Rapid City, South Dakota
Rapid City is the second most populous city in South Dakota and the county seat of Pennington County. Named after Rapid Creek, on which the city is established, it is set against the eastern slope of the Black Hills mountain range; the population was 67,956 as of the 2010 Census. Known as the "Gateway to the Black Hills" due to its location and the "City of Presidents" because of the life-size bronze president statues located downtown. Rapid City is split by a low mountain ridge that divides the eastern parts of the city. Ellsworth Air Force Base is located on the outskirts of the city. Camp Rapid, a part of the South Dakota Army National Guard, is located in the western part of the city. Rapid City is home to popular attractions like Art Alley, Dinosaur Park, the City of Presidents walking tour, Chapel in the Hills, Storybook Island, Main Street Square and more; the historic "Old West" town of Deadwood is nearby. In the neighboring Black Hills are the popular tourist attractions of Mount Rushmore, the Crazy Horse Memorial, Custer State Park, Wind Cave National Park, Jewel Cave National Monument, the museum at the Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, to the east of the city is Badlands National Park.
The public discovery of gold in 1874 by the Black Hills Expedition brought a mass influx of settlers into the Black Hills region of South Dakota. Rapid City was founded, known as "Hay Camp", in 1876 by a group of disappointed miners, who promoted their new city as the "Gateway to the Black Hills", a nickname the city now shares with neighboring Box Elder. John Richard Brennan and Samuel Scott, with a small group of men, laid out the site of the present Rapid City in February 1876, named for the spring-fed Rapid Creek that flows through it. A square mile was measured off and the six blocks in the center were designated as a business section. Committees were appointed to bring in prospective merchants and their families to locate in the new settlement; the city soon began selling supplies to pioneers. Its location on the edge of the Plains and Hills and its large river valley made it the natural hub of railroads arriving in the late 1880s from both the south and east. By 1900, Rapid City had survived a boom and bust and was establishing itself as an important regional trade center for the upper midwest.
Although the Black Hills became a popular tourist destination in the late 1890s, it was a combination of local efforts, the popularity of the automobile, construction of improved highways that brought tourists to the Black Hills in large numbers after World War I. Gutzon Borglum a famous sculptor, began work on Mount Rushmore in 1927 and his son, Lincoln Borglum, continued the carving of the presidents' faces in rock following his father's death in 1941; the work was halted due to pressures leading to the US entry into World War II and the massive sculpture was declared complete in 1941. Although tourism sustained the city throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s, the gasoline rationing of World War II had a devastating effect on the tourist industry in the town, but this was more than made up for by the war-related growth. In 1930, the Rapid City Chamber of Commerce sent a letter inviting Al Capone to live in the Black Hills. South Dakota's governor did not support the idea, neither did Capone, as he declined to relocate to the area.
The city benefited from the opening of Rapid City Army Air Base Ellsworth Air Force Base, an Army Air Corps training base. As a result, the population of the area nearly doubled between 1940 and 1948, from 14,000 to nearly 27,000 people. Military families and civilian personnel soon took every available living space in town, mobile home parks proliferated. Rapid City businesses profited from the military payroll. During the Cold War, missile installations proliferated in the area: a series of Nike Air Defense sites were constructed around Ellsworth in the 1950s. In the early 60s the construction of three Titan missile launch sites containing a total of nine Titan I missiles in the general vicinity of Rapid City took place. Beginning in November 1963, the land for a hundred miles east and northwest of the city was dotted with 150 Minuteman missile silos and 15 launch command centers, all of which were deactivated in the early 1990s. In 1949, city officials envisioned the city as a retail and wholesale trade center for the region and designed a plan for growth that focused on a civic center, more downtown parking places, new schools, paved streets.
A construction boom continued into the 1950s. Growth slowed in the 1960s, but the worst natural disaster in South Dakota history, the Black Hills Flood of 1972, led to another building boom a decade later. On June 9, 1972, heavy rains caused massive flash flooding along the course of Rapid Creek through the city. 238 people lost more than $100 million in property was destroyed. The devastation of the flood and the outpouring of private donations and millions of dollars in federal aid led to the completion of one big part of the 1949 plan: clearing the area along the Rapid Creek and making it a public park. New homes and businesses were constructed to replace those, destroyed. Rushmore Plaza Civic Center and a new Central High School were built in part of the area, cleared; the new Central High School opened in 1978, with the graduating class in that year straddling both the original Central and the new Central. The rebuilding in part insulated Rapid City from the drop in automotive tourism caused by the Oil Embargo in 1974, but tourism was depressed for most of a decade.
In 1978, Rushmore Mall was built on the north edge of the city, adding to the city's position as a retail shoppin
Interstate 90 is an east–west transcontinental freeway, the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at 3,020.54 miles. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at State Route 519 near T-Mobile Park and CenturyLink Field, its eastern terminus is in Boston, at Route 1A near Logan International Airport; the western portion of I-90 crosses the Continental Divide over Homestake Pass just east of Butte, connecting major cities such as Spokane, Washington. Between Seattle and the Wisconsin-Illinois state line, I-90 is a toll-free Interstate. East of that border, much of I-90 follows several toll roads, many of which predate the Interstate Highway system; these include the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway, Chicago Skyway, Indiana Toll Road, Ohio Turnpike, New York State Thruway, the Massachusetts Turnpike. The Interstate is not tolled through some segments in downtown Chicago; the western I-90 terminus is in the SoDo neighborhood of Seattle. I-90 eastbound begins at exit 2B, Edgar Martínez Drive S and 4th Avenue S. I-90 westbound exit 2B ends at Edgar Martínez Dr and 4th Ave near T-Mobile Park, as well as 4th Ave just north of S.
Royal Brougham Way near CenturyLink Field, about a block east of the entrance to the Port of Seattle's container shipping terminal at Pier 46. The tunnel that carries I-90 under the Mount Baker Ridge is on the National Register of Historic Places; the east portal of the tunnel is constructed as a bas relief concrete sculpture. I-90 incorporates two of the longest floating bridges in the world, the Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge, which cross Lake Washington from Seattle to Mercer Island, they are the fifth longest such bridges, respectively. Forty miles east of Bellevue, I-90 traverses the Cascade Range's Snoqualmie Pass, elevation 3,022 feet, it intersects I-82 shortly after exiting the mountains and crosses the Columbia River on the Vantage Bridge at mile post 137. After entering Spokane near mile post 279, it enters Idaho eighteen miles later. Since 1980, I-90 from Seattle to Thorp was designated the Mountains to Sound Greenway to protect its outstanding scenic and cultural resources.
The Washington section of I-90 is defined in the Revised Code of Washington. The small town of Wallace still prides itself on having what was the last stop light in the Rocky Mountains on I-90, its downtown has many historical buildings, which would have been wiped out by the original planned route of the freeway, so in 1976, city leaders had the downtown placed on the National Register of Historic Places. As a result, the federal government was forced, at great expense, to reroute the freeway to the northern edge of downtown and elevate it; that section of I-90 opened in September 1991. A bicycle path is routed beneath part of that segment. In the period between 1995 and 1999, there was no numbered speed limit on I-90 in Montana; the speed limit was defined as "reasonable and prudent" as determined on a case-by-case basis by the Montana Highway Patrol. The speed limit in Montana is now 80 mph. From the west I-90 enters Montana on the summit of Lookout Pass, it passes next to Missoula and runs through Butte, where it connects with I-15 for close to eight miles, before crossing the continental divide just east of Butte where it goes over Homestake Pass, 6,329 feet in elevation, the highest point for the Interstate.
It passes between the Gallatin and Bridger mountain ranges over Bozeman Pass between Bozeman and Livingston. It follows the Yellowstone River from Livingston to Billings where it connects the suburbs of Laurel and Lockwood with the rest of the Billings area. In Lockwood it turns south. South of Hardin it passes the site of the Battle of the Little Bighorn at Crow Agency on the Crow Indian Reservation. Montana boasts the longest stretch of I-90. I-90 enters the state of Wyoming from the north after splitting off from I-94 in Montana; the first major town is Sheridan. It follows the foothills of the Bighorn Mountains between Sheridan and Buffalo where it intersects with I-25, where the route goes from a north–south orientation to an east–west orientation, it goes across the Powder River Basin toward Gillette and Sundance where it shares alignments with both US 14 and US 16. Near the Black Hills, I-90 leaves Wyoming and enters South Dakota between Sundance and Spearfish, South Dakota where it proceeds southeast toward Rapid City, South Dakota.
Near Rapid City at the Wyoming border I-90 is a four-lane divided highway with a grass median. In the Sioux Falls area, I-90 continues east a short distance to Minnesota. I-90 is the longest east–west thoroughfare in South Dakota; this interstate goes through Mitchell, Sioux Falls, Rapid City. It does not go through the state capital of Pierre; the South Dakota section of I-90 is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-184. The Minnesota section of I-90 is defined as Route 391 in Minnesota Statutes § 161.12. I-90 crosses southern Minnesota from the South Dakota border near Beaver Creek, Minnesota, to the Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. On most of its length in the state, it is close to the Iowa border and parallel with it. In southeast Minnesota, it curves north to Winona; the wayside rest area near Blue Earth, Minnesota is where Minnesota's east-building and
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota
Oglala Lakota County, known as Shannon County until May 2015, is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. The population was 13,586 at the 2010 census. Oglala Lakota County does not have a functioning county seat; the county was created as a part of the Dakota Territory in 1875. Its largest community is Pine Ridge; the county is within the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and contains part of Badlands National Park. It is one of five South Dakota counties on an Indian reservation; the county is named after a band of the Lakota people. Many of the county's inhabitants are members of this sub-tribe; the county's per-capita income makes it the poorest county in the United States. It is the only dry county in South Dakota; the newspaper for Oglala Lakota County is The Lakota Country Times. The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred in Oglala Lakota County in 1890; the county was named for Peter C. Shannon, Chief Justice of the Dakota Territory Supreme Court; until 1982, Shannon County and Washabaugh County, South Dakota, were the last unorganized counties in the United States.
Although it was organized and received a home rule charter that year, the county, as noted above, contracts with Fall River County for its Auditor and Registrar of Deeds. On November 4, 2014, voters in the county voted by a margin of 2,161 to 526 to rename Shannon County to Oglala Lakota County; the name change was ratified by the state legislature on March 5, 2015. May 1, 2015 was proclaimed by the governor as the official day for renaming the county. Oglala Lakota County lies on the south side of South Dakota, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of Nebraska. The Cheyenne River flows northeastward along the northwest boundary of Oglala Lakota County; the White River flows northeastward through the central part of the county. The county terrain is composed of arid rolling hills spotted with small mountain crests, oriented NE-SW; the terrain slopes to the northeast. The county has a total area of 2,097 square miles, of which 2,094 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water.
The county includes the headwaters of the Little White River. Badlands National Park As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,466 people, 2,785 households, 2,353 families residing in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 3,123 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 4.51% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 94.20% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.42% of the population. There are 2,785 households out of which 51.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.40% were married couples living together, 36.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.50% were non-families. 13.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.00% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.36 and the average family size was 4.72. The county population contained 45.30% under the age of 18, 10.60% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 13.80% from 45 to 64, 4.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females there were 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,916, the median income for a family was $20,897. Males had a median income of $25,170 versus $22,594 for females; the per capita income for the county was $6,286. About 45.10% of families and 52.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 60.80% of those under age 18 and 36.00% of those age 65 or over. A 2017 study ranked the county's average life expectancy as the lowest of any county in the United States; the counties surrounding Oglala Lakota County are predominantly Republican, like most Native American counties, Oglala Lakota is Democratic, giving over 75 percent of the vote to every Democratic presidential nominee in every election back to 1984, making it one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. No Republican has carried the county in a presidential election since 1952.
Batesland Denby Red Shirt Rockyford Sharps Corner. The county is divided into two areas of unorganized territory: West Shannon. National Register of Historic Places listings in Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota Oglala Lakota County Government Site
Houston Museum of Natural Science
The Houston Museum of Natural Science is a natural history museum located on the northern border of Hermann Park in Houston, United States. The museum was established in 1909 by the Houston Museum and Scientific Society, an organization whose goals were to provide a free institution for the people of Houston focusing on education and science. Museum attendance totals over two million visitors each year; the museum complex consists of a central facility with four floors of natural science halls and exhibits, the Burke Baker Planetarium, the Cockrell Butterfly Center, the Wortham Giant Screen Theatre. The museum is one of the most popular in the United States and ranks just below New York City's American Museum of Natural History and Metropolitan Museum of Art and the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco in most attendance amongst non-Smithsonian museums. Much of the museum's popularity is attributed to its large number of guest exhibits; the initial museum organization was called the Houston Museum and Scientific Society, Inc. and was created in 1909.
The museum's primary collection was acquired between 1914 and 1930. This included the purchase of a natural-history collection assembled by Henry Philemon Attwater and a donation from collector John Milsaps, the latter of which formed the core of the museum's gem and mineral collection. First housed in Houston's city auditorium, the collection was subsequently housed in the Central Library for seven years, at a site in the Houston Zoo in 1929; the museum's now wide-ranging education programs began in 1947 and, in its second year, hosted 12,000 children. The museum was renamed the Houston Museum of Natural Science in 1960. Construction of the current facility in Hermann Park began in 1964 and was completed in 1969. By the 1980s, the museum's permanent displays included a dinosaur exhibit, a space museum, exhibits on geology, petroleum science and geography. In 1988, the Challenger Learning Center was opened in memory of the Space Shuttle Challenger crewmembers that were lost during the shuttle's tenth mission.
The center's aim is to teach visitors about space exploration. The Wortham IMAX Theatre and the offsite George Observatory were opened in 1989. Museum attendance was more than one million visitors in 1990. HMNS trustees determined that new state-of-the-art facilities, additional space, renovations to current exhibits were needed because of the increased attendance. Between 1991 and 1994, a number of exhibit halls were renovated and the expansion of the Sterling Hall of Research was completed; the Cockrell Butterfly Center and the Brown Hall of Entomology opened in July 1994. In March 2007, the museum opened the HMNS Woodlands X-ploration Station, located in the Woodlands Mall; the facility was home to an interactive Dig Pit, where children could excavate a mock Triceretops, a variety of living exhibits and minerals. The Woodlands location closed on September 7, 2009, less than a month before HMNS opened a satellite museum in Sugar Land, Texas. HMNS celebrated its 100th year in 2009. During that year, the museum offered a multitude of family programs, free events, kids' classes as part of the "Fun Hundred" celebration.
On October 3, 2009, HMNS opened its satellite museum in Sugar Land. The building and surrounding land that became HMNS at Sugar Land was once part of the Central Unit, a Texas Department of Criminal Justice prison, unoccupied for several decades. In March 2012, the Wortham IMAX Theatre was converted from 70 mm film to 3D digital and renamed the Wortham Giant Screen Theatre. In June 2012, HMNS opened a new 230,000 square foot wing to house its paleontology hall, more than doubling the size of the original museum. Paleoartist, Julius Csotonyi, created fourteen murals based on concept drawings by HMNS Curator of Paleontology, Robert Bakker, for the new paleontology hall; the Morian Hall of Paleontology contains more than 60 large skeleton mounts, including four Tyrannosaurus rex and three large Quetzalcoatlus. The Foucault pendulum; the length of the pendulum's cable is over 60 feet long. Cullen Hall of Gems & Minerals, featuring a large exhibit of over 750 crystallized mineral specimens and rare gemstones.
Lester and Sue Smith Gem Vault, showcasing some of the most exquisite finely cut gems in jewelry. Farish Hall of Texas Wildlife exhibits animals and wildlife native to Texas; the hall contains a video wall that displays the plants and topography of the seven biotic regions of the state. Evelyn and Herbert Frensley Hall of African Wildlife, a display of taxidermied animals, including one of only two okapis exhibited in North America. Opening in 1969, the hall allows visitors to explore the seven biomes of the continent of Africa. Contains over 120 specimens, including 42 species of birds and 28 species of mammals are on display. Strake Hall of Malacology, with many specimens of mollusks. Morian Hall of Paleontology, the largest paleontology hall in the United States. Contains over 60 major skeleton mounts, including three Tyrannosaurus rex, a Diplodocus and the most complete Triceratops skeleton discovered, it houses one of the largest trilobite collections in existence. Robert Bakker serves as Curator of Paleontology.
John P. McGovern Hall of the Americas, showing more than 50 cultures worth of pre-Columbian archaeological artifacts. Welch Chemistry Hall, with interactive chemistry related displays and a periodic table of elements with a sample of each element. Wiess Energy Hall, with displays themed around energetics, petroleum geology, oil exploration. Renovated and expanded in 2017, the hall consists of 16 sections, including a working replica of an offsho
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c