In various European countries, student caps of different types are, or have been, worn either as a marker of a common identity, as is the case in the Nordic countries, or to identify the wearer as a member of a smaller body within the larger group of students, as is the case with the caps worn by members of German Studentenverbindungen. Belgian student caps can be divided into 2 main variants, the calotte, worn by students at Roman Catholic universities and the penne, worn by students at liberal/non-catholic universities; the calotte originates from the skullcap worn by the Zouave papal regiment around 1860. The calotte is cylindrical, made from velvet and astrakhan (pelt of newborn lamb; the color of the top is bordeau red for the universities of Brussels, Louvain-la-Neuve and Namur, white for the University of Ghent and emerald for the University of Liège. In the front of the calotte are stripes representing the Belgian flag and stripes representing the colors of the city or the university where the calotte has been received.
At the back of the calotte, the faculty of the student is represented by a color and a symbol, with if needed an additional symbol to determine the speciality. Golden stars around the calotte represent the number of years that the student has studied successfully. In addition to that, a number of official and personal pins will be added to the calotte, all representing something about its owner examples include: Official position in a student organisation Hobbies and occupations Character The calotte is awarded after a rite of passage called Corona by numerous student unions called Ordres, Cercles and Régionales to hundreds of students each year. Requirements to get the calotte vary, but always include a minimum time spent on the given campus, a knowledge of the calotte, Latin formulae and student songs. Like the calotte, the penne is only awarded after a student-organized initiation ceremony; the number of gold stars represent the number of years of study, with silver stars representing years that were failed and re-done.
For years of study before the initiation, the stars are not placed centrally, but instead off to the side of the head. In Brussels, the student's official nickname is spelled out in brass pins along the rim of the hat; the colour of the band around the edge represents the faculty in which they study, with a different colour for each faculty. The hat is additionally extensively decorated. In France, students wear a black beret called Faluche since 1888. In Germany, members of student societies wear various forms of caps as part of their attire. Common types of caps are Tellermütze and Tönnchen. In the Nordic countries, student caps were first adopted as a common mark of recognition by the students from Uppsala University on the occasion of a Scandinavian student meeting in Copenhagen in 1845. In subsequent years similar caps were adopted by the students at the other Swedish university and by the students in Denmark and Finland. Caps of the same type are known to have been used by German students since the early 18th century, it is possible that the original impulse came from Germany.
In Denmark, the student caps are the last remains of the old school uniform of the University of Copenhagen. They came in two colours: white for the summer uniform; the caps are worn by students. The student cap is made of linen with a black brim and is supplied with a band and a red and white cockade with a badge; the band color and badge varies. When this school uniform vanished in the late 19th century, the two caps came to denote two different kinds of studentereksamen: the classical-linguistic exam with the black student’s cap and the white for the modern language + mathematical exams. Both with a Bordeaux-coloured band; when the student cap came out, it was only connected to studentereksamen which at that time was the only upper secondary level education there was, was connected to a high status, because few people graduated. From the 1970s three other upper secondary level educations were made. Higher Preparatory Examination, Higher Commercial Examination Programme, Higher Technical Examination Programme.
From about 1990 there has been student caps for other educations, including 10th grade and SOSU. More variants of the caps are still being developed with special coloured cords and badges, because more educations want their own cap. Traditions There is a long list of traditions with the Danish student cap, they have, of course, been will vary from place to place. Here are a few: It is bad luck to try on a student's cap before completion of the last exam; this can be counteracted by jumping over the cap backwards 3 times. It’s tradition to write the grade given in the last exam in the middle of lining of the student's cap. Classmates and friends write in the lining; the student with the biggest and/or the smallest head has to give beer to the whole class. The student cap can be marked with notches, cuts and so on, in connection with the "rules" of the student cap. There are taunt songs connected with the rivalry between the different educations, for example between Gymnasium and HF: “There is only one cap and it’s red – and if it’s blue it’s way too easy to get” or HTX to STX "Hvis den er rød, er den ikke mere værd end brød" (translation: "If it's red, it's not worth more than bread".
Upper secondary level educat
La Penne is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France. Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department INSEE www.lapenne.fr Official Web site
Luigi Durand de la Penne
Luigi Durand de la Penne was an Italian Navy naval diver in the Decima MAS during World War II. De la Penne was born in Genoa, where he died. De la Penne graduated from the Italian Naval Academy in Livorno in 1934, he joined the Decima MAS in 1935. On 22 August 1940, in the Gulf of Bomba, the Italian submarine Iride, being a human torpedo carrier, was sunk by a torpedo released by a British Fairey Swordfish bomber; the air attack happened during an exercise, in shallow water, when four human torpedo squads were around, including officers Teseo Tesei and Luigi Durand de la Penne. The divers were able to make an immediate rescue action. Of the 12 Iride crewmen who survived, two died during an unsuccessful attempt to surface, nine were retrieved alive, one was too shocked to leave the sunken submarine. De la Penne tried to persuade him to surface, gave him his own aqualung, but the seaman refused surfacing and died; as part of a team of divers he took part in the human torpedo attacks on British vessels in the Mediterranean.
In December 1941, he was one of a team of six. They used an Italian human torpedo torpedo known as S. L. C. A small underwater assault vehicle with a crew of two; as a result, four ships were disabled: the British battleships HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMS Valiant, the oil tanker Sagona and the destroyer HMS Jervis. De la Penne placed the limpet mine under the hull of Valiant. Of the three teams of frogmen, only de la Penne and Bianchi were captured before the devices exploded; as de la Penne refused to inform the ship's captain of the mines, he and his mate were confined in a cell under-deck in a place just above where the mine had been placed. A few minutes before the detonation, De la Penne informed Captain Morgan of the imminent explosion, in order to allow the British to evacuate the ship, but continued to refuse to disclose where the mine had been placed; the two frogmen were sent back to their confinement place. Few minutes the mine exploded. Although hurt by the explosion, the frogmen reached the deck of Valiant just in time to see the other mines explode under Queen Elizabeth and Jervis.
Although both ships settled on the sea bed, their decks were still clear of the waterline. As all six frogmen were captured and both vessels appeared to be operational, the success of the attack in neutralising the British ships became known by the Italian Navy only after some days. For this action, de la Penne was awarded the Gold Medal of Military Valour, the Italian highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy". In May 1945, at the end of the war, the Admiral Charles Morgan -, Valiant's captain at the time of the attack in Alexandria - wanted to confer himself the medal to de la Penne in a ceremony in Taranto. After the 8 September 1943 Armistice, de la Penne was offered the opportunity to be released from prison and fight for the Allies, he returned to duty as a frogman. On 22 June 1944, he participated in a joint Italian/British operation against the Germans. A team formed of British and Italian divers was transported by the Italian destroyer Grecale in an attack on La Spezia harbour, at the time in German hands.
They sank the cruisers Bolzano before they could be used to block the harbour entrance. After the war, Durand de la Penne stayed in the Marina Militare, he was promoted to Capitano di Fregata in 1950 and Capitano di Vascello in 1954. In 1956 he was appointed as Naval Attaché in Brazil, he was Deputy of the Parliament of Italy for the second through the sixth legislatures as an independent candidate. He retired with the rank of Ammiraglio di Squadra. In the 1962 film The Valiant he was played by Ettore Manni. In his honour, the Marina Militare named its new series of destroyers of 1993 as the Durand de la Penne class. Two vessels were launched: the lead ship, Luigi Durand de la Penne and Francesco Mimbelli. Luigi Durand de la Penne's biography at the official site of the Italian Navy
Penne is an extruded type of pasta with cylinder-shaped pieces, their ends cut at a bias. Penne is the plural form of the Italian penna, deriving from Latin penna, is a cognate of the English word pen; when this format was created, it was intended to imitate the then-ubiquitous fountain pen's steel nibs. The penne are one of the few pasta shapes with a certain date of birth: On 1865 a pasta maker from San Martino d'Albaro, Giovanni Battista Capurro, asked for and obtained a patent for a diagonal cutting machine; the new invention cut the fresh pasta into a pen shape without crushing it, in a variable size between 3 and 5 cm mezze penne or penne. In Italy, penne are produced in two main variants — "penne lisce" and "penne rigate", the latter having ridges on each penna. Pennoni is a wider version of penne. A larger version called mostaccioli can be found, which can be either smooth or ridged in texture. Penne is traditionally cooked al dente and its shape makes it adapted for sauces, such as pesto, marinara, or arrabbiata.
The latter has been celebrated several times in Italian movies, notably in Marco Ferrari's La Grande Bouffe and Federico Fellini's Roma. In the Trenton, New Jersey area, penne pasta is called "pencil points" due to its shape. List of pasta
Penne is an Italian town in the province of Pescara, in the Abruzzo region, in mid-southern Italy. According to the last census in 2014 the population was 12,451. In 2012 Penne was selected as one of the "Most Beautiful Towns of Italy" Penne is today among the most important towns in the Vestini area, sitting in the hills between the Apennine Mountains and the Adriatic Sea and opening the way for the National Park of Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga through the Regional Natural Reserve "Lake of Penne"; the widespread use of bricks in every historical building and paving gave Penne the appellation of "Città del mattone", i.e. the "Town of Bricks". In 2006, Penne was awarded the Silver Medal of Civic Merit for events suffered during World War II; the economy of Penne is driven by tourism, the regional hospital and Brioni, the Italian fashion house whose suits are still hand sewn by Pennese women. In November 2017, Penne was chosen as the starting point for Stage 10 of the 2018 Giro d'Italia. Cyclists left from Penne and climbed to Rigopiano and beyond to Umbria.
The town is ancient. It was a seat of government of the Vestini people no than 300 BC. In around 89 BC, the Vestini along with other Italic tribes were defeated by the Romans in the Social War, became citizens of Rome; the town was known as Pinna Vestinorum during the time of the Roman Republic. In the Middle Ages, Penne was under the control of the Lombards as part of the Duchy of Spoleto. Starting around 1130 Penne became part of the Kingdom of Sicily. In 1538 the town was given by emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor to his daughter Margaret of Parma as a gift for her wedding to Ottavio Farnese. Under Margaret, Penne became important as a center of power in the Abruzzo region, many fine palaces and civic structures were erected during this time. Penne is a town on the Adriatic side of the Abruzzo region, sitting on several hills between the valleys of the Tavo and Fino rivers. Penne covers an area measuring about 91.20 km2. It is 31 km from 35 km from Chieti. Penne benefits from the moderating effects of the nearby Adriatic sea but at the same time its weather is influenced by the Gran Sasso mountain chain.
According to the climatic data collected during the period 1961-1990, the average temperature of the coldest month, i.e. January, is +5,6 °C where the minimals are about 2-3 °C while the maximals about 9-11 °C; the climate is therefore characterized by hot summers and rather mild winters, where the annual thermal excursion is anyway lower than 21 °C like in the coast. However, in winter snow and frosts might happen when cold currents from the Balkans or the northern Europe irrupt on the Adriatic coast. During these episodes, minimal temperatures can fall down to -5 °C. Precipitation levels are on average about 845 mm per year according to the climatic data collected during the period 1951 - 2009 and are higher than the ones observed in other hillside cities in the sea-side of Abruzzo; the climate in Penne can be therefore considered as Mediterranean due to the beneficial influence of the Adriatic sea on the temperatures. However, from a pluviometric stand-point, the town's weather sits in the borderline in between a subtropical humid and mediterranean weather.
In summertime, precipitation is uncommon and occurs in the form of thunderstorms. The main characteristic of the old town is its streets and houses are built in bricks, so in the past Penne was known as "the small Siena". Penne's churches include the 12th-century church of Santa Maria in Colleromano, the Duomo, which now houses the Diocese Museum including a crypt dating from the 8th century. Other churches include Sant'Agostino, San Giovanni Battista, San Giovanni Evangelista, Madonna del Carmine, San Nicola, San Domenico. Duomo of Penne known as Chiesa di San Massimo. A concathedral of Pescara-Penne archdiocese, it was built after St Maxiums of Aveia on a 10th-century Crypt; the Crypt was erected on an ancient temple dedicated to the goddess Vesta. The cathedral was damaged during aerial bombardment in 1944 and was restored in 1955. Church of S. Croce: It is characterized by a facade showing the symbols of the "Passion of Christ", installed by the Passionists in the 19th century. Church of Santa Chiara: built in the 17th century next to the ancient Church of the Holy Spirit.
Characterized by a Greek cross plan, it was renovated in 1702 AD. The Cupola shows a beautiful fresco by the "pennese" painter Domiziano Vallarola. Next to the church, there is the Clarisse nuns convent, included in the St Maximus Hospital in 1912. Church of San Ciro: erected on the second half of the 18th century and renovated in 1843 by the priest Quintangeli, it now belongs to the "Holy Family" nuns. Collegiata of San Giovanni Evangelista: There are documents proving the existence of this Church since 1324, it has two magnificent stone portals: the main one from 1604, the lateral one from 1594. The lombard style bell tower was built during renaissance. Church of Sant'Antonio di Padova: chapel of the family Aliprandi of 1648. Stone portal characterized by a diamond tip pattern. Church of San Domenico: facade with a portal from 1667 and a sculpture representing "The Virgin with her Son" from 1400; the Church has a baroque style with a marvelous Chorus made of walnut wood from the 17th century and an organ fr
The Penser Joch is a high mountain pass in South Tyrol, northern Italy, near the Jaufenpass. It connects Bolzano with Sterzing in the Wipptal, it is the most direct road between Bolzano. It is traversed by the SS 508 highway. There is a restaurant at the summit. Although, it has been widened in recent years, the road is still rather narrow. List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes Media related to Penser Joch at Wikimedia Commons
Penne Percy Korth
Penne Percy Korth Peacock is an American diplomat. She graduated from the University of Texas in 1964 with a B. A, she is a commissioner of the U. S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy. Nominated in 1997, Korth Peacock served as Ambassador to Mauritius from 1989 to 1992. In 1993, Korth Peacock co-founded Firestone and Korth Ltd. a corporate consulting and events management firm in Washington, D. C.. Korth Peacock serves on the Boards of Chevy Chase Bank, the Council of American Ambassadors, Meridian International Center, the Van Cliburn Foundation, the Marjorie Merriweather Post Foundation of DC, the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training, she is Vice Chairman of the Washington Round Table of the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Korth Peacock was nominated by President George H. W. Bush on August 4, 1989, presented her credentials as ambassador to Mauritius on December 6, 1989, she succeeded Ronald D. Palmer. At the time she most served as co-chair of the American Bicentennial Presidential Inauguration, 1988-1989.
Since 1986, Korth has been the senior Washington associate and client liaison and representative of the trust and estate division of Sotheby's. She relieved the position on November 19, 1992. In late 2005, the Advisory Commission published its annual report, giving strong recommendations and guidance on the future of U. S. public diplomacy. The group states that in the short term, a central goal is to establish platforms for cross-cultural dialogue, noting that two-way communication is critical to fostering a sense of shared values and trust; the report provides recommendations on improving long-term communications, including the development of virtual centers for cultural exchange and the establishment of new English language inititiatives. The commission's conclusions highlight the increasing importance of modernizing communications in under-developed nations, providing a critical link for the West to engage its world audience. Korth Peacock married Fritz-Alan Korth and divorced with three children.
Korth Peacock married the former Australian Liberal leader Andrew Peacock in 2002, after a long-time companionship. Peacock 63, met Korth Peacock 59, at the time the former Texas beauty queen was ambassador to Mauritius, while he was the Australian Ambassador to the United States from 1997 to 1999. Peacock, president of Boeing Australia and lives in Sydney, had only this to say about his third wedding: "It is a happy occasion."Korth Peacock and Andrew Peacock live in Texas. Minutes – Commission Meeting Jan. 2006 2005 Report of the Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy Appearances on C-SPAN US Embassy-Israel Press Release State Department Profiles