A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties. It is different from an armistice, an agreement to stop hostilities, or a surrender, in which an army agrees to give up arms, or a ceasefire or truce in which the parties may agree to temporarily or permanently stop fighting. A treaty's content depends on the nature of the conflict being concluded. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one international treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. There are many possible issues; some of these may be: Formal designation of borders. Processes for resolving future disputes Access to and apportioning of resources Status of refugees Status of POW Settling of existing debts Defining of unjust behavior The re-application of existing treatiesIn modern times certain intractable conflict situations may first be brought to a ceasefire and are dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty.
A peace treaty is not used to end a civil war in cases of a failed secession, as it implies mutual recognition of statehood. In cases such as the American Civil War, it ends when the armies of the losing side surrender and the government collapse. By contrast, a successful secession or declaration of independence is formalized by means of a peace treaty. Treaties are ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. Since its founding after World War II the United Nations has sought to act as a forum for resolution in matters of international conflict. A number of international treaties and obligations are involved in which member states seek to limit and control behavior during wartime; this has meant that the action of declaring war is likely infrequent to be undertaken. Since the end of the Second World War, more shocking than the First World War, the United Nations system has been established and Article 2, paragraph 4 - 9, of the UN Charter, has banned the use of military force.
The UN Charter allows only two exceptions: "military measures by UN Security Council resolutions" and "exercise of self-defense" in countries subjected to armed attacks in relation to the use of force by States. Under the current UN system, war is only triggered by the enforcement of military measures under UN Security Council resolutions, or the exercise of self-defense rights against illegal armed attacks. In other words, the use of the term'war' itself is being abandoned in the current international law system. Therefore, if the use of military force arises, it is called'international armed conflict' instead of'war'; the fact that the current international law system avoids the use of the term war avoids the conclusion of a peace treaty based on the existence of war. A peace treaty was not signed after the end of the Iraq war in 2003, only the UN Security Council Resolution 1483, adopted on May 22, 2003, stipulated the postwar Iraqi regime for the stability and security of Iraq exclusively.
One of the UN roles in peace processes is to conduct post-conflict elections. Post-conflict elections on the whole are thought to have no effect, or a negative effect, on peace after civil war. However, when peace agreements transform rebel groups into political parties, the effect on peace is positive if international interveners use these moments of power distribution to hold the former combatants to the terms of their peace agreement; the earliest recorded peace treaty, although mentioned or remembered, was between the Hittite Empire and the Hayasa-Azzi confederation, circa 1350 BC. More famously, one of the earliest recorded peace treaties was concluded between the Hittite and Egyptian empires after the ca.1274 BC Battle of Kadesh. The battle took place in what is modern-day Syria, the entire Levant being at that time contested between the two empires. After an costly four-day battle, in which neither side gained a substantial advantage, both sides claimed victory; the lack of resolution led to further conflict between Egypt and the Hittites, with Ramesses II capturing the city of Kadesh and Amurru in his 8th year as king.
However, the prospect of further protracted conflict between the two states persuaded both their rulers, Hatusiliš III and Ramesses, to end their dispute and sign a peace treaty. Neither side could afford the possibility of a longer conflict since they were threatened by other enemies: Egypt was faced with the task of defending her long western border with Libya against the incursion of Libyan tribesmen by building a chain of fortresses stretching from Mersa Matruh to Rakotis, while the Hittites faced a more formidable threat in the form of the Assyrian Empire, which "had conquered Hanigalbat, the heartland of Mitanni, between the Tigris and the Euphrates" rivers, a Hittite vassal state; the peace treaty was recorded in two versions, one in Egyptian hieroglyphs, the other in Akkadian using cuneiform script. Such dual-language recording is common to many subsequent treaties; this treaty differs from others, however. Although the majority of the text is identical, the Hittite version claims that the Egyptians came suing for peace, while the Egyptian version claims the reverse.
The treaty was given to the Egyptians in the form of a silver plaque, this "pocket-book" version was taken back to Egypt
Nativity of Jesus
The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is the basis for the Christian holiday of Christmas and is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew. The two accounts differ, but agree that Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea during the reign of King Herod the Great, his mother Mary was married to a man named Joseph, descended from King David and was not his biological father, that his birth was caused by divine intervention. Luke's version says the birth took place during a Roman census, mentions an announcement to shepherds by angels, presentation of Jesus in the Temple, gives the name of the angel who announces the coming birth to Mary. Matthew's version mentions the arrival of the Magi, the flight into Egypt by the family, the Massacre of the Innocents by King Herod; the consensus of scholars is that both gospels were written about AD 75-85, while it is possible that one account might be based on the other, or that the two share common source material, the majority conclusion is that the two nativity narratives are independent of each other.
In Christian theology the nativity marks the birth of Jesus in fulfillment of the divine will of God, to save the world from sin. The artistic depiction of the nativity has been an important subject for Christian artists since the 4th century. Artistic depictions of the nativity scene since the 13th century have emphasized the humility of Jesus and promoted a more tender image of him, as a major turning point from the early "Lord and Master" image, mirroring changes in the common approaches taken by Christian pastoral ministry; the nativity plays a major role in the Christian liturgical year. Christian congregations of the Western tradition begin observing the season of Advent four Sundays before Christmas, the traditional feast-day of his birth, which falls on December 25. Christians of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Church observe a similar season, sometimes called Advent but called the "Nativity Fast", which begins forty days before Christmas; some Eastern Orthodox Christians celebrate Christmas on December 25.
Other Orthodox celebrate Christmas on January 7 as a result of their churches continuing to follow the Julian calendar, rather than the modern day Gregorian calendar. The date of birth for Jesus of Nazareth is not stated in the gospels or in any secular text, but a majority of scholars assume a date between 6 BC and 4 BC; the historical evidence is too ambiguous to allow a definitive dating, but the date has been estimated through known historical events mentioned in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew or by working backwards from the estimated start of the ministry of Jesus. Luke 2:1 states that Jesus was born when "Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world; this was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria." All, accepted is that Jesus was born before 4 BC, the year of Herod's death. The Gospels of both Matthew and Luke place the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem. Although Matthew does not explicitly state Joseph's place of origin or where he lived prior to the birth of Jesus, the account implies that the family lived in Bethlehem, explains that they settled in Nazareth.
However, Luke 1:26–27 states that Mary lived in Nazareth before the birth of Jesus, at the time of the Annunciation. The Gospel of Luke states that Mary gave birth to Jesus and placed him in a manger “because there was no place for them in the inn", but does not say where Jesus was born; the Greek word kataluma may be translated as either “inn” or “guestroom”, some scholars have speculated that Joseph and Mary may have sought to stay with relatives, rather than at an inn, only to find the house full, whereupon they resorted to the shelter of a room with a manger. This could be a place to keep the sheep within the Bethlehem area, called "Migdal Eder" as prophesied by prophet Micah in Micah 4:8. In the 2nd century, Justin Martyr stated that Jesus had been born in a cave outside the town, while the Protoevangelium of James described a legendary birth in a cave nearby; the Church of the Nativity inside the town, built by St. Helena, contains the cave-manger site traditionally venerated as the birthplace of Jesus, which may have been a site of the cult of the god Tammuz.
In Contra Celsum 1.51, who from around 215 travelled throughout Palestine, wrote of the "manger of Jesus". The Quranic birth of Jesus, like the Gospels, places the virgin birth of Jesus in Bethlehem. Mary, the mother of Jesus, was betrothed to Joseph, but was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit. Joseph intended to divorce her but an angel told him in a dream that he should take Mary as his wife and name the child Jesus, because he would save his people from their sins. Joseph did all that the angel commanded. Chapter 1 of Matthew's Gospel recounts Jesus's birth and naming and the beginning of chapter 2 reveals that Jesus was born in Bethlehem during the time of Herod the Great. Magi from the east came to Herod and asked him where they would find the King of the Jews, because they had seen his star. Advised by the chief priests and teachers, Herod sent the Magi to Bethlehem, where they worshiped the child and gave him gifts; when they had departed, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream and warned him to take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt, for Herod intended to kill him.
The Holy Family remained in Egypt until Herod died, when Joseph took them to Nazareth in Galilee for fear of Herod's son who n
Portrait of Dr Richard Price
The Portrait of Dr Richard Price, is an oil on canvas by the American painter Benjamin West from 1784. The picture was sold at Christie's on 23 November 2004 and purchased by the Friends of the National Library of Wales; the picture's dimensions are 28 x 37 inches. Richard Price was a author; the portrait illustrates Price sitting in his office reading a letter from his friend Benjamin Franklin, dated 1784. Price noted the sitting for this portrait in his diary, available today, like the picture itself, in the collection of the National Library of Wales, in Aberystwyth; this is the official portrait. West was born in Springfield, Pennsylvania He travelled and painted many portraits, has been called "the American Raphael", he died at Newman Street in London, on 11 March 1820. He is buried at Saint Paul's Cathedral
Penn's Creek massacre
The Penn's Creek massacre was a massacre and Indian raid on October 16, 1755, near Penns Creek where it flows through Selinsgrove, United States. Indians killed all but one of the 25 settlers, a man who managed to escape and notify local authorities; the Indians responsible for the raid were Delaware Indians. They were dressed in war war costumes during the attack; the area near where the massacre took place was later rumored to be haunted. Indian raids and violence were common in Pennsylvania during the autumn of 1755; the Penn's Creek massacre was encouraged by the French army. The Delaware Indians who committed the raid were harmless to European settlers until shortly before the massacre. In 1754, the land near where the Penn's Creek massacre took place was bought, by the summer of 1755, there were 25 people from several families living there. Meanwhile, on July 9, 1755, a combined force of American and British soldiers led by General Edward Braddock was decisively defeated while attempting to capture Fort Duquesne.
Excited by their victory, a group of Indians began a raid. This raid went on to Penns Creek. Raids occurred on much of the frontier; this was due to the failure of Philadelphia's Provincial Government to intervene after the French Army won the battle on July 9. Settlers in the area that the Indians were attacking, which ranged from the Juniata River to Sunbury, requested that the Provincial Government send aid, but it did not. In early October 1755, Indians set out for confluence of West Branch Susquehanna River and Susquehanna River, they passed through Clearfield County and Centre County before climbing over Paddy Run and proceeding to attack settlements along Penns Creek. Early in the morning of October 16, 1755, a small group of Delaware Indians attacked the settlement of Penns Creek on the West Branch of the Susquehanna River. After firing several shots, eight Indians armed with tomahawks first attacked the farmer Jean Jacques Le Roy; the Indians captured Le Roy's son and daughter, along with another girl, living in the house, before plundering and burning down the house.
When a neighbor of Le Roy, named Bastian, heard the conflict and saw the smoke of Le Roy's house burning, he arrived on horseback, was killed. Two of the Indians travelled to the Leininger household 0.5 miles away. There, they were given tobacco instead. After they smoked a pipe, the Indians stated "We are Allegany Indians, your enemies. You must all die!". They proceeded to kill the men in the household and took two women prisoners, they killed a total of 14 people in the settlement of Penns Creek. After the attack, in the evening, a group of the Indians returned to the top of a hill near the two plantations they had attacked; the rest of the group of Indians returned with six scalps, stating that "they had a good hunt that day". The scalped bodies left behind from the Penn's Creek massacre were discovered on the evening of October 17, 1755. Once news of the event spread to the Thirteen Colonies, many people throughout them became. A few days after the massacre, John Harris created a posse of 40 men and traveled up from Harrisburg to investigate.
They discovered the remains of the people killed in the massacre and continued up to Sunbury to gather information from friendly Indians who were in that area. The posse was attacked on the return trip at the isle of Que, where some of Harris's men and some of the Indians were killed; some of the Indians who were responsible for the massacre itself traveled eastward in small groups after the event, away from the Susquehanna River and up Swatara Creek. Others traveled westwards towards Kittaning, a community on the Allegheny River the morning after the event; the Indians who traveled up Swatara Creek attacked several more people in Berks County and Lebanon County, Pennsylvania. The event caused Conrad Weiser to be placed in charge of a group of troops near Tulpehocken. Fort Augusta was built in 1756 due to the massacre. In early 1756, the Augusta Regiment was formed to defend frontier settlers; the area near where the massacre took place was near the frontier. As time passed, the frontier moved westward, few of the people who re-settled the area were familiar with the savage events along the old frontier.
Some of the prisoners saw Christian Frederick Post in 1758 when he was negotiating for peace between the Delaware and the Pennsylvania government. The prisoners Marie Le Roy and Barbara Leininger escaped in 1759; the British realized the military strength of the French west of the Allegheny Mountains for the first time. Some confusion concerns the fate and identity of Regina Leininger called Regina Hartmann; the Pennsylvania Historical Commission and the Snyder County Historical Society jointly erected a memorial devoted to the Penn's Creek massacre. It was dedicated on October 15, 1915 and erected on October 16, 1915; the memorial is located on South End Old Trail north of Selinsgrove. The event is memorialized on a second Pennsylvania state historic marker. A stream is situated near the spot, it was known as LeRoy's spring, but its name was changed to Sweitzer's Run. As of 1915, there were Penn's Creek massacre anniversary committees. List of events named massacres Sugarloaf massacre
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, safflower oil; the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired; the paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Although oil paint was first used for Buddhist paintings by painters in western Afghanistan sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries, it did not gain popularity until the 15th century, its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became known.
The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in Northern Europe, by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had completely replaced the use of tempera paints in the majority of Europe. In recent years, water miscible. Water-soluble paints are either engineered or an emulsifier has been added that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, allows, when sufficiently diluted fast drying times when compared with traditional oils. Traditional oil painting techniques begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint. Oil paint is mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is'fat over lean', meaning that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will peel; this rule does not ensure permanence.
There are many other media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax and varnishes. These additional media can aid the painter in adjusting the translucency of the paint, the sheen of the paint, the density or'body' of the paint, the ability of the paint to hold or conceal the brushstroke; these aspects of the paint are related to the expressive capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the painting surface using paintbrushes, but there are other methods, including using palette knives and rags. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew; this can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, but after a while the hardened layer must be scraped. Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, is dry to the touch within a span of two weeks, it is dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year.
Although the history of tempera and related media in Europe indicates that oil painting was discovered there independently, there is evidence that oil painting was used earlier in Afghanistan. Outdoor surfaces and surfaces like shields—both those used in tournaments and those hung as decorations—were more durable when painted in oil-based media than when painted in the traditional tempera paints. Most Renaissance sources, in particular Vasari, credited northern European painters of the 15th century, Jan van Eyck in particular, with the "invention" of painting with oil media on wood panel supports. However, Theophilus gives instructions for oil-based painting in his treatise, On Various Arts, written in 1125. At this period, it was used for painting sculptures and wood fittings especially for outdoor use. However, early Netherlandish painting with artists like Van Eyck and Robert Campin in the 15th century were the first to make oil the usual painting medium, explore the use of layers and glazes, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, only Italy.
Early works were still panel paintings on wood, but around the end of the 15th century canvas became more popular as the support, as it was cheaper, easier to transport, allowed larger works, did not require complicated preliminary layers of gesso. Venice, where sail-canvas was available, was a leader in the move to canvas. Small cabinet paintings were made on metal copper plates; these supports were more expensive but firm, allowing intricately fine detail. Printing plates from printmaking were reused for this purpose; the popularity of oil spread through Italy from the North, starting in Venice in the late 15th century. By 1540, the previous method for painting on panel had become all but extinct, although Italians continued to use chalk-based fresco for wall paintings, less successful and durable in damper northern climates; the linseed oil itself comes from a common fiber crop. Linen, a "support" for oil painting comes from the flax plant. Safflower oil or the walnut or poppyseed oil are sometimes used in formulating lighter colors li
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is a museum and art school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is the first and oldest art museum and art school in the United States; the academy's museum is internationally known for its collections of 19th- and 20th-century American paintings and works on paper. Its archives house important materials for the study of American art history and art training; the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor William Rush, other artists and business leaders. The growth of the Academy of Fine Arts was slow. For many years it held its exhibitions in an 1806 building, designed by John Dorsey with pillars of the Ionic order, it stood on the site of the American Theater at Chestnut and 10th streets. The academy opened as a museum in 1807 and held its first exhibition in 1811, where more than 500 paintings and statues were displayed; the first school classes held in the building were with the Society of Artists in 1810.
The Academy had to be reconstructed after the fire of 1845. Some 23 years leaders of the academy raised funds to construct a building more worthy of its treasures, they commissioned the current Furness-Hewitt building, constructed from 1871. It opened as part of the 1876 Philadelphia Exposition. In 1876, former Academy student and artist Thomas Eakins returned to teach as a volunteer. Fairman Rogers, chairman of the Committee on Instruction from 1878 to 1883, made him a faculty member in 1878, promoted him to director in 1882. Eakins revamped the certificate curriculum to. Students in the certificate program learned fundamentals of drawing, painting and printmaking for two years. For the next two years, they had conducted independent study, guided by frequent critiques from faculty and visiting artists. From 1811 to 1969, the Academy organized important annual art exhibitions, from which the museum made significant acquisitions. Harrison S. Morris, Managing Director from 1892 to 1905, collected contemporary American art for the institution.
Among the many masterpieces acquired during his tenure were works by Cecilia Beaux, William Merritt Chase, Frank Duveneck, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, Edmund Tarbell. Work by The Eight, which included former Academy students Robert Henri and John Sloan, is well represented in the collection, it provides a transition between 19th- and 20th- century art movements. From 1890 to 1906, Edward Hornor Coates served as the tenth president of the Academy. In 1915, Coates was awarded the Academy's gold medal. Painter John McLure Hamilton, who began his art education at the Academy under Thomas Eakins, in 1921 described the contributions Coates made during his tenure: The reign of Mr. Coates at the Academy marked the period of its greatest prosperity. Rich endowments were made to the schools, a gallery of national portraiture was formed, some of the best examples of Gilbert Stuart's work acquired; the annual exhibitions attained a brilliancy and éclat hitherto unknown... Mr. Coates wisely established the schools upon a conservative basis, building unconsciously the dykes high against the oncoming flow of insane novelties in art patterns...
In this last struggle against modernism the President was ably supported by Eakins, Grafly, Thouron and Chase... His unfailing courtesy, his disinterested thoughtfulness, his tactfulness, his modesty endeared him to scholars and masters alike. No sacrifice of time or of means was too great, if he thought he could accomplish the end he always had in view—the honour and the glory of the Academy, it was under Mr. Coates' enlightened direction, fulfilled the expressed wish of Benjamin West, the first honorary Academician, that "Philadelphia may be as much celebrated for her galleries of paintings by the native genius of the country, as she is distinguished by the virtues of her people. During World War I, Academy students were involved in war work. "About sixty percent of the young men enlisted or entered Government service, all of the young women and all the rest of the young men were directly or indirectly engaged in war work." A war service club was formed by students and a monthly publication, The Academy Fling, was sent to service members.
George Harding, a former PAFA student, was commissioned captain during the war and created official combat sketches for the American Expeditionary Forces. The 1844 Board of Directors' declaration that women artists "would have exclusive use of the statue gallery for professional purposes" and study time in the museum on Monday and Friday mornings signified a significant advance towards formal training in art for women. Prior to the founding of the Academy, there were limited opportunities for women to receive professional art training in the United States; this period between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries shows a remarkable growth of formally trained women artists. Sarah Miriam Peale was an American portrait painter, considered the first American woman to succeed as a professional artist. Sarah Miriam Peale was accepted to the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1824 along with her sister Anna Claypoole Peale, the first women to achieve this distinction. Peale exhibited her first full-size portrait at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1818.
Six years she and her sister Anna Claypoole Peale, a miniaturist, became the first two female members of the Academy, an enormously inf
François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity the Roman Catholic Church, his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in every literary form, including plays, novels and historical and scientific works, he wrote more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time; as a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day. François-Marie Arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children of François Arouet, a lawyer, a minor treasury official, his wife, Marie Marguerite Daumard, whose family was on the lowest rank of the French nobility; some speculation surrounds Voltaire's date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the illegitimate son of a nobleman, Guérin de Rochebrune or Roquebrune.
Two of his older brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy, his surviving brother Armand and sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. Nicknamed "Zozo" by his family, Voltaire was baptized on 22 November 1694, with François de Castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf, Marie Daumard, the wife of his mother's cousin, standing as godparents, he was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand, where he was taught Latin and rhetoric. By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry; when his father found out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in Normandy. But the young man continued producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the Netherlands, the marquis de Châteauneuf, the brother of Voltaire's godfather.
At The Hague, Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Their affair, considered scandalous, was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government; as a result, he was twice sentenced once to temporary exile to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his daughter, resulted in an eleven-month imprisonment in the Bastille; the Comédie-Française had agreed in January 1717 to stage his debut play, Œdipe, it opened in mid-November 1718, seven months after his release. Its immediate critical and financial success established his reputation. Both the Régent and King George I of Great Britain presented Voltaire with medals as a mark of their appreciation, he argued for religious tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, supported a constitutional monarchy that protects people's rights.
The author adopted the name Voltaire following his incarceration at the Bastille. Its origin is unclear, it is an anagram of AROVET LI, the Latinized spelling of his surname and the initial letters of le jeune. According to a family tradition among the descendants of his sister, he was known as le petit volontaire as a child, he resurrected a variant of the name in his adult life; the name reverses the syllables of Airvault, his family's home town in the Poitou region. Richard Holmes supports the anagrammatic derivation of the name, but adds that a writer such as Voltaire would have intended it to convey connotations of speed and daring; these come from associations with words such as voltige, volte-face, volatile. "Arouet" was not a noble name fit for his growing reputation given that name's resonance with à rouer and roué. In a letter to Jean-Baptiste Rousseau in March 1719, Voltaire concludes by asking that, if Rousseau wishes to send him a return letter, he do so by addressing it to Monsieur de Voltaire.
A postscript explains: "J'ai été si malheureux sous le nom d'Arouet que j'en ai pris un autre surtout pour n'être plus confondu avec le poète Roi", This refers to Adenes le Roi, the'oi' diphthong was pronounced like modern'ouai', so the similarity to'Arouet' is clear, thus, it could well have been part of his rationale. Voltaire is known to have used at least 178 separate pen names during his lifetime. Voltaire's next play, Artémire, set in ancient Macedonia, opened on 15 February 1720, it was a flop and only fragments of the text survive. He instead turned to an epic poem about Henry IV of France that he had begun in early 1717. Denied a licence to publish, in August 1722 Voltaire headed north to find a publisher outside France. On the journey, he was acco