Wahhabism is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. It has been variously described as "ultraconservative", "austere", "fundamentalist", or "puritan"; the term Wahhabi is used polemically and adherents reject its use, preferring to be called Salafi or muwahhid. Claiming to emphasize the principle of tawhid, for exclusivity on monotheism, dismissing other Muslims as practising shirk, it follows the theology of Ibn Taymiyyah and the Hanbali school of jurisprudence, although Hanbali leaders renounced Abd al-Wahhab's views. Wahhabism is named after Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, he started a reform movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Najd, advocating a purging of such widespread Sunni practices as the veneration of saints and the visiting of their tombs and shrines, that were practiced all over the Islamic world, but which he considered idolatrous impurities and innovations in Islam. He formed a pact with a local leader, Muhammad bin Saud, offering political obedience and promising that protection and propagation of the Wahhabi movement meant "power and glory" and rule of "lands and men".
The alliance between followers of ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud's successors proved to be a durable one. The House of Saud continued to maintain its politico-religious alliance with the Wahhabi sect through the waxing and waning of its own political fortunes over the next 150 years, through to its eventual proclamation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, afterwards, on into modern times. Today Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab's teachings are the official, state-sponsored form of Sunni Islam in Saudi Arabia. With the help of funding from Saudi petroleum exports, the movement underwent "explosive growth" beginning in the 1970s and now has worldwide influence; the US State Department has estimated that over the past four decades concerns in Riyadh have directed at least $10bn to select charitable foundations toward the subversion of mainstream Sunni Islam by the harsh intolerance of Wahhabism. The "boundaries" of Wahhabism have been called "difficult to pinpoint", but in contemporary usage, the terms Wahhabi and Salafi are used interchangeably, they are considered to be movements with different roots that have merged since the 1960s.
However, Wahhabism has been called "a particular orientation within Salafism", or an ultra-conservative, Saudi brand of Salafism. Estimates of the number of adherents to Wahhabism vary, with one source giving a figure of fewer than 5 million Wahhabis in the Persian Gulf region; the majority of Sunni and Shia Muslims worldwide disagree with the interpretation of Wahhabism, many Muslims denounce them as a faction or a "vile sect". Islamic scholars, including those from the Al-Azhar University denounce Wahhabism with terms such as "Satanic faith". Wahhabism has been accused of being "a source of global terrorism", inspiring the ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, for causing disunity in Muslim communities by labelling Muslims who disagreed with the Wahhabi definition of monotheism as apostates and justifying their killing, it has been criticized for the destruction of historic shrines of saints and other Muslim and non-Muslim buildings and artifacts. Some definitions or uses of the term Wahhabi Islam include: "a corpus of doctrines", "a set of attitudes and behavior, derived from the teachings of a severe religious reformist who lived in central Arabia in the mid-eighteenth century" "pure Islam", that does not deviate from Sharia law in any way and should be called Islam and not Wahhabism.
"a misguided creed that fosters intolerance, promotes simplistic theology, restricts Islam's capacity for adaption to diverse and shifting circumstances" "a conservative reform movement... the creed upon which the kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded, has influenced Islamic movements worldwide" "a sect dominant in Saudi Arabia and Qatar" with footholds in "India and elsewhere", with a "steadfastly fundamentalist interpretation of Islam in the tradition of Ibn Hanbal" an "eighteenth-century reformist/revivalist movement for sociomoral reconstruction of society", "founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab". Originally a "literal revivification" of Islamic principles that ignored the spiritual side of Islam, that "rose on the wings of enthusiasm and longing and sank down into the lowlands of pharisaic self-righteousness" after gaining power and losing its "longing and humility" "a political trend" within Islam that "has been adopted for power-sharing purposes", but cannot be called a sect because "It has no special practices, nor special rites, no special interpretation of religion that differ from the main body of Sunni Islam" (Abdallah Al Obeid, the former dean of the Islamic University of Medina and member of the Saudi Con
An Undang is a ruling chief or territorial chief who still play an important role in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The name is believed to be derived from the Malay word undang-undang meaning "law". Traditionally, the Minangkabau who settled at Negeri Sembilan, in present-day Malaysia at the end of the 17th Century choose from amongst themselves a "penghulu" or headman. Several of these "penghulus", notably that of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu and Rembau became powerful enough to exalt themselves above other "penghulus". By the early part of the 18th Century, the leaders of these four districts started calling themselves "Undang". Malaysia's modern day constitution confirms the status of the Undang under Article 71, 160, 181 and Eight Schedule of Federal Constitution as Malay Ruler within the Federation. Undangs are still chosen from amongst certain noble families in the state, the succession being both matrilineal and elective following the Adat Purbakala; the Ruling Chief are selected among the nobility in each Luak, following matrilineal inheritance, part of the state's adat perpatih customs.
The Undang of Sungai Ujong is chosen among the Waris Hulu and Waris Hilir families from the noble House of Klana and inherits the title Dato' Klana Petra. The Undang of Jelebu is elected among the three noble houses, Waris Ulu Jelebu, Waris Sarin and Waris Kemin. Undangs of Johol are a succession of members of two families in the female line which are Perut Gemencheh and Perut Johol; the son of the eldest sister of the incumbent is the heir. The Undang of Rembau alternates between the two major noble houses in the Luak, namely the Waris Jakun and the Waris Jawa; as with the Undang of Johol, the son of the eldest sister of the incumbent is the heir in the family. The senior wife of an Undang has the honorific title of "To' Puan"; the Undangs carry out duties such as co-head of state, co-head of Islam as state religion and safeguarding Bumiputera special position in Negeri Sembilan, attending the state opening of the legislative assembly and electing the Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, the co-head of state of Negeri Sembilan.
The Undangs themselves cannot stand for election and their choice of ruler is limited to a male Muslim, Malay and a "lawfully begotten descendant of Raja Radin ibni Raja Lenggang"
Seremban is a town and the capital of Negeri Sembilan, located within Seremban District. The town's administration is run by the Seremban Municipal Council. On 9 September 2009, Seremban was to be declared as a city, but it was deferred due to technical reasons. However, the idea of granting city status has been brought up again and Seremban is expected to become a city in 2019. Seremban was founded as Sungei Ujong, named after a nearby river of the same name. While the town was renamed Seremban thereafter, the Sungai Ujong name most prominently persists as a street name for a road adjoining the southern side of town; the town is referred alternately as "Fu Rong" in Mandarin or "Fu Yong" in Cantonese among the Chinese-speaking community. Sungai Ujong came into existence with the discovery of tin ore in the 1870s like most major towns in Peninsular Malaysia; the discovery of tin in a nearby area called Rasah, saw an influx of Arab and Chinese immigrants to work on the mines and trade there. Most of the local Malays were farmers.
Renamed to Seremban, the town flourished not only as a mining area but a business centre. The Linggi River served as the sole outlet to ferry tin and supplies out of the town. Revenue came not only from tin trade but from the large amount of taxes collected, much to the displeasure of the traders and the British colonialists at the neighbouring port of Malacca; the local chieftains, namely the Dato' Kelana and the Dato' Shahbandar of Sungai Ujong were at odds with each other on the rights to collect taxes and ownership and control of the mines. The rivalry to assert influence and authority opened the door for British intervention in Negeri Sembilan; the British sided with the Dato' Kelana upon invitation and defeated the forces of the Dato' Bandar, sent into exile to Singapore. In a show of gratitude to the British for helping him win the war, the Dato' Kelana had no choice but to accept a British Resident whose job was to advise him on matters other than religion and Malay customs. Captain Murray was appointed the first resident and set-up his residence at Channer Road, now renamed Jalan Dato' Siamang Gagap.
Soon after, the people living around Rasah moved to Channer Road for the sake of security and its orderly administration. Seremban is one of four state capitals. However, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government has approved Seremban's application to be declared a city on the 9th of September 2009. To achieve city status, the state government has agreed that Majlis Perbandaran Nilai and Majlis Perbandaran Seremban will be merged, with that decision being approved by the federal government in 2012. Menteri Besar Datuk Seri Mohamad Hasan said during Tuanku Mukhriz's birthday On 13 December 2017 Menteri Besar of Negeri Sembilan, Mohamad Hasan stated that Seremban will get city status in 2018. In order to get city status, both Seremban and Nilai Municipal Council will be merged to form a new local authority, Seremban City Council; the merger of two local authorities are now in the last stage. However, he said, the merging of the two entities would not involve the reduction of staff or higher assessment rates in the Seremban area, as increasing rates was not a prerequisite for attaining city status.
In February 2018, a further announcement was made regarding the formation of Seremban City Hall, poised to be completed in April. However, the official declaration of Seremban as a city will only occur in January 2019, in conjunction with the birthday of the state's ruler Tuanku Muhriz. After the change in the ruling coalition after the 14th General Election ushered in a new state government, the new Mentri Besar Aminuddin Harun announced his decision to push back the official promotion towards the end of the year, citing the inability of contractors to complete refurbishment works at the new City Hall in time. However, the postponement will allow the authorities time to iron out any flaws in Seremban's infrastructure and amenities. Seremban is situated about 60 kilometres south of Kuala Lumpur and about 30 kilometres inland from the coast, it is located at the foothills of the Titiwangsa Range. The terrain is hilly, the soil is reddish laterite soil, suitable for the cultivation of rubber and palm oil, thus making Seremban the agricultural centre for the state.
Since the establishment of Seremban, the Linggi River has played an important role in the development of the town. During the boom period of tin mining, the Linggi River served as the major transportation route for tin traders. Today, it is one of the major sources of water for Negeri Sembilan; the climate of Seremban, like most parts of West Malaysia, is hot and humid with a mean temperature of about 26–30 degrees Celsius. Most of the rainfall is experienced during the inter-monsoon periods of October; the weather remains dry for the rest of the year with occasional showers. The rail connection was first constructed in the late 1890s as a stop on the Kuala Lumpur–Singapore main line, until today, the Seremban railway station still serves as one of the major stops along the line; the station serves as the southern terminal of the Keretapi Tanah Melayu electrified commuter network, KTM Komuter, which links the town to Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley on Seremban Line. Since October 2015, the Komuter service has been extended to Gemas, though passengers are required to
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, Melaka and Johor to the south; the name is believed to derive from the nine villages or nagari in the Minangkabau language settled by the Minangkabau, a people from West Sumatra. Minangkabau features are still visible today in traditional architecture and the dialect of Malay spoken. Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan is known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar instead of Sultan; the election of the Ruler is unique. He is selected by the council of Undangs who lead the four biggest territories of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu and Rembau, making it one of the more democratic monarchies; the capital of Negeri Sembilan is Seremban. The royal capital is Seri Menanti in Kuala Pilah District. Other important towns are Port Dickson and Nilai; the Arabic honorific title of the state is Darul Khusus. The earliest inhabitants of Negeri Sembilan were the ancestors of the Semelai, Semai and Jakun peoples, who lived either as hunter-gatherer nomads or as subsistence farmers.
The Minangkabaus from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 15th century under the protection of the Malacca Sultanate, under the protection of its successor, the Sultanate of Johor. They brought their matrilineal custom with them and made it a majority, the Linggi River was used as a main trade route since the time of the Malacca Sultanate; as Johor weakened in the 18th century, attacks by the Bugis forced the Minangkabaus to seek protection from their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil, obliged by sending his near Raja Melewar; when he arrived, he found that another royal, Raja Khatib had established himself as ruler. He became the ruler of Negeri Sembilan; the Sultan of Johor confirmed his position by granting the title Yamtuan Seri Menanti in 1773. After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession. For a considerable period, the local nobles applied to the Minangkabau ruler in Sumatra for a ruler. However, competing interests supported different candidates resulting in instability and civil war.
In 1873, the British intervened militarily in a civil war in Sungai Ujong to preserve British economic interests, placed the country under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1886, the remaining states in 1895. In 1897, when the Federated Malay States was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were reunited to the confederation of small states and the whole, under the old name of the Negeri Sembilan, was placed under a single Resident and became a member of the FMS; the number of states within Negeri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of six states and a number of sub-states under their suzerainty. The former state of Naning was annexed to Malacca, Klang to Selangor, Segamat to Johor. Negeri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1942 and 1945, joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, became a state of Malaysia in 1963. Negeri Sembilan have seven districts. Negeri Sembilan has a collective population of 1,098,500 as of 2015.
The state has the highest percentage of Indians. According to the 2010 census, the population of Negeri Sembilan is 60.3% Muslim, 21.2% Buddhist, 13.4% Hindu, 2.4% Christian, 1.1% of unknown affiliation, 0.8% non-religious, 0.5% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, 0.3% of followers of other religions. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 92.9% of the Chinese population in Negeri Sembilan are identified as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians, Chinese folk religions and Muslims. The majority of the Indian population are Hindus, with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Christians and Buddhists; the non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Atheists, with significant minorities identifying as Christians and Muslims. All Malays are Muslims. Negeri Sembilan is a multiethnic state in which every ethnic group speaks their own respective languages and dialects; the Negeri Sembilanese people speak a unique variety of Malay known as Negeri Sembilan Malay or in their native language as Baso Nogoghi.
It is not related to other varieties of Malay in Peninsular Malaysia but more related with Malay varieties spoken in neighbouring Sumatra varieties of Minangkabau. Besides Malays, the Chinese and Indian communities speak their own languages and dialects. Orang Asli peoples like Temuans speak a language related to Malay. Standard Malay is used throughout the state; the Constitution of Negeri Sembilan came into force on 26 March 1959. It is divided into two sections; the constitution establishes that the state's form of government is constitutional monarchy and the world's only elective monarchy for matrilineal society. The system was the basis for the federal monarchy; the official constitutional title of the Ruler of the state are Duli Yang Maha Mulia Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of
Minangkabau people known as Minang, are an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia. The Minangkabau's West Sumatran homelands was the seat of the Pagaruyung Kingdom, believed by early orientalists to have been the cradle of the Malay race, the location of the Padri War. Minangkabau are ethnic majority in Negeri Sembilan. Minangkabau are recognised minority in other parts of Indonesia and Malaysia and Netherlands The term Minangkabau came from a popular legend, derived from a territorial dispute between a people and a prince from a neighbouring region. To avoid a battle, the local people proposed a fight to the death between two water buffalo to settle the dispute; the prince agreed and produced the largest, most aggressive buffalo. The villagers on other hand produced a hungry baby calf with its small horns ground to be as sharp as knives. Seeing the adult buffalo across the field, the calf ran forward; the big buffalo saw no threat in the baby buffalo and paid no attention to it, looking around for a worthy opponent.
But when the baby thrust his head under the big bull's belly, looking for an udder, the sharpened horns punctured and killed the bull giving the villagers their victory. The legend however has its rebuttals as the word'minang' refers to the consumption of areca nut, yet there hasn't been any popular explanation on the word'minang' that relates the aforementioned action to the word for "water buffalo"; the first mention of the name Minangkabau as Minanga Tamwan, is in the late 7th century Kedukan Bukit inscription, describing Sri Jayanasa sacred journey from Minanga Tamwan accompanied with 20.000 soldiers heading to Matajap and conquering several areas in the southern of Sumatra. The Minangkabau language is a member of the Austronesian language family, is closest to the Malay language, though when the two languages split from a common ancestor and the precise historical relationship between Malay and Minangkabau culture is not known; until the 20th century the majority of the Sumatran population lived in the highlands.
The highlands are well suited for human habitation, with plentiful fresh water, fertile soil, a cool climate, valuable commodities. It is probable that wet rice cultivation evolved in the Minangkabau Highlands long before it appeared in other parts of Sumatra, predates significant foreign contact. Adityawarman, a follower of Tantric Buddhism with ties to the Singhasari and Majapahit kingdoms of Java, is believed to have founded a kingdom in the Minangkabau highlands at Pagaruyung and ruled between 1347 and 1375; the establishment of a royal system seems to have involved conflict and violence leading to a division of villages into one of two systems of tradition, Bodi Caniago and Koto Piliang, the latter having overt allegiances to royalty. By the 16th century, the time of the next report after the reign of Adityawarman, royal power had been split into three recognised reigning kings, they were the King of the World, the King of Adat, the King of Religion, collectively they were known as the Kings of the Three Seats.
The Minangkabau kings were charismatic or magical figures, but did not have much authority over the conduct of village affairs. It was around the 16th century; the first contact between the Minangkabau and western nations occurred with the 1529 voyage of Jean Parmentier to Sumatra. The Dutch East India Company first acquired gold at Pariaman in 1651, but moved south to Padang to avoid interference from the Acehnese occupiers. In 1663 the Dutch agreed to protect and liberate local villages from the Acehnese in return for a trading monopoly, as a result setup trading posts at Painan and Padang; until early in the 19th century the Dutch remained content with their coastal trade of gold and produce, made no attempt to visit the Minangkabau highlands. As a result of conflict in Europe, the British occupied Padang from 1781 to 1784 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, again from 1795 to 1819 during the Napoleonic Wars. Late in the 18th century the gold supply which provided the economic base for Minangkabau royalty began to be exhausted.
Around the same time other parts of the Minangkabau economy had a period of unparalleled expansion as new opportunities for the export of agricultural commodities arose with coffee, in high demand. A civil war started in 1803 with the Padri fundamentalist Islamic group in conflict with the traditional syncretic groups, elite families and Pagaruyung royals; as a result of a treaty with a number of penghulu and representatives of the Minangkabau royal family, Dutch forces made their first attack on a Padri village in April 1821. The first phase of the war ended in 1825 when the Dutch signed an agreement with the Padri leader Tuanku Imam Bonjol to halt hostilities, allowing them to redeploy their forces to fight the Java War; when fighting resumed in 1832, the reinforced Dutch troops were able to more attack the Padri. The main centre of resistance was captured in 1837, Tuanku Imam Bonjol was captured and exiled soon after, by the end of the next year the war was over. With the Minangkabau territories now under the control of the Dutch, transportation systems were improved and economic exploitation was intensified.
New forms of education were introduced, allowing some Minangkabau to take advantage of a modern education system. The 20th century marked a rise and cultural and political nationalism, culminating in t
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The President leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines; the President is directly elected by the people, is one of only two nationally elected executive officials, the other being the Vice President of the Philippines. However, four vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having been elected to the office, by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation. Filipinos refer to their President as Presidente; the President serves a single, six year term without possibility of re-election. On June 30, 2016, Rodrigo Duterte was sworn in as the current president. In Filipino, one of the two official languages of the Philippines, the President is referred to as Pangulo. In the other major languages of the Philippines such as the Visayan languages, Presidente is more common when Filipinos are not code-switching with the English word.
Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andrés Bonifacio could be considered the first President of a united Philippines since he was the third Supreme President of the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society, its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan started an open revolt against the Spanish colonial government in August 1896, Bonifacio transformed the society into a revolutionary government with him as its head. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was known as the Tagalog Republic. Although the word Tagalog refers to the Tagalog people, a specific ethno-linguistic group, Bonifacio used it to denote all non-Spanish peoples of the Philippines in place of Filipinos, which had colonial origins. Bonifacio's revolutionary government never controlled much territory for any significant period and was unrecognized and unknown to the non-Tagalog ethnnolinguistic groups.
Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay and Miguel Malvar should be included. In March 1897, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of the revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention; the new government was meant to replace the Katipunan, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Aguinaldo therefore signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and went into exile in Hong Kong at the end of 1897. In April 1898, the Spanish–American War broke out, the Asiatic Squadron of the United States Navy sailed for the Philippines. At the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 the American Navy decisively defeated the Spanish Navy ending Spanish rule in the Philippines. Aquinaldo subsequently returned to the Philippines aboard a U. S. Navy renewed the revolution, he formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898 and issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898.
On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. On January 23, 1899, he was elected President of the First Philippine Republic, a government constituted by the Malolos Congress under the Malolos Constitution; this government is called the Malolos Republic. The First Philippine Republic was short-lived and never internationally recognized; the Philippines was transferred from Spanish to American control by the Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed in December of that year. The Philippine–American War broke out between the United States and Aguinaldo's government, his government ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, after he pledged allegiance to the United States following his capture by U. S. forces in March. The current government of the Republic of the Philippines, considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first President of the Philippines. Miguel Malvar continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuing state of Bonifacio's Katipunan.
They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents", along with Bonifacio, are not recognized as Presidents by the government. Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines was exercised by a succession of four American military Governors-General and eleven civil Governors-General. In October 1935, Manuel L. Quezon was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, established, still under United States sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on 14 May of that year. During its first five years, the President could serve for an unrenewable six-year term, it was amended in 1940 to limit a President to serving no more than two four-year terms. When President Quezon exiled himself to the United States after the Philippines fell to the Empire of Japan in World War II, he appointed Chief Justice José Abad Santos as Acting President and as Acting Commander-in Chief of the Armed Forces. Abad Santos was subsequently executed by the Imperial Japanese Army on May 2, 1942.
On October 14, 1943, José P. Laurel became President under a constitution imposed by the Japanese occupation. Laurel, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, had been instructed to remain in the City of Manila by Pre