Penguin Island (South Australia)
Penguin Island is an island in the Australian state of South Australia located in Rivoli Bay on the state's south east coast of 1.5 kilometres south of Beachport. From 1878 to 1960, it was the site of an operating lighthouse. Since at least 1972, it has been part of the Penguin Island Conservation Park. Penguin Island is located about 1.5 kilometres south of Beachport and about 120 metres south-east of the headland known as Cape Martin. The island consists of two outcrops which are reported as being unofficially known as Outer Penguin Island and Inner Penguin Island; the latter outcrop came into existence in 1968 when a storm caused the collapse of a section of Cape Martin thereby creating a channel of about 40 metres in width between the remains of the headland and an isolated stack of remnant cliff now known as Inner Penguin Island. Both outcrops are surrounded by vertical cliffs that rise to between 10 metres to 15 metres in height above sea level, with exception to the south-western end of the outer island where the ground falls steeply to a rocky spit.
A wave cut platform surrounds most of the island. The major outcrop along with minor outcrops and submerged strata form an island, about 400 metres long and up to 150 metres wide; the island is covered with sand which itself has developed in a soil. The inner island was reported in 1994 as being accessible by foot at low water while the outer island was only be accessed by boat or by swimming. Penguin Island was formed about 6000 years ago; the island is composed of Bridgewater Formation calcareous sandstone, a remnant of now submerged Robe Range, formed during the Pleistocene. The island, located in shallow water rises from a depth of 10 m within 1,000 m to its west, 200 m to its south and 300 m to its east; as of 1994, Penguin Island was reported as having a low shrubland dominated by grey saltbush while as of 1996, it was reported as having a shrubland dominated by coastal daisybush. Other species present as of 1996 included native species fleshy saltbush, austral seablite, bower spinach and leafy peppercress while introduced species included Athel pines, African boxthorn and mallows.
In 1977, an introduced species, marram grass was planted on the inner island to stabilise sand drift and to assist in the regeneration of native vegetation. As of 1996, Penguin Island was reported as accommodating breeding populations of little penguins, crested terns, short-tailed shearwaters and silver gulls. In addition to being notable as being a breeding ground for seabirds, the island is known as a site for the study of both the crested tern and the silver gull; the crested tern and silver gull population has been the subject of banding programs since 1953 and 1968. Feral birds such as starlings and feral pigeons have been recorded on Penguin Island. Mammal species observed on the island include Australian fur seals and rabbits which have been observed on the inner island; as Penguin Island has been accessible by foot at low water, it is possible that local Aboriginal people may have used the island as a source of food sea birds such as little penguins and silver gulls. Penguin Island was first described by Baudin in 1802 in respect to its relevance as a source of danger to navigation: It ends in a fitting cape, at the tip of which there lies a small island, reaching about half a league out to sea.
Its southern section is low and narrow, but the northern part is and can be seen from a fair way off. The island is surrounded by rocks and so is hardly approachable; the same applies to the whole coast, shielded by a reef and a line of more or less large rocks that prevent any landing there. While it appears that Baudin did not name the island, it is that its naming was made in acknowledgement of the presence of little penguins on the island; the island was the site of an operating lighthouse from 1878 to 1960 until its service was replaced by the Cape Martin Lighthouse. As of 1994, the lighthouse tower, a shed and a small jetty on the east side of the island were still present with the former two reported as being in ‘reasonable condition’, while the jetty was reported as having ‘fallen into disrepair’. Since 1961, Penguin Island has enjoyed protected area status and at least since 1972, it has been part of the Penguin Island Conservation Park. Boating Industry Association of South Australia.
Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia's waters an atlas & guide, Boating Industry Association of South Australia, ISBN 978-1-86254-680-6 South Australia. Department of Marine and Harbors, The Waters of South Australia a series of charts, sailing notes and coastal photographs, Dept. of Marine and Harbors, South Australia, pp. Chart 3, ISBN 978-0-7243-7603-2 National Parks and Wildlife Service. Small Coastal Parks of the South East Management Plan. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment and Planning, South Australia. ISBN 978-0-7308-4651-2. Retrieved 29 July 2014. Parsons, Lighthouses of South Australia, R. Parsons, ISBN 978-0-909418-35-9 A. C. Robinson. South Australia's offshore islands. Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission. ISBN 0-644350-11-3
Île des Pingouins
Île des Pingouins, or Penguin Island, is an uninhabited island in the subantarctic Crozet Archipelago of the southern Indian Ocean. With an area of only 3 km2 it is one of the smaller islands of the group. Administratively, it is part of the French Antarctic Lands, it is an important nesting site for seabirds. Île des Pingouins lies at the western edge of the archipelago, of which it is the southernmost island, about 30 km southeast of Île aux Cochons and 95 km west-southwest of Île de la Possession. It is much eroded by the sea, steep-sided, 4 km long and 1 km wide, its surrounding coastal cliffs vary from 50 m to 300 m in height, making it inaccessible by sea and visited. It is free of introduced species, so has a pristine biota compared with the other islands in the archipelago. At least 29 bird species breed on the island, identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area, it has an exceptionally high density of seabirds, including a million pairs of macaroni penguins, 300 pairs of black-browed albatrosses, four pairs of Salvin's albatrosses and 30 pairs of light-mantled albatrosses, as well as several thousand pairs of medium-billed prions and white-chinned petrels.
Other birds nesting in large numbers include wandering, grey-headed and Indian yellow-nosed albatrosses, northern giant petrels and Kerguelen petrels, common diving petrels. Other island breeders Crozet blue-eyed shags. List of Antarctic islands north of 60° S
D'Urville Island (New Zealand)
D'Urville Island is an island in the Marlborough Sounds along the northern coast of the South Island of New Zealand. It was named after the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville. With an area of 58 square miles, it is the eighth-largest island of New Zealand, has around 52 permanent residents; the local authority is the Marlborough District Council. The island has a convoluted coastline, as is found with islands formed from peaks between sea-drowned valleys, it extends for some 35 kilometres northeast/southwest, is a little over 10 kilometres wide at its widest point. The eastern coast of the island is smooth, marked by the small d'Urville Peninsula, some halfway along its length. In contrast, the west coast is marked by three large inlets: Port Hardy in the north, Greville Harbour in the centre, Manuhakapakapa in the south. Numerous smaller islands lie off the coast, notably Stephens Island, which lies 3 kilometres off d'Urville's northernmost point, Cape Stephens; the island's highest point, Takapōtaka / Attempt Hill lies close to the centre of the island, due east of Greville Harbour.
Most of the island's residents live close to the more sheltered east coast, with the localities of Patuki and Mukahanga being close to the northern tip of the island. The Māori name is Rangitoto Ki Te Tonga; the local tribes are Ngāti Kuia. The island is separated from the mainland by the dangerous French Pass, known to Māori as Te Aumiti, through which water passes at up to 8 knots at each tide. Several vortices occur near this passage. D'Urville investigated the passage for several days in 1827, damaged his ship passing through it. A small Department of Conservation maintained airstrip is located at Greville Harbour. Pelorus Air has flights to d'Urville Island from Picton and Paraparaumu. A barge service is operated by d'Urville Island Getaway between French Pass village and the settlement of Kapowai. There is a water taxi operating between the d’Urville Island Wilderness Resort at Catherine Cove and French Pass. In 2016, Motueka based Abel Tasman Sea Shuttles hosted a number of charity cruises around d'Urville Island in conjunction with the Rotary Club of Motueka.
Islands of New Zealand List of places named after people d'Urvilles Forgotten Island
The Penguin Islands are a historical group of scattered islands and rocks situated along a stretch of 355 kilometres along the coastline of Namibia. Not forming a geographic whole, the Namibian government formally lists them as the Off-Shore islands, their name comes from the presence of African penguins which inhabit the coastal region surrounding Namibia and South Africa. The islands are scattered over a long coastal region. Although a few of them form small clusters or groups, such as the islands in Lüderitz Bay, the Penguin Islands lack the mutual proximity of a natural archipelago or island chain; the largest island is Possession Island with 0.90 square kilometres in area. Hollam's Bird Island is the most northern and, at a distance of 10.3 kilometres, the farthest from the coast. All islands together measure 2.35 square kilometres in area. Listed from the most northern to the most southern, the islands include the Penguin Islands: Hollam's Bird Island Mercury Island Ichaboe Island Black Rock Staple Rock Marshall Reef Boat Bay Rocks Seal Island, Lüderitz Bay Penguin Island, Lüderitz Bay Halifax Island North Long Island South Long Island Possession Island Albatross Island Pomona Island Black Rock Black Sophie Rock Plumpudding Island Sinclair Island Little Roastbeef Islets Uninhabited, strategically located, rich in guano deposits and offshore diamond fields, the islands had considerable value for their size.
They were visited by European traders from the 17th century onwards for the valuable guano. Between 1861 and 1867 they were annexed by Britain, in 1873 by the Cape Colony. International confusion over the legality of the transfer required Prime Minister John Molteno of the Cape Colony to reaffirm the annexation with the Ichaboe and Penguin Islands Act; the annexation was intended to form part of an overall absorption of South West Africa into the Cape Colony forming one locally governed British colony. This was to be instituted by the Palgrave Commission. British interference and the resulting break-down in relations between the British Empire and the local Cape government obstructed the Commission's work long enough for Germany to declare South West Africa a German protectorate in 1884 as part of the continent wide Scramble for Africa; the offshore islands were excluded from German administration by their status as Cape constituencies. This status was recognised by Germany in 1886. Thus, although close to the mainland the islands were not part of German Southwest Africa.
In 1990 South-West Africa gained independence as Namibia. The Penguin Islands remained under South African sovereignty, thus letting it retain an Exclusive Economic Zone off the Namibian coast. After further negotiation, at midnight on 28 February 1994 sovereignty over the islands, as well as Walvis Bay, was transferred to Namibia
Penguin Island (Western Australia)
Penguin Island is a 12.5 ha island off the coast near Perth, Western Australia 660 m from Rockingham. It is home to a colony of 1200 little penguins, the largest population of the birds in Western Australia; the waters surrounding the island make up the Shoalwater Islands Marine Park. Regular ferries carry tourists to and from the island and other marine-park sights, the journey taking 5 minutes from Mersey point; the island can be reached by private boat, swimming, or walking across a tidal sandbar, exposed above sea level at low tide for a large portion of its 700 m length, however at high tide, most of the sandbar is under varying depths of water. The Department of Environment and Conservation advises against the sandbar walk as weather conditions can change making the crossing dangerous, which has resulted in several drownings. Visitors should take their own supply of food and drink since none can be purchased on Penguin Island, though there is a picnic area with seating and water taps, waterless composting toilets.
Litter bins are not provided on the island and all visitors are required to take away their own rubbish. This is to remove potential food sources for destructive animals such as black rats, which have led to a reduction in the penguin population. In 2013 a successful baiting program was conducted to eliminate a rat population that had become established on the island. In addition to the colony of little penguins, there are many other sights including nesting seabirds and a 500-strong colony of pelicans. Penguin Island has many geographical features, small sea caves, beaches, coves and natural bridges. There are numerous wave-cut platforms. Significant areas of Penguin Island include North Rock, Pelican Bluff, North Beach, McKenzies Well, South Beach, Abalone Point, Surfers Beach. There are numerous lookouts and walkways throughout most of the island; some areas are fenced off to the public to lessen dune erosion. A small population of rescued penguins are kept in a dedicated enclosure on the island, built by the Department of Environment and Conservation in 1987.
As well as being a sanctuary to care for injured wild penguins, it is the home of the 10 resident penguins that have been badly injured, orphaned as chicks or born in captivity, it is unlikely that they would survive in the wild. It has been designed to reflect the penguins natural sandy, coastal scrub environment and includes a saltwater pond with viewing panels to watch the little penguins swim. Penguin feedings are held three times daily by a Wildlife ranger. Spotting wild little penguins at the island is unusual as for most of the year, daylight hours are spent at sea chasing fish, visitors are prohibited from being on the island except during specified daylight hours from mid-September to early June; the little penguin population which breeds on Penguin Island is genetically distinct and in decline. In 2007 there were between 2000 little penguins on Penguin Island during breeding months. By 2011, the number had dropped to about 1000. Penguins have been observed taking longer foraging trips leading to chick malnutrition and starvation.
Prey depletion and climate change are considered to be major pressures on the breeding population. A proposal to construct a marina at Point Peron is considered a future threat. A number of rescued penguins are kept in a dedicated enclosure for visitors to the island to observe. Little penguins breed on nearby Garden Island, 6.5 km to the north. The two colonies are considered as a single meta-population. In 2007, the meta-population was estimated to include a total of 2369 individuals; the penguins of Penguin Island have been victims of dog attacks and shooting by holiday-makers. An informal assessment of the Penguin Island colony was made by Vincent Serventy in 1946. After several visits, he estimated the colony to number 500 pairs. In the 1940s concern was expressed for the viability of the penguin colony on Penguin Island, due to combined threats of human landing parties with guns and dogs, occasional fires, an abundance of rabbits which were denuding the island of its former vegetation and accelerating its erosion.
Rabbits were believed to have been introduced to the island in the 1920s, numbered four to five thousand in the late 1940s. By 1950, it had become an illegal act to take a dog to Penguin Island. Penguins were present on Penguin Island in the 1910s and 1920s. Seals were known to haul out on the island around this time. List of islands of Perth, Western Australia Crane, Carolyn Thomson and Peter Dans. Discovering Penguin Island and the Shoalwater Islands Marine Park. Como, W. A. Dept. of Conservation and Land Management, 1995. ISBN 0-7309-6971-1 Shoalwater Islands Marine Park at the Department of Conservation and Land Management Rockingham Penguins--Wild Encounters site
Penguin Island (novel)
Penguin Island is a satirical fictional history by Nobel Prize-winning French author Anatole France. Penguin Island is written in the style of a sprawling 18th- and 19th-century history book, concerned with grand metanarratives, mythologizing heroes and romantic nationalism, it is about a fictitious island, inhabited by great auks, that existed off the northern coast of Europe. The history begins when a wayward Christian missionary monk lands on the island and perceives the upright, unafraid auks as a sort of pre-Christian society of noble pagans. Blind and somewhat deaf, having mistaken the animals for humans, he baptizes them; this causes a problem for The Lord, who only allows humans to be baptized. After consulting with saints and theologians in Heaven, He resolves the dilemma by converting the baptized birds to humans with only a few physical traces of their ornithological origin, giving them each a soul, thus begins the history of Penguinia, from there forward the history mirrors that of France.
The narrative spans from the Migration Period, when the Germanic tribes fought incessantly among themselves for territory. The longest-running plot thread, the best known, satirizes the Dreyfus affair, though both brief and complex satires of European history, politics and theology are present throughout the novel. At various points, real historical figures such as Columba and Saint Augustine are part of the story, as well as fictionalized characters who represent historical people. Penguin Island is a satire on society and human nature in which morals and the origin of religion and laws are lampooned. For example, the origin of private property is presented as starting with the brutal and shameless murder of a farmer, the seizure of his land, by a physically larger and stronger neighbour. Girdler B. Fitch has postulated the influence of illustrations by Grandville on France's conception of Penguin Island. Penguin Island at Internet Archive Penguin Island at Project Gutenberg Penguin Island public domain audiobook at LibriVox