The Reading Company was a company, involved in the railroad industry in southeast Pennsylvania and neighboring states from 1924 until 1976. Called the Reading Railroad and logotyped as Reading Lines, the Reading Company was a railroad holding company for the majority of its existence and was a railroad during its years, it was a successor to the Philadelphia and Reading Railway Company founded in 1833. Until the decline in anthracite loadings in the Coal Region after World War II, it was one of the most prosperous corporations in the United States. Competition with the modern trucking industry that used the Interstate highway system for short distance transportation of goods known as short hauls, compounded the company's problems, forcing it into bankruptcy in the 1970s, its railroad operations were merged into Conrail in 1976, but the corporation lasted into 2000, disposing of valuable real estate holdings. The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was one of the first railroads in the United States.
Along with the Little Schuylkill, a horse-drawn railroad in the Schuylkill River Valley, it formed the earliest components of what became the Reading Company. The P&R was constructed to haul anthracite coal from the mines in northeastern Pennsylvania's Coal Region to Philadelphia; the original P&R mainline extended south from the mining town of Pottsville to Reading and onward to Philadelphia, following the graded banks of the Schuylkill River for nearly all of the 93-mile journey. The line contained double track upon its completion in 1843; the P&R became profitable immediately. Energy-dense coal had been replacing scarce wood as fuel in businesses and homes since the 1810s, P&R-delivered coal was one of the first alternatives to the near-monopoly held by Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company since the 1820s. Soon the P&R bought or leased many of the railroads in the Schuylkill River Valley and extended westward and north along the Susquehanna into the southern end of the Coal Region. In Philadelphia, the Reading built Port Richmond, the self-proclaimed "Largest owned railroad tidewater terminal in the world", which burnished the P&R's bottom lines by allowing coal to be loaded onto ships and barges for export.
In 1871, the Reading established a subsidiary called the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, which set about buying anthracite coal mines in the Coal Region. This vertical expansion gave the P&R full control of coal from mining through to market, allowing it to compete with like-organized competitors such as Lehigh Coal & Navigation and the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company; the heavy investment in coal paid off quickly. By 1871, the Reading was the largest company in the world, with $170,000,000 in gross value, may have been the first conglomerate in the world. In 1879, the Reading gained control of the North Pennsylvania Railroad and gained access to the burgeoning steel industry in the Lehigh Valley; the Reading further expanded its coal empire by reaching New York City by gaining control of the Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad in 1879, building the Port Reading Railroad in 1892 with a line from Port Reading Junction to the Port Reading on the Arthur Kill. This allowed direct delivery of coal to industries in the Port of New York and New Jersey in northeastern New Jersey and New York City by rail and barge instead of the longer trip by ships from Port Richmond around Cape May.
Instead of broadening its rail network, the Reading invested its vast wealth in anthracite and its transport in the mid-19th century. This led to financial trouble in the 1870s. In 1890, Reading president Archibald A. McLeod saw that more riches could be earned by expanding its rail network and becoming a trunk railroad. McLeod went about trying to control neighboring railroads in 1891, he was able to gain control of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, the Boston and Maine Railroad. The Reading achieved its goal of becoming a trunk road, but the deal was scuttled by J. P. Morgan and other rail barons, who did not want more competition in the northeastern railroad business; the Reading was relegated to a regional railroad for the rest of its history. The Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road was chartered April 4, 1833, to build a line between Philadelphia and Reading, along the Schuylkill River; the portion from Reading to Norristown opened July 16, 1838, the full line December 9, 1839.
Its Philadelphia terminus was at the state-owned Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad on the west side of the Schuylkill River, from which it ran east on the P&C over the Columbia Bridge and onto the city-owned City Railroad to a depot at the southeast corner of Broad and Cherry Streets. An extension northwest from Reading to Mount Carbon on the Schuylkill River, opened on January 13, 1842, allowing the railroad to compete with the Schuylkill Canal. At Mount Carbon, it connected with the earlier Mount Carbon Railroad, continuing through Pottsville to several mines, would be extended to Williamsport. On May 17, 1842, a freight branch from West Falls to Port Richmond on the Delaware River north of downtown Philadelphia opened. Port Richmond became a large coal terminal. On January 1, 1851, the Belmont Plane on the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, just west of the Reading's connection, was abandoned in favor of a new bypass, the portion of the line east of it was sold to the Reading, the only company that continued using the old route.
The Lebanon Valley Railroad was chartered in 1836 to build from Reading west to Harrisburg. Reading financed the construction of the Rutherford Yard to compete with the PRR's nearby Enola Yard; the Reading took it over and began construction in 1854, opening the line in 1856. This
SEPTA Suburban Division bus routes
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority operates or contracts operations of these routes serving points in Bucks, Chester and Montgomery counties, with a few routes operating into the city of Philadelphia. The Suburban Transit Division is broken down into three districts: Victory and Contract Operations; these routes are operated from the Victory District, located at the 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby Township, Delaware County. This includes Norristown High Speed Line, 101 Media, 102 Sharon Hill rail operations; these routes were once operated by the Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company, better known by its nickname "Red Arrow Lines". Routes in the Chester area of Delaware County as well as Chester Pike operations were once operated by Southern Penn Bus Lines, which the Red Arrow took control of on June 30, 1960. Today, Routes 114, 117, 118 are leftovers of the old Southern Penn system; the Philadelphia Transportation Company's "PTC" Folsom Division bus routes were taken over by Red Arrow Lines on January 20, 1961.
Since that time the Ex-PTC routes have been eliminated or consolidated into the current route system. SEPTA took over Red Arrow Lines on January 29, 1970; this was one of the last owned transit operations left in the United States. Today some longtime residents, transit historians, the local news media still refer to this operation as SEPTA's Red Arrow Division. In 2011 SEPTA renamed 69th Street Terminal the 69th Street Transportation Center; these routes are operated from the Frontier garage in Montgomery County. This district of SEPTA was created through a combination of former Schuylkill Valley Line services in the Norristown area and Trenton Philadelphia Coach Line services in the Lower Bucks County area. Routes 96 to 99 which helped form the original five SEPTA Frontier District Routes were once part of the old "Schuylkill Valley Lines" that SEPTA acquired on March 1, 1976; the old Schuylkill Valley Lines routes were restructured into five routes on March 7, 1977 with Route 95 being a new route.
Routes 127 to 129 were once part of the old Trenton Philadelphia Coach Lines "TPC" which became a subsidiary of the Philadelphia Transportation Company "PTC" on January 24, 1963. When SEPTA took over PTC, Trenton Philadelphia Coach became a subsidiary of SEPTA; these routes were assigned Routes 150 to 153 in 1980. These routes continued to operate under SEPTA/TPC until November 14, 1983 when SEPTA Frontier District took over the operations of these routes and rebranded them Routes 127, 128, 129. All other routes have been added onto the system since then. Trenton-Philadelphia Coach Lines was brought back to life by SEPTA as a contract operation for its Routes 310, 311 and LUCY operations. Trenton-Philadelphia Coach operated the Cornwells Heights Parking Shuttle Service on these lines are operated by Krapf Transit under contract to SEPTA; these routes are operated from Krapf's own garage, located in Pennsylvania. Krapf has operated other bus routes for SEPTA in the past: Routes 202, Route 207, Route 208, Route 306 and Route 314.
SEPTA has had contract bus operations before in Chester County. SEPTA and Reeder's Inc. joined forces in 1977 to operate three bus routes out of West Chester. These routes were the Route 120, Route 121, Route 122. Reeder's operated their own bus route from West Chester to Concord and Tri-State Malls via US 202 and Delaware Route 92. Transit operations in Chester County has been around for decades operating under different companies over those years. West Chester Transportation Company, People's Transportation Company, Chester Valley Lines and The Short Line of Pennsylvania have operated bus routes in Chester County. Bus service between West Chester and Coatesville was a replacement for the previous trolley service operated by West Chester Traction. Reeder's got these routes. To keep transit service operating in Chester County these routes were funded by SEPTA and operated by Reeder's Inc. beginning November 7, 1977. SEPTA did replace two of the routes with their own bus service. Route 122 service was replaced by SEPTA's Route 91 on July 1982 after only one year of service.
Route 121 was replaced by SEPTA's Route 92 on October 11, 1982. Since ridership on the Route 120 was strong it continued to operate under the operations of Reeder's Inc. after SEPTA pulled the funding source. Reeder's Inc bus service to Concord and Tri-State Malls was discontinued in the late 1970s. Krapf purchased the Reeder's operation in 1992 and designated the remaining bus route as Krapf's Transit "Route A". Krapf's along with SEPTA and the Independence Visitor Center work together to operate the PHLASH bus service; the PHLASH bus service is geared toward tourists visiting the City of Philadelphia but locals use it too since the one way fare is cheaper than SEPTA bus fare, The PHLASH operates April to May on Fridays and weekends operates seven days a week from Memorial Day through Labor Day. After Labor Day service goes back to Friday and weekend until Thanksgiving back to seven days a week until the end of the year. After that PHLASH service is suspended for the winter until April. SEPTA City Transit Division surface routes SEP
Link Belt station
Link Belt station is a station along the SEPTA Lansdale/Doylestown Line. It is located at County Line Walnut Street in Chalfont, Pennsylvania, it is located on the Montgomery County side of County Line Road, north of Pennsylvania Route 309, sits next to the popular "Whistle Stop Park." In FY 2013, Link Belt station had a weekday average of 66 alightings. The Link Belt station was created by the Reading Railroad to service the Link Belt Company plant built across West Walnut Street from the rail line in 1952, opening formally on December 2. Link-Belt is a crane manufacturer based in Lexington, Kentucky. On December 18, 2011, weekend service was discontinued at this station due to low ridership. SEPTA – Link Belt Station Link Belt SEPTA Station Station from Google Maps Street View
Doylestown station is a SEPTA Regional Rail station in Doylestown, Pennsylvania. It is the last station along SEPTA's Lansdale/Doylestown Line. Located at the intersection of Bridge Street and Clinton Avenue, the station has a 169-space parking lot, it was built in 1871 by the Reading Railroad, as a much more elaborate Victorian structure than the present station. It had a decorative cupola over the ticket window and served as a Reading Railroad office at one point; the former freight house survives to this day. This station is wheelchair accessible. Doylestown station consists of a side platform along the tracks. There are five tracks at the station; the station has a ticket office, open on weekday mornings, as well as an ATM. In the past there was a pizza shop inside the station building. There is a canopy-type roof over the platform where people board the trains to keep people dry on rainy days. There are 2 bike racks available. Doylestown has a parking lot with 169 spaces. Train service at Doylestown is provided along the Lansdale/Doylestown Line of SEPTA Regional Rail, which begins at the station and runs south to Center City Philadelphia.
Doylestown station is located in fare zone 4. Service is provided daily from early morning to late evening. Most Lansdale/Doylestown Line trains continue through the Center City Commuter Connection tunnel and become Paoli/Thorndale Line trains, providing service to Malvern and Thorndale. In FY 2013, it had a weekday average of 383 boardings and 334 alightings. Media related to Doylestown at Wikimedia Commons SEPTA – Doylestown Station Original Doyleston Station Existing station
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
North Wales station
North Wales station is a station along the SEPTA Lansdale/Doylestown Line located at Beaver and School Streets in North Wales, Pennsylvania. In FY 2013, North Wales station had a weekday average of 791 alightings; the station includes a 167-space parking lot. Parking is available on both sides of the tracks between Beaver Street and Walnut Street, which includes an entrance at Walnut and 5th Streets; the east parking lot runs between 6th Street/Railroad Street. School Street runs through the west parking lot, turns southwest while that parking lot continues to follow the tracks reaching Walnut Street. North Wales station was built in 1873 by the Reading Railroad, contained a cupola over the ticket window, iron support under the overhanging roof, a matching shelter on the opposite side of the tracks. At some point it was moved 2500 feet from its previous location, the cupola was removed, the support beams were replaced with wood. North Wales has two high-level side platforms. SEPTA - North Wales Station Station from Walnut Street from Google Maps Street View Station from Beaver Street from Google Maps Street View
Poly known as acrylic, acrylic glass, or plexiglass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Acrylite and Perspex among several others, is a transparent thermoplastic used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. The same material can be used as a casting resin, in inks and coatings, has many other uses. Although not a type of familiar silica-based glass, the substance, like many thermoplastics, is technically classified as a type of glass hence its occasional historical designation as acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate; the material was developed in 1928 in several different laboratories by many chemists, such as William Chalmers, Otto Röhm, Walter Bauer, was first brought to market in 1933 by German Röhm & Haas AG and its partner and former U. S. affiliate Rohm and Haas Company under the trademark Plexiglas. PMMA is an economical alternative to polycarbonate when tensile strength, flexural strength, polishability, UV tolerance are more important than impact strength, chemical resistance and heat resistance.
Additionally, PMMA does not contain the harmful bisphenol-A subunits found in polycarbonate. It is preferred because of its moderate properties, easy handling and processing, low cost. Non-modified PMMA behaves in a brittle manner when under load under an impact force, is more prone to scratching than conventional inorganic glass, but modified PMMA is sometimes able to achieve high scratch and impact resistance; the first acrylic acid was created in 1843. Methacrylic acid, derived from acrylic acid, was formulated in 1865; the reaction between methacrylic acid and methanol results in the ester methyl methacrylate. Polymethyl methacrylate was discovered in the early 1930s by British chemists Rowland Hill and John Crawford at Imperial Chemical Industries in England. ICI registered the product under the trademark Perspex. About the same time and industrialist Otto Röhm of Rohm and Haas AG in Germany attempted to produce safety glass by polymerizing methyl methacrylate between two layers of glass.
The polymer separated from the glass as a clear plastic sheet, which Röhm gave the trademarked name Plexiglas in 1933. Both Perspex and Plexiglas were commercialized in the late 1930s. In the United States, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company subsequently introduced its own product under the trademark Lucite. In 1936 ICI Acrylics began the first commercially viable production of acrylic safety glass. During World War II both Allied and Axis forces used acrylic glass for submarine periscopes and aircraft windshields and gun turrets. Airplane pilots whose eyes were damaged by flying shards of PMMA fared much better than those injured by standard glass, demonstrating better compatibility between human tissue and PMMA than glass. Civilian applications followed after the war. Common orthographic stylings include polymethyl polymethylmethacrylate; the full IUPAC chemical name is poly. Although PMMA is called "acrylic", acrylic can refer to other polymers or copolymers containing polyacrylonitrile. Notable trade names include Acrylite, Lucite, R-Cast, Optix, Oroglas, Altuglas and Sumipex.
PMMA is produced by emulsion polymerization, solution polymerization, bulk polymerization. Radical initiation is used, but anionic polymerization of PMMA can be performed. To produce 1 kg of PMMA, about 2 kg of petroleum is needed. PMMA produced by radical polymerization is atactic and amorphous; the glass transition temperature of atactic PMMA is 105 °C. The Tg values of commercial grades of PMMA range from 85 to 165 °C. PMMA is thus an organic glass at room temperature; the forming temperature goes up from there. All common molding processes may be used, including injection molding, compression molding, extrusion; the highest quality PMMA sheets are produced by cell casting, but in this case, the polymerization and molding steps occur concurrently. The strength of the material is higher than molding grades owing to its high molecular mass. Rubber toughening has been used to increase the toughness of PMMA to overcome its brittle behavior in response to applied loads. PMMA can be joined using cyanoacrylate cement, with heat, or by using chlorinated solvents such as dichloromethane or trichloromethane to dissolve the plastic at the joint, which fuses and sets, forming an invisible weld.
Scratches may be removed by polishing or by heating the surface of the material. Laser cutting may be used to form intricate designs from PMMA sheets. PMMA vaporizes to gaseous compounds upon laser cutting, so a clean cut is made, cutting is performed easily. However, the pulsed lasercutting introduces high internal stresses along the cut edge, which on exposure to solvents produce undesirable "stress-crazing" at the cut edge and several millimetres deep. Ammonium-based glass-cleaner and everything short of soap-and-water produces similar undesirable crazing, sometimes over the entire surface of th