Edward Hicks was an American folk painter and distinguished religious minister of the Society of Friends. He became a Quaker icon because of his paintings. Edward Hicks was born in his grandfather's mansion in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, his parents were Anglican. Isaac Hicks, his father, was a Loyalist, left without any money after the British defeat in the Revolutionary War. After young Edward's mother died when he was eighteen months old, Matron Elizabeth Twining – a close friend of his mother's – raised him as one of her own at their farm, known as the Twining Farm, he also resided at the David Leedom Farm. She taught him the Quaker beliefs, which had a great effect on the rest of his life. At the age of thirteen Hicks began an apprenticeship to coach makers Henry Tomlinson, he stayed with them for seven years. In 1800 he left the Tomlinson firm to earn his living independently as a house and coach painter, in 1801 he moved to Milford to work for Joshua C. Canby, a coach maker. At this stage of his life Hicks was, as he wrote in his memoirs, "in my own estimation a weak, wayward young man... exceedingly fond of singing, vain amusements, the company of young people, too profanely swearing".
Dissatisfied with his life, he started to attend Quaker meetings and in 1803 he was accepted for membership in the Society of Friends. That same year he married a Quaker woman named Sarah Worstall. In 1812 his congregation recorded him as a minister, by 1813 he began traveling throughout Philadelphia as a Quaker preacher. To meet the expenses of traveling, for the support of his growing family, Hicks decided to expand his trade to painting household objects and farm equipment as well as tavern signs, his painting trade was lucrative, but it upset some in the Quaker community, because it contradicted the plain customs they respected. In 1815 Hicks gave up ornamental painting and attempted to support his family by farming, while continuing with the plain, utilitarian type of painting that his Quaker neighbors thought acceptable, his financial difficulties only increased, as utilitarian painting was less remunerative, Hicks did not have the experience he needed to cultivate the land, or run a farm on his own.
By 1816, his wife was expecting a fifth child. After a relative of Hicks, at the urging of Hicks' close friend John Comly, talked to him about painting again, Hicks resumed decorative painting; this friendly suggestion saved Hicks from financial disaster, preserved his livelihood not as a Quaker Minister but as a Quaker artist. Around 1820, Hicks made the first of his many paintings of The Peaceable Kingdom. Hicks' easel paintings were made for family and friends, not for sale, decorative painting remained his main source of income. In 1827 a schism formed within the Religious Society of Friends, between Hicksites and Orthodox Friends; as new settlers swelled Pennsylvania's Quaker community, many branched off into sects whose differences sometimes conflicted with one another, which discouraged Edward Hicks from continuing to preach. Nonetheless, in his lifetime Hicks was better known as a minister than as a painter, he is buried at Newtown Friends Meetinghouse Cemetery in Newtown Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania.
Quaker beliefs having excessive quantities of objects or materials. Unable to maintain his work as a preacher and painter at the same time, Hicks transitioned into a life of painting, he used his canvases to convey his beliefs, he was unconfined by rules of his congregation, able to express what religion could not: the human conception of faith. Although it is not considered a religious image, Hicks' Peaceable Kingdom exemplifies Quaker ideals. Hicks painted 62 versions of this composition; the animals and children are taken from Isaiah 11:6–8, including the lion eating straw with the ox. Hicks used his paintings as a way to define his central interest, the quest for a redeemed soul; this theme was from one of his theological beliefs. Hicks' work was influenced by a specific Quaker belief referred to as the Inner Light. George Fox and other founding Quakers had preached the Inner Light doctrine. Fox explained that along with scriptural knowledge, many individuals achieve salvation by yielding one's self-will to the divine power of Christ and the "Christ within".
This "Christ in You" concept was derived from the Bible's Colossians 1:27. Hicks depicted humans and animals to represent the Inner Light's idea of breaking physical barriers to working and living together in peace. Many of his paintings further exemplify this concept with depictions of Native Americans meeting the settlers of Pennsylvania, with William Penn prominent among them. Hicks admired Penn as an opponent of British power in America, he hoped that Penn could help ensure reform. Like Penn, Hicks opposed Britain's hierarchy. Hicks most esteemed Penn for establishing the treaty of Pennsylvania with the Native Americans, because it was a state that fostered the Quaker community. Edward Hicks' first major exhibition took place in 1860 at Virginia, it got mixed reviews due to Hicks' habit of repeating various arrangements over again. Hicks' earliest presentation of work was in 1826. Kingdoms of the Branch was at that time in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Hicks used the Native Americans to paraphrase Isaiah's prophecy, in full.
His work focused on religious subject matter while using current
Springfield Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Springfield Township, or Springfield, is a township in Delaware County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The population was 24,211 at the 2010 census. Springfield is a suburb of Philadelphia, located about 10 miles west of the city. Springfield is located in eastern Delaware County at 39°55′37″N 75°20′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 6.34 square miles, of which 6.32 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles, or 0.28%, is water. The northeastern border of the township is formed by Darby Creek, the western border is formed by Crum Creek, both of which flow south to the Delaware River. Haverford Township, Delaware County - north Upper Darby Township, Delaware County - east Ridley Township, Delaware County - south Morton Borough, Delaware County - south Swarthmore Borough, Delaware County - southwest.. Nether Providence Township, Delaware County - southwest Marple Township, Delaware County - northwest As of Census 2010, the racial makeup of the township was 93.4% White, 1.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 23,677 people, 8,618 households, 6,790 families residing in the township; the population density was 3,723.0 people per square mile. There were 8,800 housing units at an average density of 1,383.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 94.6% White, 0.5% African American, 0.05% Native American, 4.2% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.65% of the population. There were 8,618 households, out of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.3% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.2% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.14. In the township the population was spread out, with 24.0% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $89,019, the median income for a family was $103,424. Males had a median income of $64,830 versus $50,651 for females; the per capita income for the township was $35,231. About 1.7% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Pupils in Springfield Township attend schools in the Springfield School District; this is not to be confused with the Springfield Township School District, located in Springfield Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. Public Schools: Springfield Literacy Center - all kindergarten and first grade students in the school district Scenic Hills School - students in grades 2 through 5 - enrollment based on geographic proximity Harvey C. Sabold School - students in grades 2 through 5 - enrollment based on geographic proximity E. T. Richardson Middle School - all students in grades 6, 7, 8 in the school district Springfield High School - all students in grades 9 through 12 in the school district As of August 2018, a new high school is under construction and is planned to be finished by 2021.
Private / Parochial schools: Holy Cross - Catholic grade school - students in grades K-8 St. Francis of Assisi - Catholic grade school - students in grades K-8 St. Kevin School - Catholic grade school - operated from 1967- 2011. Catholic High School - Cardinal O'Hara High School - students in grades 9-12 First settled by Quakers who arrived in Pennsylvania with William Penn, Springfield was first recognized as a governmental entity in 1686. Many of the streets in Springfield are named after former prominent citizens, including Powell, Lownes, Thomas, Lewis, Evans, Pancoast and Edge. Springfield was a farming town. On December 9, 1687, the settlers began laying the road to Amosland as it was called; this road is now known as Springfield Road. In 1701 construction began on the Baltimore Pike. 1701 marked the year that construction began on the first Quaker meeting house. The meeting house was rebuilt; the current meeting house that stands in its spot was constructed in 1851. By the date of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 it is estimated from tax records that about 300 people resided in Springfield.
By the 19th century Springfield had become more industrialized. Taking advantage of its many creeks, the inhabitants erected many mills. Well-known mill owners included William Fell, Samuel Pancoast, William Beatty, Samuel Levis, Moses and Emanuel Hey. At the beginning of the 20th century Springfield's Baltimore Pike had become one of the busiest commercial areas outside of Philadelphia; the long, straight stretch of Baltimore Pike in the township was referred to as "The Golden Mile" known for its many automobile dealerships. Baltimore Pike remains true to its history with many dealerships lining the side of the road; the Golden Mile is a unique corridor, a compact commercial strip that cuts direct
History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style. History paintings depict a moment in a narrative story, rather than a specific and static subject, as in a portrait; the term is derived from the wider senses of the word historia in Latin and Italian, meaning "story" or "narrative", means "story painting". Most history paintings are not of scenes from history paintings from before about 1850. In modern English, historical painting is sometimes used to describe the painting of scenes from history in its narrower sense for 19th-century art, excluding religious and allegorical subjects, which are included in the broader term history painting, before the 19th century were the most common subjects for history paintings. History paintings always contain a number of figures a large number, show some type of action, a moment in a narrative; the genre includes depictions of moments in religious narratives, above all the Life of Christ, as well as narrative scenes from mythology, allegorical scenes.
These groups were for long the most painted. The term covers large paintings in oil on canvas or fresco produced between the Renaissance and the late 19th century, after which the term is not used for the many works that still meet the basic definition. History painting may be used interchangeably with historical painting, was so used before the 20th century. Where a distinction is made "historical painting" is the painting of scenes from secular history, whether specific episodes or generalized scenes. In the 19th century historical painting in this sense became a distinct genre. In phrases such as "historical painting materials", "historical" means in use before about 1900, or some earlier date. History paintings were traditionally regarded as the highest form of Western painting, occupying the most prestigious place in the hierarchy of genres, considered the equivalent to the epic in literature. In his De Pictura of 1436, Leon Battista Alberti had argued that multi-figure history painting was the noblest form of art, as being the most difficult, which required mastery of all the others, because it was a visual form of history, because it had the greatest potential to move the viewer.
He placed emphasis on the ability to depict the interactions between the figures by gesture and expression. This view remained general until the 19th century, when artistic movements began to struggle against the establishment institutions of academic art, which continued to adhere to it. At the same time there was from the latter part of the 18th century an increased interest in depicting in the form of history painting moments of drama from recent or contemporary history, which had long been confined to battle-scenes and scenes of formal surrenders and the like. Scenes from ancient history had been popular in the early Renaissance, once again became common in the Baroque and Rococo periods, still more so with the rise of Neoclassicism. In some 19th or 20th century contexts, the term may refer to paintings of scenes from secular history, rather than those from religious narratives, literature or mythology; the term is not used in art history in speaking of medieval painting, although the Western tradition was developing in large altarpieces, fresco cycles, other works, as well as miniatures in illuminated manuscripts.
It comes to the fore in Italian Renaissance painting, where a series of ambitious works were produced, many still religious, but several in Florence, which did feature near-contemporary historical scenes such as the set of three huge canvases on The Battle of San Romano by Paolo Uccello, the abortive Battle of Cascina by Michelangelo and the Battle of Anghiari by Leonardo da Vinci, neither of which were completed. Scenes from ancient history and mythology were popular. Writers such as Alberti and the following century Giorgio Vasari in his Lives of the Artists, followed public and artistic opinion in judging the best painters above all on their production of large works of history painting. Artists continued for centuries to strive to make their reputation by producing such works neglecting genres to which their talents were better suited. There was some objection to the term, as many writers preferred terms such as "poetic painting", or wanted to make a distinction between the "true" istoria, covering history including biblical and religious scenes, the fabula, covering pagan myth and scenes from fiction, which could not be regarded as true.
The large works of Raphael were long considered, with those of Michelangelo, as the finest models for the genre. In the Raphael Rooms in the Vatican Palace and historical scenes are mixed together, the Raphael Cartoons show scenes from the Gospels, all in the Grand Manner that from the High Renaissance became associated with, expected in, history painting. In the Late Renaissance and Baroque the painting of actual history tended to degenerate into panoramic battle-scenes with the victorious monarch or general perched on a horse accompanied with his retinue, or formal scenes of ceremonies, although some artists managed to make a masterpiece from such unpromising material, as Velázquez did with his The Surrender of Breda. An influential formulation of the hierarchy of genres, confirming the history painting at the top, was made in 1667 by André Félibien, a historiographer
Tamanend or Tammany or Tammamend, the "affable", was a chief of one of the clans that made up the Lenni-Lenape nation in the Delaware Valley at the time Philadelphia was established. Tamanend is best known as a lover of peace and friendship who played a prominent role in developing amicable relations among the Lenape and the English settlers who settled Pennsylvania, led by William Penn. Referred to as "Tammany", he became a popular figure in 18th-century America in Philadelphia. Called a "Patron Saint of America", Tamenend represented peace and amity. A Tammany society founded in Philadelphia holds an annual Tammany festival. Tammany societies were established across the United States after the American Revolutionary War, Tammany assumed mythic status as an icon for the peaceful politics of negotiation. Tamanend reputedly took part in a meeting between the leaders of the Lenni-Lenape nation, the leaders of the Pennsylvania colony held under a large elm tree at Shakamaxon in the early 1680s.
William Penn and Tamanend continued to sign seven more documents assuring each other, their peoples, of peaceble understanding after the initial one in 1683. Tamanend is recorded as having said that the Lenni-Lenape and the English colonists would "live in peace as long as the waters run in the rivers and creeks and as long as the stars and moon endure." These words have been memorialized on the statue of Tamanend. It is believed that Tamanend died in 1701. Over the next century, many folk legends surrounded Tamanend, his fame assumed mythical proportions among the people of Philadelphia, who began to call him "King Tammany," "Saint Tammany," and the "Patron Saint of America." The people of Philadelphia organized an annual Tammany festival. These traditions soon spread across America. Tammany's popular status was due to the desire by colonists to express a distinct "American" identity, in place of their former European nationalities. Tammany provided an apt symbol for this kind of patriotism; because of Philadelphia's prominence during the American Revolution and subsequent decades, Tammany soon became a national symbol throughout much of the newly formed country.
In 1772, the original Tammany Society was formed in Philadelphia. Soon, Tammany societies were organized in communities from Georgia to Rhode Island, west to the Ohio River; the most famous of these was New York City's Society of St. Tammany, whose members developed an influential political machine known as "Tammany Hall." A white marble statue of Tamanend adorned the façade of the building on East 14th Street that housed Tammany Hall. By the early 1770s, annual Tammany Festivals were being held in Annapolis; the festivals were held on May 1, replacing the May Day traditions of Europe but continuing popular folk traditions. For example, the Saint Tammany Day celebrated on May 1, 1771, in Annapolis had a may pole decorated with ribbons. People danced in American Indian style to music while holding a ribbon and moving in a circle around the pole. On May 1, 1777, John Adams wrote of the Tammany festival in Philadelphia during the American Revolutionary War. Adams, in Philadelphia attending the Second Continental Congress as a delegate from Massachusetts, wrote a letter home to his wife Abigail Adams, which said: This is King Tammany's Day.
Tammany was an Indian King, of this part of the Continent. His court was in this town, he was friendly to Mr. Penn and serviceable to him, he lived here among the first settlers for some time and until old age.... The people here have keep his day. On May 1, 1778, General George Washington and the Continental Army held a Tammany festival while camped at Valley Forge; the "men spent the day in mirth and jollity...in honor of King Tammany". After the end of the Revolutionary War, Tammany celebrations spread throughout the United States, including to Savannah, Georgia. Local societies promoted annual festivals held on May 1. Tammany celebrations were such important events that, in 1785, George Washington appeared at the Tammany festival in Richmond, Virginia with Virginia governor Patrick Henry; the Tammany Society in New York City held its first festival in 1787. Developments since 2003 In 2003, two identical concurrent resolutions were introduced in the United States Congress that sought to establish "St. Tammany Day" on May 1 as a national day of recognition.
The bills were referred for review to the Subcommittee on Civil Service and Agency Organization, a subcommittee of the House Committee on Government Reform. As of December 2006, the Subcommittee has yet to take any action on the bill. In 1794, Ann Julia Hatton's opera, Tammany: The Indian Chief premiered on Broadway and became popular, it featured the first major opera libretto written in the United States that had an American theme, it was the earliest drama about ethnic Americans. The opera premiered at the John Street Theatre, New York, on March 3, 1794, featuring English actress and'grande dame' of American theatre, Charlotte Melmoth. Melmoth refused to speak the opera's epilogue; the New York Journal called on the public to boycott the opera as long as Melmoth was still in the cast. In 1826, Tammany was featured in the conclusion of The Last of the Mohicans, a novel by James Fenimore Cooper which became popular in the antebellum United States; the novel was part of his Leatherstocking Tales, a series of works that explored the colo
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
The Battle of the Boyne (painting)
The Battle of the Boyne is a 1778 historical painting by the Anglo-American artist Benjamin West. It portrays the Battle of the Boyne which took place in Ireland in 1690. West's depiction of William of Orange on his white horse became the iconic image of liberation from Catholic Ireland; the painting itself is at Mount Stewart, Northern Ireland, is the property of the National Trust. West became a celebrated figure for his 1770 work The Death of General Wolfe, which portrayed James Wolfe's death during the fight for Quebec in 1759, his historical paintings brought him to national attention and he became a leading member of the Royal Academy. West was influenced by neoclassicism and attempted to portray scenes that drew an emotional response, rather than being accurate; as a "history painter," he was more concerned with the epic rendition of the narrative rather than with its possible accuracy. West's 1778 work portrays the fighting at part of the Williamite War in Ireland; the battle was a decisive victory for the Williamites over James II's Jacobite Irish Army, leading to the capture of the Irish capital city Dublin.
By the time West made the painting, the Boyne had come to occupy an important position in Irish Protestant culture. The dominant image of the painting is William of Orange crossing the River Boyne. West's portrayal of the King became influential on subsequent images of William his use of a white horse. In the bottom right corner, he portrays the death of Marshal Schomberg, the second-in-command of William's army. Schomberg had crossed the Boyne earlier than William and had been killed by Jacobite cavalry in the melee around Oldbridge ford. West transformed Schomberg's chaotic death into a tableau, one that has strong similarities to other heroic death scenes in West's paintings, such as General Wolfe or Horatio Nelson in The Death of Nelson. Since the 1690s commemorations—state-sponsored and those held by the lower classes—had been held throughout Ireland celebrating key dates in the Williamite War such as the Battle of the Boyne, Siege of Derry and the Siege of Cork; these followed a tradition started in Elizabethan England of celebrating key events in the Protestant calendar.
By the 1740s such organizations as the Boyne Club and the Protestant Society, both seen as forerunners to the Orange Order, held parades in Dublin. As a "history painting West's Battle of the Boyne represented an important moment in time, making it a crucial depiction of an event, at least anecdotally important, monoscenic depictions of crucial moments in an implied narrative in the ongoing Orangist narrative. In 2011, another original painting of the battle was discovered in a basement of Brownlow House and testing indicated the painting dates from about the same time as West's 1778 work. Experts conducting the testing and restoration believe the painting was made by a Dutch artist who did not sign his or her work and the piece contains more details than the West painting, suggesting it may be an earlier production; the painting was damaged by bullet holes and knife slashes, 45 percent of the painting had been destroyed. Since West's painting, several reproductions have been made line etchings and engravings.
The most prominent of these was made in 1781 by John Hall, which can be found at the Wordsworth House, Cumbria. Versions of West's painting were reproduced on walls throughout Belfast, although these reproductions are becoming rare as the walls give way to urban development. Carlton, Charles; this Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles, 1485–1746. Yale University Press, 2011. Cathcart, Rex. Ireland and King Billy: Triumphalism Usage and Abusage. History Today. July 1988, pp. 41–45. Online edition 2001. Accessed 23 December 2015. Pamela M. Fletcher. Narrating Modernity: The British Problem Picture, 1895-1914. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 146 note 12. ISBN 978-0-7546-3568-0. Ian McBride. History and Memory in Modern Ireland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79366-1. Newsletter: The Pride of Northern Ireland. Restoration of Boyne painting. Friday 03 June 2011. Accessed 23 December 2015. Nordstrom, Carolyn; the Paths to Domination and Terror. University of California Press, 1992