For the district in the Bahamas, see Rock Sound, Bahamas. Rock Sound is a British magazine; the magazine aims at being more "underground" and less commercial, while giving coverage to more well-known acts. It focuses on pop punk, post-hardcore, punk, hardcore, heavy metal and extreme metal genres of rock music covering indie rock music at all; the tag-line "For those who like their music loud and non-conformist" is sometimes used. Although aimed at the British market, the magazine is sold in Australia and the United States; the British edition of Rock Sound was launched in March 1999 by the French publisher Editions Freeway. The magazine was bought out by its director, Patrick Napier, in December 2004; the magazines offices are in London. Separate titles with the same name have been published under the same umbrella company in France since 1993, in Spain since 1998; the magazine is known for including a free CD in most issues, which has tracks from bands' new albums that have not been released as singles.
These are now called'100% Volume' or'The Volumes', but in the past compilations were called'Music With Attitude','Bugging Your Ears!','Sound Check' and'Punk Rawk Explosion'. Buyer reaction has been negative when there has been talk of turning the CD compilation into a digital compilation. Sometimes whole albums are included with the magazine from bands wanting to gain exposure, including Futures' debut album The Holiday in March 2010, Burn The Fleet's debut album The Modern Shape in May 2012; the first issue was published in April 1999. Issue 2 featured British band Reef on the front cover, issues 3 and 8 featured Terrorvision and Foo Fighters respectively. In July 2011 a host of "Through The Years" articles were written to celebrate the 150th issue of the magazine. 2017 witnessed the first annual Rock Sound Awards where £1 from every magazine bundle sold was donated to the One More Light Fund in memory of Chester Bennington. The magazine had a circulation figure of 15,005 from January to December 2010 auditored by ABC.
This includes 10,162 sales in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 4,843 from Other Countries. The same auditing body said the magazine had a lower circulation figure of 14,227 from January to December 2011, with sales of 10,053 from the United Kingdom and Ireland, 4,174 from Other Countries; the majority of sales come with some coming from subscriptions. The main rival to the magazine in Britain is Kerrang! because of the similar types of music both magazines cover. However, Kerrang! is released weekly and does not provide as much coverage to more alternative bands, to new and upcoming bands, nor to the British rock scene. At the end of every year the magazine lists their favourite 75 albums released in the previous twelve months. 1999 - Filter - Title of Record 2000 - A Perfect Circle - Mer de Noms 2001 - System of a Down - Toxicity 2002 - Isis - Oceanic 2003 - Hell Is for Heroes - The Neon Handshake 2004 - Isis - Panopticon 2005 - Coheed and Cambria - Good Apollo, I'm Burning Star IV, Volume One: From Fear Through the Eyes of Madness 2006 - The Bronx - The Bronx 2007 - Biffy Clyro - Puzzle 2008 - Genghis Tron - Board Up the House 2009 - Mastodon - Crack the Skye 2010 - Bring Me the Horizon - There Is a Hell, Believe Me I've Seen It.
There Is a Heaven, Let's Keep It a Secret 2011 - Mastodon - The Hunter 2012 - The Menzingers - On the Impossible Past 2013 - letlive - The Blackest Beautiful 2014 - Lower Than Atlantis - Lower Than Atlantis 2015 - Bring Me the Horizon - That's the Spirit 2016 - Panic! at the Disco - Death of a Bachelor 2017 - All Time Low - Last Young Renegade 2018 - Twenty One Pilots - Trench Occasionally Rock Sound adds a new album to its Hall of Fame. The main criteria is thought to be influence - within a particular genre - and for that reason many of the albums have been commercially successful as well as critically successful because they have gone on to influence large numbers of bands or the music scene, thus this differs from the Yearly Top Albums lists. In each article there is an interview with band members, a commentary on the album's release, a look at its initial success, reaction from other musicians as well. In some of the newer issues this section had been renamed to "Throwback". Kerrang NME Metal Hammer Alternative Press Citations Sources Official website
Chris Dale is a bassist playing in the bands Sack Trick and Tank. In late 1989 Chris joined Atom Seed, replacing original bassist Chris Huxter. After constant touring in the UK and the début EP released in early 1990, the band released their début album, Get in Line, on FM Revolver Records in 1991. Atom Seed next signed to London Records releasing several EP's and wrote and recorded a second album, Hard Sell Paranoia, in 1992; the label decided to shelf the album and Atom Seed decided to split in 1993. In 1994 Dale, along with Machine band mate Alex Elena, sent in a tape of their recorded Machine demo to Bruce Dickinson of Iron Maiden for his solo work via Sanctuary Management, they got a call back and were asked to learn a few songs from Balls to Picasso and some Deep Purple and AC/DC covers for an audition. As it turned out there were no more auditions so Elena got the job; the group toured the Balls To Picasso album and recorded Alive in Studio A, a rerecording of Balls To Picasso and a live recording in London, Skunkworks.
The Skunkworks project was intended to be a band of the same name but due to Castle Records being unwilling to release anything under any other name it was published as a Bruce Dickinson release Skunkworks sounds different sound from other solo Dickinson releases. Dale co-wrote the album track "Innerspace" as well as two tracks – "I'm in a Band with an Italian Drummer" and "Americans Are Behind". Bruce used the latter tracks as B-sides on singles and they were included on the 2005 expanded edition of the album. Dickinson encouraged Dale to continue writing, though disbanded the line-up prior to his next solo album. Sack Trick began as Dale's solo project with fellow Skunkworks bandmates Alex Dickson and Alessandro Elena; the first album, The Mystery Rabbits was released in 1999 released by ORG Records and soon followed up by the concept album, Penguins on the Moon in 2000. In 2005 the band self released the Kiss tribute album, Sheep in KISS Make Up. Sack Trick have an evolving/rotating membership of musicians and friends on each of the albums and live – depending on, available.
The band still continue to play, albeit once a year in Roskilde, Denmark, at Gimle's annual Christmas party – having played for the tenth year running as of 2011. In 2009 Dale joined Tank after being asked by friend and ex Rainbow singer, Doogie White, who had just joined the band himself, they would both be replacing Algy Ward. Chris knew guitarist Cliff Evans and original Tank drummer, Mark Brabbs, who had rejoined the newly reformed band. After several festival slots that summer, Tank went on to release War Machine in 2010 and are working on War Nation, set for a mid-2012 release. Chris has worked on a session musician including. In 1993 Dale was recruited for a hip-hop rock crossover project was started by and named after New Jersey producer, Machine. UK tours and a demo followed but to the band split. Balance of Power. Although credited for three albums, Dale only played on the band's second album, Book of Secrets. Seven Days. Although Dale recorded bass for two singles the band credited their live bassist.
AntiProduct. After supporting Clam Abuse with Sack Trick, Alex Kane invited Dale and Robin Guy to join him for his new project; this became known as AntiProduct and they wrote and recorded the band's debut, Consume And Die... The Rest Is All Fun, though both Dale and Guy were unable to commit to touring and new band members were recruited. Ace Sounds. After attending a few Sack Trick gigs, Skunk Anansie guitarist Ace, invited Dale to join him for a few tracks on his solo project. Chris recorded the tracks "Jet from California" featuring Jason Perry from A, the single "No Fear of Falling" featuring Shingai Shoniwa from the Noisettes and "Prisoner" featuring Skye from Morcheeba. Ricky Gervais. Producer Glyn Hughes, a school friend of Dale's, invited Chris to play on the full band version of "Free Loving on the Free Love Freeway", the B-side to Ricky Gervais's single, a cover of Simply Red's "If You Don't Know Me By Now" for BBC comedy The Office Christmas specials. Dale recorded bass for the song "When The Whistle Blows" featured in Extras Series 2.
Lapsed Catholic. Dale was hired again to record some extreme music for library stock in 2005; this group included SikTh vocalist Mikee Goodman. I Play Rock. Dale worked on the Tony Hadley and Martin Fry tour in 2005, during which he would sound check with the groups and got an occasional guest appearance such as playing "Highway To Hell" at Nottingham Royal Concert Hall; the resulting product of the bonds made was I Play Rock with Spandau Ballet's John Keeble and guitarist Richie B. The group released a studio and live album the same year. Tribuzy. In 2005 Dale was hired to record bass for Renato Tribuzy's Project, for the album Execution and subsequently the live DVD performance of the album filmed in Brazil in late 2005. Chris writes for MetalTalk.net and is a DJ on the web radio station, TotalRock, in addition to being a bass technician for touring bands such as Mr. Big, Therapy? and the Tony Hadley band. Bruce Dickinson – Skunkworks Live Video The Office Christmas Specials Tony Hadley/Martin Fry – The Singers Bum Bruce Dickinson – Anthology KISS Expo III Extras Series 2 Tribuzy – Execution Live Reunion Atom Seed – Rebel Atom Seed – Get in Line Atom Seed – Dead Happy Bruce Dickinson – Back from the Edge Bruce Dickinson – Inertia Balance of Power – Against The Odds AntiProduct – Bungee Jumping People Ricky Gervais – Freelove Freeway The Smashing Pumpkins – Ava Adore (Promotional Video – 199
Kerrang! is a British weekly magazine devoted to rock music and heavy metal music published by Wasted Talent. It was first published on 6 June 1981 as a one-off supplement in the Sounds newspaper. Named after the onomatopoeic word that derives from the sound made when playing a power chord on a distorted electric guitar, Kerrang! was devoted to the new wave of British heavy metal and the rise of hard rock acts. In the early 2000s it became the best-selling British music weekly. Kerrang! was founded in 1981. The magazine commenced publication on 6 June 1981 and was edited by Geoff Barton as a one-time supplement in the Sounds newspaper, which focused on the new wave of British heavy metal phenomenon and on the rise of other hard rock acts. Angus Young of AC/DC appeared on Kerrang!'s first cover. Launched as a monthly magazine, Kerrang! began to appear on a fortnightly basis and in 1987 it went weekly. The original owner was United Newspapers who sold it to EMAP in 1991. During the 1980s and early 1990s the magazine placed many thrash and glam metal acts on the cover but discarded them when grunge acts such as Nirvana rose to fame.
Readers criticise the magazine for repeating this process every time a new musical subgenre becomes trendy. The term "thrash metal" was first coined in the music press by Kerrang! journalist Malcolm Dome while making a reference to the Anthrax song "Metal Thrashing Mad" in issue number 62, page 8, published on 23 February 1984. Prior to this Metallica's James Hetfield referred to their sound as power metal. Kerrang!'s popularity rose again with the hiring of editor Paul Rees circa 2000 when the nu metal genre, featuring bands including Limp Bizkit and Slipknot, was becoming more popular. Rees went on to edit Q magazine and former Kerrang! Reviews editor Ashley Bird was appointed editor from 2003 to 2005. Following his departure, Paul Brannigan took over as editor in May 2005. With the emergence of emo and metalcore during the mid to late-2000s, Kerrang! began to feature this musical trend. The revamp was not welcomed by all readers and many complaints were received about Kerrang!'s sudden emphasis on emo and metalcore music.
However, following this change, Brannigan took the magazine into its most commercially successful period with a record ABC for the title of 80,186 copies. In 2008, EMAP sold its consumer magazines to current owner Bauer Media Group. Brannigan left Kerrang! in 2009 and Nichola Browne was appointed editor. She stepped down in April 2011. Former NME features editor and GamesMaster deputy editor James McMahon was appointed as editor on 6 June 2011. In April 2017, Kerrang! magazine, its website, the K! Awards were purchased by Mixmag Media, publisher of dance monthly Mixmag, along with assets related to defunct style magazine The Face. Mixmag has since formed parent company Wasted Talent, which relaunched Kerrang! as a digital-first title, while continuing to publish a weekly print edition. Former Editor-in-Chief Phil Alexander was appointed Global Creative Director on 3 August 2017. Bauer retained ownership of Kerrang! Radio and the Box Plus Network will continue to operate Kerrang! TV as before; the magazine received a logo change in mid-2017 before receiving a complete redesign during 2018.
This change saw several of the magazine's long-running features dropped, including the Ultimate Rockstar Test, while new features were added in their place. In March 2018, following a magazine redesign, Kerrang! announced it would be expanding to the United States, with an office in New York run by Ethan Fixell. The goal would be to generate US-centric content and brand partnerships. Kerrang!'s website, www.kerrang.com, was launched in summer 2001 by Dan Silver. Kerrang!'s parent company Emap acquired the domain name from a Norwegian cybersquatter by the name of Steingram Stegane for a token sum of £666. Kerrang!'s website features news and features on both contemporary and classic rock bands, as well as previewing upcoming events. The website hosts Kerrang!'s online shop, message board, TV and radio segments ensuring more opportunities to sell associated merchandise and products. In 2001, Kerrang! launched its own online forum with the "rants and raves" section taking up most of the traffic.
Though extremely popular, the number of users began to peter out around 2005 with the number of people online dropping to as low as 10 when it had been closer to the 100 figure. According to Alexa www.kerrang.com is ranked 83,545th globally, 33,532nd in the U. S. Since 1993, the magazine has held an annual awards ceremony to mark the most successful bands in the interests of their readers; the awards became one of Britain's most recognised events by the now defunct Guinness Book of British Hit Singles & Albums listing some of the winners in their annual round-up of the previous year. The event is presented by major music celebrities, with many others outside the industry who attend the event. After a year hiatus, the Awards were relaunched in 2018, with notable guests that included Johnny Depp, Joe Perry, Tony Iommi, Corey Taylor, Dave Grohl, among many others. In 2000, EMAP launched Kerrang! as a digital radio station, across the United Kingdom. This was principally a'jukebox' station, playing a back-to-back sequence of rock and alternative music.
On 10 June 2004, Kerrang! 105.2 was launched as a regional radio station in Birmingham with an advertising campaign by London-based creative agency ODD. The radio had a number of specialist programmes dedicated to the many subgenres of rock music; the radio output included interviews with those affecting popular culture and society as well as those involved with m
Metal Hammer is a monthly heavy metal and rock music magazine, published in the United Kingdom by Future and in several other countries by different publishers. Metal Hammer articles feature both mainstream bands and more unusual acts from the whole spectrum of heavy metal music. On 19 December 2016, then-Metal Hammer owner TeamRock called in the magazine's administrators about a layoff of 73 jobs after experiencing financial difficulties. TeamRock's stable of titles, including Classic Rock, Metal Hammer and Prog, suspended publication that same month. On 8 January 2017, Metal Hammer, along with sister magazines Classic Rock and Prog, were bought from TeamRock by their previous owners, Future Publishing, for £800,000. On 27 March 2018, the family of Future's UK consumer music magazines including Metal Hammer re-branded and became covered under the umbrella title of Louder, with loudersound.com serving as the main online portal for the publications. London-based Wilfried F. Rimensberger instigated the concept of MetalHammer magazine in 1983.
At the time, he suggested to the infant Kerrang! magazine in London that they should publish a German version, but the editors of the time were not interested. Rimensberger took the idea to Jürgen Wigginghaus, publisher of German MusikSzene magazine where Rimensberger was chief editor, proposed the idea of a multi-lingual rock music publication, he approached some of Europe's largest publishers such as Springer and Bauer, but none were interested. Wigginghaus used the Dortmunder Rocknacht as a test ground for the publication in Germany and Rimensberger started the international English version Metalhammer UK from London, he developed the multilingual concept that propelled the magazine to a monthly circulation of over 1 million and, during its peak, published in 11 different languages across the globe – at the time outselling Kerrang!. Metalhammer had local language editions in Israel, Serbia, The Netherlands, Poland, France. Metalhammer was the first Western youth publication in the Soviet Union.
Rimensberger made up the original and, at the time, unique concept of a heavy metal lifestyle magazine, embedded in a network of Metalhammer-branded multi-national radio shows, tours and recordings. This organization made the publication into the leading genre platform of the 1980s – and the global leader in his segment of the publishing market. Rimensberger, who started and owned Metalhammer UK Ltd and the registered rights of the name sold them to Wigginghaus whilst remaining in the background until the early nineties as an adviser to Wigginghaus. Rimensberger was the promoter of the first Metalhammer Lorelei Festival, with leading metal acts such as Metallica, Motörhead and Venom, it was he. Rimensberger linked the name Metal Hammer with other successful brands such as the BBC, MTV Metal Show with Bailey Brothers and Castle Donington Monsters of Rock Festival. Harry Doherty of Melody Maker, became the launch editor of the English-language Metal Hammer producing the Metal Hammer TV show on satellite television.
He left to found the video magazine Hard'n'Heavy, before being asked back by Wigginghaus to take over all the European issues of Metal Hammer and other associated magazines, such as Rock World. In association with Picture Music International, the video arm of EMI Records, Doherty launched the Metal Hammer Video Magazine, in direct competition with his earlier creation, Hard'n'Heavy. Doherty left after a management dispute with Wigginghaus. Harry Doherty's original personal assistant Sue Powell went on to manage the London-based offices under Wilfried F. Rimensberger. Rimensberger joined the start-up crew of MTV Europe as a consultant to the director of network development, he became a co-producer of Tom Galley's Phenomena project, organising its worldwide record deal and linking it with some of the best rock musicians and singers. He co-produced with Galley Dream Runner, Phenomena's best-selling album which has become somewhat of a rock classic, uniting the best rock voices of the time on one studio album.
Rimensberger represented Stiletto Entertainment Los Angeles in Europe, produced Nina Corti at the Royal Albert Hall and various TV productions for Swiss, German and UK TV. He is the sourcing producer of Barry Manilow's movie project and Broadway-bound musical Harmony, the founder of The Children's Arts Academy and the producer of further cross-culture based projects such as'Europa - The Woman′ and EuropeanIcons. In the 1990s, Wigginghaus lost control over the publication and, advised by Rimensberger, sold the German edition to Jürg Marquart, the publisher of Penthouse and Cosmopolitan magazines in Germany. Wigginghaus sold the remaining UK publication to cover personal financial liabilities. With their November 2011 issue, the magazine celebrated "25 years of keeping it heavy"; the Golden Gods Awards were established in 2003 by Chris Ingham from TeamRock.com. The annual ceremony takes place in United Kingdom. Metal Hammer in the UK includes its website and iPhone application which both feature original and exclusive content from news and interviews to multimedia and Metal Hammer TV.
The Metal Hammer Podcast was presented by James Gill and Terry Bezer and contained "All of the news, general rantings and reviews" of the week. Gill and Beez coined the phrase "You Clahn"; as of June 2011, Bezer has left Metal Hammer to pursue work elsewhere, was replaced on the podcast by
Sheep in KISS Make Up
Sheep in KISS Make Up is a 2005 Kiss tribute album by Sack Trick. Described as "the most amazingly diverse Kiss tribute album you will hear", it was released independently by the band after they decided to give up on record companies. Produced and mixed by Alex Dickson at Alex-in-the-Hole Studios. Except "Beth" produced by Chris Nubile. Assistant Engineered by Chris Paulo Dale. Front Cover Artwork by Andy Hunns. Artwork Concept by Chris Dale. Additional Artwork by Reuben Gotto. Inside booklet layout by Mr. Plinky. Mastered by Tricr at Sound Discs. Photography by people with cameras. Dante Bonutto: Dante Bonutto
Funk rock is a fusion genre that mixes elements of funk and rock. James Brown and others declared that Little Richard and his mid-1950s road band, The Upsetters, were the first to put the funk in the rock and roll beat, with a biographer stating that their music "spark the musical transition from fifties rock and roll to sixties funk". Funk rock's earliest incarnation on record was heard in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s by acts such as the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Eric Burdon and War, Rick Derringer, David Bowie, Wild Cherry, Average White Band, Gary Wright, The Bar-Kays, Black Merda, Parliament-Funkadelic, Betty Davis and Mother's Finest. During the 1980s and 1990s funk rock music experienced a surge in popularity, with bands such as Tom Tom Club, Pigbag, INXS, Talking Heads, the Fine Young Cannibals and Cameo dabbling in the sound. Groups including Red Hot Chili Peppers, Rage Against the Machine, Incubus, Mr. Bungle and Faith No More notably combined funk rock with metal, hip hop and experimental music, leading to the emergence of the genre known as funk metal or "punk-funk".
Funk rock is a fusion of rock. Many instruments may be incorporated into the music, but the overall sound is defined by a definitive bass or drum beat and electric guitars; the bass and drum rhythms are influenced by funk music but with more sonic intensity, while the guitar can be funk- or rock-influenced with distortion, similar to overdrive or fuzz. Jimi Hendrix was the first well-known recording artist to combine the rhythms and riffs of early funk with his rock sound; the earliest example is his "Little Miss Lover". The live album Band of Gypsys features funky riffs and rhythms throughout and his unfinished album included a couple of funk rock songs such as "Freedom", "Izabella" and "Straight Ahead". George Clinton has been considered the godfather of this genre since 1970. Clinton created the name "P-Funk" for the innovative new concepts of funk that he culled from former members of James Brown's band and new young players such as Eddie Hazel, his groups and Parliament defined funk since the release of the influential funk rock Funkadelic classic Maggot Brain.
Funk rock albums by the group include Cosmic Slop, Standing on the Verge of Getting It On, Hardcore Jollies and Let's Take It to the Stage. Albums such as One Nation Under a Groove and Electric Spanking of War Babies had a bit more radio-friendly sound but still preserved much of group's funk rock approach; this work served as the primary influence on an entire generation of funk and hip hop artists from the Red Hot Chili Peppers to Snoop Dogg. Other pioneers evolved in the 1970s in the form of British rock band Trapeze and post-punk act A Certain Ratio, American artists Rick Derringer, The Bar-Kays, Black Nasty and Mother's Finest. "We called ourselves funk rock," recalled Mother's Finest singer Glenn "Doc" Murdock. "I think. We had a house where we all lived and we named it'Funk Rock, Georgia'. We felt. We played with Lynyrd Skynyrd and AC/DC; those bands had a lot of funk in their music. The real problem for us was, they told us we were too loud."Grand Funk Railroad pioneered the bass driven hard rock funk style in 1970 so well portrayed in their song "Inside Looking Out" and picked up by Rage Against the Machine.
Singer-model Betty Davis recorded important funk rock albums. The iconoclast composer and guitarist Frank Zappa demonstrated the merge of styles in albums like Overnite Sensation, in themes such as "I'm the Slime", covered decades by Funkadelic. Funk rock acts were not favored by R&B recording companies. For example, guitarists of Chic wanted to be a glam funk rock band like Kiss, but they became a disco act after being turned down by recording companies. Despite its considerable influence on popular music, funk rock was not a visible phenomenon during the 1970s. Only a few funk rock acts could be seen on record charts, notably David Bowie, The Rolling Stones, Gary Wright and Wild Cherry; when Glenn Hughes left Trapeze and joined Deep Purple along with David Coverdale, Deep Purple's next two albums contained elements of funk and soul. When Ritchie Blackmore left Deep Purple in 1975, the band's next album Come Taste the Band with Tommy Bolin was more funky than its predecessor Stormbringer. However, Deep Purple broke up in 1976 and Tommy Bolin died from a drug overdose.
British guitarist Robin Trower's albums In City Dreams and Caravan to Midnight, produced by veteran R&B producer Don Davis and featuring former Sly & The Family Stone bassist Rustee Allen, are pioneering funk rock albums. In the late 1970s Iggy Pop released Bowie-produced LP The Idiot. From the start of the 1980's, funk musicians Rick James and Cameo as well as new wave band Blondie and post-punk band Talking Heads each created their own brand of funk rock. One famous disco & rock song of the period was "Another One Bites the Dust" by British rock icons Queen. In the 1980s, some synth-funk and synthpop bands such as Thomas Dolby, Scritti Politti, Howard Jones made the basic funk beats along with elements of new wave which makes this a basic synth-funk song; the funk rock genre's representatives from the 1980s to present day include INXS, the Fine Young Cannibals, Jane's Addiction, Faith No
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro