. On its release in the United States it was retitled as Dangerous Cargo at the request of the Hays Office. Walter Rilla as Cmndt. Lestailleur Kim Peacock as Cmdr. Falcon Robert Newton as Cmdr. Tomasou Penelope Dudley-Ward as Annette Lestailleur Geoffrey Atkins as Pierre Lestailieur Ronald Adam as Capt. Dukes Charles Victor as Mr. Martin Martin Walker as Dr. Laurence Henry Oscar as Liner captain Henry Morell as Father Blanc Louis Hampton as Civil Defense warden Low, Rachael. Filmmaking in 1930s Britain. George Allen & Unwin, 1985. Wood, Linda. British Films, 1927-1939. British Film Institute, 1986. Hell's Cargo on IMDb
Major Barbara is a three-act English play by George Bernard Shaw and premiered in 1905 and first published in 1907. The story concerns an idealistic young woman, Barbara Undershaft, engaged in helping the poor as a Major in the Salvation Army in London. For many years and her siblings have been estranged from their father, Andrew Undershaft, who now reappears as a rich and successful munitions maker. Undershaft, the father, gives money to the Salvation Army, which offends Major Barbara, who does not want to be connected to his "tainted" wealth. However, the father argues that poverty is a worse problem than munitions, claims that he is doing more to help society by giving his workers jobs and a steady income than Major Barbara is doing to help them by giving them bread and soup. London Act I: Lady Britomart's house in Wilton Crescent Act II: The Salvation Army shelter in West Ham Act III: Lady Britomart's house at the Undershaft munitions works in Perivale St Andrews An officer of The Salvation Army, Major Barbara Undershaft, becomes disillusioned when her Christian denomination accepts money from an armaments manufacturer and a whisky distiller.
She decides that bringing a message of salvation to people who have plenty will be more fulfilling and genuine than converting the starving in return for bread. Although Barbara regards the Salvation Army's acceptance of Undershaft's money as hypocrisy, Shaw did not intend that it should be thought so by the audience. Shaw wrote a preface for the play's publication, in which he derided the idea that charities should only take money from "morally pure" sources, he points out that donations can always be used for good, whatever their provenance, he quotes a Salvation Army officer, "they would take money from the devil himself and be only too glad to get it out of his hands and into God's". Lady Britomart Undershaft, the daughter of a British earl, her son Stephen discuss a source of income for her grown daughters Sarah, engaged to Charles Lomax, Barbara, engaged to Adolphus Cusins. Lady Britomart leads Stephen to accept her decision that they must ask her estranged husband, Andrew Undershaft, for financial help.
Mr. Undershaft is a successful and wealthy businessman who has made millions of pounds from his munitions factory, which manufactures the world-famous Undershaft guns, torpedoes and aerial battleships; when their children were still small, the Undershafts separated. During their reunion, Undershaft learns that Barbara is a major in The Salvation Army who works at their shelter in West Ham, east London. Barbara and Mr. Undershaft agree that he will visit Barbara's Army shelter, if she will visit his munitions factory; when he visits the shelter, Mr. Undershaft is impressed with Barbara's handling of the various people who seek social services from the Salvation Army: she treats them with patience and sincerity. Undershaft and Cusins discuss the question of Barbara's commitment to The Salvation Army, Undershaft decides he must overcome Barbara's moral horror of his occupation, he declares. He makes a sizeable donation. Barbara wants the Salvation Army to refuse the money because it comes from the armaments and alcohol industries, but her supervising officer eagerly accepts it.
Barbara sadly leaves the shelter in disillusionment. According to tradition, the heir to the Undershaft fortune must be an orphan who can be groomed to run the factory. Lady Britomart tries to convince Undershaft to bequeath the business to his son Stephen, but he will not, he says that the best way to keep the factory in the family is to find a foundling and marry him to Barbara. Barbara and the rest of her family accompany her father to his munitions factory, they are all impressed by its organisation. Cusins declares that he is a foundling, is thus eligible to inherit the business. Undershaft overcomes Cusins' moral scruples about the nature of the business. Cusins' acceptance makes Barbara more content to marry him, not less, because bringing a message of salvation to the factory workers, rather than to London slum-dwellers, will bring her more fulfilment; the play was first produced at the Court Theatre in London in 1905 by J. E. Vedrenne and Harley Granville-Barker. Barker played Cusins, alongside Louis Calvert, Clare Greet, Edmund Gwenn, Oswald Yorke and Annie Russell.
The Broadway premiere in the USA was at the Playhouse Theatre on December 9, 1915. A film adaptation of 1941 was produced by Gabriel Pascal, starred Wendy Hiller, Rex Harrison and Robert Morley. A Broadway production in 1956 with Charles Laughton and Burgess Meredith is noted in the discussion following Laughton's guest appearance on What's My Line on November 25, 1956. Meredith was on the panel. Caedmon Records released a 4-LP recording of the play in 1965 directed by Howard Sackler with Warren Mitchell as Bill Walker, Maggie Smith as Barbara, Alec McCowen as Cusins, Celia Johnson as Lady Britomart and Robert Morley as Undershaft. Lady Britomart Undershaft was modelled on Rosalind Howard, Countess of Carlisle, the mother-in-law of Gilbert Murray, who with his wife Lady Mary served as inspiration for Adolphus Cusins and Barbara Undershaft. Andrew Undershaft was loosely inspired by a number of figures, including the arms dealer Basil Zaharoff, German armaments family Krupp. Undershaft's unscrupulous sale of weapons to any and all bidders, as well as his government influence and more pertinently his company's method of succession (to a foundling rather than a son
In Which We Serve
In Which We Serve is a 1942 British patriotic war film directed by Noël Coward and David Lean. It was made during the Second World War with the assistance of the Ministry of Information; the screenplay by Coward was inspired by the exploits of Captain Lord Louis Mountbatten, in command of the destroyer HMS Kelly when it was sunk during the Battle of Crete. Coward composed the film's music as well as starring in the film as the ship's captain; the film starred John Mills, Bernard Miles, Celia Johnson and Richard Attenborough in his first screen role. In Which We Serve received the full backing of the Ministry of Information which offered advice on what would make good propaganda and facilitated the release of military personnel; the film remains a classic example of wartime British cinema through its patriotic imagery of national unity and social cohesion within the context of the war. The film opens with the narration: "This is the story of a ship" and the images of shipbuilding in a British dockyard.
The action moves forward in time showing the ship, HMS Torrin, engaging German transports in a night-time engagement during the Battle of Crete in 1941. However, when dawn breaks, the destroyer comes under aerial attack from German bombers; the destroyer receives a critical hit following a low-level pass. The crew abandons ship as it capsizes; some of the officers and ratings manage to find a Carley float as the survivors are intermittently strafed by passing German planes. From here, the story is told in flashback using the memories of the men on the float; the first person to reveal his thoughts is Captain Kinross, who recalls the summer of 1939 when the Royal Naval destroyer HMS Torrin is being rushed into commission as the possibility of war becomes a near certainty. The ship spends a quiet Christmas in the north of Scotland during the Phoney War, but by 1940, the Torrin is taking part in a naval battle off the coast of Norway. During the action, a terrified young sailor leaves his station while another rating returns to work his gun after its crew is knocked unconscious by a torpedo strike.
The damaged Torrin is towed back to all the time being harried by dive-bombers. Safely back in harbour, Captain Kinross tells the assembled ship's company that during the battle nearly all the crew performed as he would expect, but he tells everyone present they may be surprised to know that he let him off with a caution as he feels as Captain he failed to make them understand their duty. Returning to the present, the float survivors watch the capsized Torrin take on water as the badly damaged ship sinks; the raft is again strafed by German planes. Some men are killed, "Shorty" Blake is wounded; this leads to a flashback in which Blake remembers how he met his wife-to-be, Freda, on a train while on leave. It is revealed that she is related to the Torrin's affable Chief Petty Officer Hardy; when both men return to sea, Freda moves in with CPO Hardy's mother-in-law. The Torrin participates in the Dunkirk evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force. Meanwhile, the nightly Blitz takes its toll on British towns.
Blake soon gets a letter from home to say that Freda has given birth to his son during one raid, but that Hardy's wife and mother-in-law were killed in the same attack. Stoically he goes to the Petty Officers' Mess to tell Hardy, writing a letter home, the bad news; the flashback ends as the survivors on the life raft watch the capsized Torrin sink. Captain Kinross leads a final "three cheers" for the Torrin when another passing German plane rakes the raft with machine gun fire and wounding more men. A British destroyer soon begins rescuing the men. On board, Captain Kinross collects addresses from the dying, he tells the young man who once deserted his post that he will write and tell his parents that they can be proud that he did his duty. Captain Kinross and the 90 surviving members of the crew are taken to Alexandria in Egypt whence they send brief telegrams to their loved ones, that had heard of the ship's sinking, to let them know they survived. Wearing a mixture of odd clothing and standing in a military depot, Captain Kinross tells them that although they lost their ship and many friends, who now "lie together in fifteen-hundred fathoms", he notes that these losses should inspire them to fight harder in the battles to come.
The ship's company is told they are to be broken up and sent as replacements to other ships that have lost men. Captain Kinross shakes hands with all the ratings as they leave the depot; when the last man goes, the tired captain turns to his remaining officers, silently acknowledges them before walking away. An epilogue concludes: bigger and stronger ships are being launched to avenge the Torrin, its massive main guns fire against the enemy. Shortly after his play Blithe Spirit opened in the West End in July 1941, Noël Coward was approached by Anthony Havelock-Allan, working with the production company Two Cities Films, its founder, Filippo Del Giudice, was interested in making a propaganda film and wanted someone well known to write the screenplay. Coward agreed to work on the project as long as the subject was the Royal Navy and he was given complete control; as the sinking of HMS Kelly on 23 May 1941 was still on Coward's mind, he decided to use the ship's demise as the basis for his script.
Mountbatten, aware that there was some pub