Race-Vine is a rapid transit passenger rail station on SEPTA's Broad Street Line. It is located at 300 North Broad Street in the Center City district of Philadelphia, serves both local and express trains; the station is named after Vine Street, which today acts as frontage roads along Interstate 676 and nearby Race Street, although the given address is closer to westbound Vine than Race. This stop is used as the official stop for the Pennsylvania Convention Center on the Broad Street Line. However, riding the Broad Street Line one stop further south to City Hall and connecting to the Market–Frankford Line East toward Frankford and exiting at 11th Street station will bring passengers right inside the Convention Center and The Gallery at Market East. In addition to the Convention Center and other sights on the westernmost edge of Chinatown, the Race–Vine station serves several office buildings, Magee Rehabilitation Center, the Parkway Museum District, Roman Catholic High School, the School of Nursing campus of Drexel University, Hahnemann University Hospital.
Passengers may connect to SEPTA City Bus Routes 4,16, 27 here, in addition to a number of NJ Transit bus routes, which board on the northeast corner of Broad Street and Vine Street. Until the mid-90's there was a concourse leading up Broad Street from City Hall to the Race Street side of the station. Media related to Race–Vine at Wikimedia Commons SEPTA - Race-Vine BSL Station Vine Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Race Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
The Market–Frankford Line is one of two rapid transit lines in Philadelphia, operated by SEPTA. It runs from the 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby, just outside of West Philadelphia, to the Frankford Transportation Center in Near Northeast Philadelphia. With more than 187,000 boardings on an average weekday, it is the busiest route in the SEPTA system; the line has both underground portions along its full length. Downtown Philadelphia is served by four stations of the PATCO Speedline rapid transit line which runs between downtown Philadelphia through Camden, New Jersey to Lindenwold, New Jersey; the Market–Frankford Line begins at 69th Street Transportation Center in Upper Darby. The MFL passes north of the borough of Millbourne. From there, it enters Philadelphia and is elevated over Market Street until 46th Street, where it curves north and east and descends underground via a portal at 44th Street. At 42nd Street, the tunnel returns to the alignment of Market Street. At 32nd Street, the tunnel carrying the SEPTA subway-surface trolley lines joins the MFL tunnel.
The MFL tracks are in the center and the trolley tracks are on the outside. 30th Street consists of an island platform between the two innermost tracks for Market–Frankford Line trains, outboard "wall" platforms for Subway–Surface route 10, 11, 13, 34, 36 trolleys. After passing beneath the Schuylkill River, the next stop to the east for Market–Frankford Line trains is at 15th Street. 15th Street is the central interchange station for the MFL, Subway-Surface trolleys, Broad Street Line. The Subway-Surface tracks end in a loop beneath Juniper Street at Market just after crossing above the Broad Street Line. Though it now tunnels in a straight line directly beneath Philadelphia City Hall, prior to 1936, the original MFL trackage between 15th and 13th Street stations separated and looped around the foundation of City Hall. Parts of that original alignment are now used by subway-surface cars as they pass south of City Hall en route to 13th Street station; the Market Street tunnel continues east to Front Street and turns north, where it rises in the median of I-95.
The rail line and freeway share an elevated embankment for about ½ mile, including Spring Garden station. The line heads under the southbound lanes and over Front Street for about a mile on an elevated structure; the elevated structure turns northeast onto Kensington Avenue, which after about two miles, merges with Frankford Avenue. Just north of Pratt Street, a curve to the north brings the line to its current terminus at the Frankford Transportation Center, which replaced the original Bridge & Pratt Streets terminal; the original subway tunnel from City Hall to the portal at 23rd Street, as well as the bridge to carry the line across the Schuylkill River, just north of Market Street, were built from April 1903 to August 1905. Construction on the Market Street Elevated west from this point began In April 1904, the line opened on March 4, 1907, from 69th Street Terminal to a loop around City Hall at 15th Street; the line was elevated west of the river and underground east of the river. The tunnel was used by streetcar lines, now SEPTA's Subway-Surface lines, that entered the line just east of the river and turned around at the City Hall loop.
Philadelphia was unusual in that construction of its initial downtown subway was undertaken using PRT private capital only, with no contribution from public funds. Extensions took the subway east to 2nd Street on August 3, 1908, via a portal at 2nd street and several elevated curves it reached the Delaware River between Market Street and Chestnut Street on September 7, 1908; the Delaware Avenue Elevated opened on October 4, 1908, as a further extension south along the river to South Street. The only two stations on this extension were Market -- South Street; the "First Operating Section" of the Frankford Elevated was planned to extend from Arch Street to Bridge Street, 6.4 miles. Construction, financed by the City of Philadelphia and managed by the Department of City Transit, was started in September 1915. At that time, construction was anticipated to require about three years. However, construction was slowed because of World War I. By February 1920, 65 percent of the construction work had been completed and 15 percent was under contract.
Of the remainder, plans had been completed for ten percent, leaving ten percent of construction "yet to be arranged for". The superstructure had been completed between Dyre Street to a point just north of Arch Street. However, only two stations had been completed, six had not been started. Signals and cars had "yet to be arranged for". In 1919, the Public Service Commission of Pennsylvania approved a connection between the Frankford and Market Street lines in 1919, with signals and signal tower to be built by PRT, but the Philadelphia City Solicitor determined that the connection could not be built until a contract for operation had been signed and approved by the PSC. This did not take place until 1922; the line was dedicated on November 4, 1922
Broad Street Line
The Broad Street Line —also known as the Broad Street Subway, Orange Line, or Broad Line—is a subway line owned by the city of Philadelphia and operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. The line runs north-south from the Fern Rock Transportation Center in North Philadelphia to Pattison Avenue in South Philadelphia, it is named for Broad Street, the street under which it runs for its entire length. The line, underground except for the northern terminus at Fern Rock, has four tracks in a local/express configuration from Fern Rock to Walnut-Locust and two tracks from Lombard-South to the southern terminus at NRG station, it is one of only two rapid transit lines in the SEPTA system overall alongside the Market–Frankford Line, although downtown Philadelphia is served by four stations of the PATCO Speedline rapid transit line which runs between downtown Philadelphia through Camden, New Jersey to Lindenwold, New Jersey. The line and its trains were leased to SEPTA in 1968 after it assumed operation of the city transit systems from the former Philadelphia Transportation Company.
Broad Street Line subway cars bear both the SEPTA logo and the seal of the City of Philadelphia to reflect the split ownership-operation arrangement. Service on the northern half of the Broad Street Line, between City Hall and Olney Avenue, opened on September 1, 1928. While the original subway tunnel had been finished to just north of the present-day Lombard-South station, service to the Walnut-Locust station did not begin until 1930. Service from that point south to Snyder Avenue began on September 18, 1938. Service to a new park-and-ride station built next to the Fern Rock shops began in 1956, the line was extended further south to Pattison Avenue in 1973 to serve the completed Sports Complex. Although the Broad Street Line was planned in the 1920s to be a 4-track facility for its entire length, the tunnel was built with provision for 4 tracks only from the portal to just north of Lombard-South. At the time of opening, the outer 2 tracks were built along this length, whereas the inner 2 express tracks were built only in two sections, from the Fern Rock portal/shops to just south of Olney, from Girard to their terminus just north of Lombard South.
To close the gaps, the two inner express tracks were laid from Erie to Girard in 1959, again from Olney to Erie in 1991. From Lombard-South station south to Snyder, the tunnel was constructed differently – only the eastern half of the line was built; the track used for southbound trains is the northbound express track. The extension to Pattison Station now called. Space exists under the western half of Broad Street for the construction of the western half of the tunnel, which would include the remaining 2 tracks and additional island platforms for southbound local and express trains; the resulting infrastructure would match the configuration built in the northern half of the line. Provisions for flying junctions exist in the tunnels at three locations: north of Olney station, north of Erie station, between Tasker-Morris and Snyder stations; these were to connect to planned but never built extensions to the north, northeast and southwest. Tracks were laid in the upper levels of the flying junctions north of Erie.
The NRG Station contains a lower level platform, built to accommodate additional trains for large crowds at sporting events. Used in recent years, these tracks are most used to store rolling stock and work trains. Two of the Broad Street Subway system's stations have been closed: Spring Garden Station on the Ridge Avenue Spur Line and Franklin Square Station on the Former Bridge Line now called PATCO HIGH SPEED LINE; the Broad Street Line is one of only two rapid transit lines in the United States outside of New York City to use separate local and express tracks for a significant length, the other being Chicago's North Side Main Line from Armitage north, used by Purple Line express trains. Both the City of Philadelphia and SEPTA have studied extending the Broad Street Line along Roosevelt Boulevard, in order to serve a growing population in the northeast section of the city; the city government's archives contain a survey report, prepared in 1948, discussing a need for an extension of the Broad Street line from Erie Avenue to the vicinity of Pennypack Circle.
Subway car destination signage included station and terminus names for major streets along Roosevelt Boulevard such as Rhawn Street, in the newer "South Broad" cars. An expansion into another part of the City could better use the capacity of the four-track trunk line. In 1964, the city proposed a nine-mile, $94 million extension of the Broad Street line along Roosevelt Blvd. in conjunction with a new Northeast Expressway to be built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Development was limited to the building of one subway station by Sears and Company in 1967, at its complex on Roosevelt Boulevard at Adams Avenue, at the cost of $1 million, in anticipation of future service; this station was destroyed when the facility was demolished in October 1994. The Northeast Expressway was never built, due to lack of funds, the subway extension remained a paper concept. On September 10
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Wilson Brothers & Company
Wilson Brothers & Company was a prominent Victorian-era architecture and engineering firm established in Philadelphia, noted for its structural expertise. The brothers designed or contributed engineering work to hundreds of bridges, railroad stations and industrial buildings, including the principal buildings at the 1876 Centennial Exposition, they designed churches, schools and private residences. Among their surviving major works are the Pennsylvania Railroad, Connecting Railway Bridge over the Schuylkill River, the main building of Drexel University, the train shed of Reading Terminal, all in Philadelphia; the firm's founders were Joseph Miller Wilson and civil engineer, John Allston Wilson, civil engineer, Frederick Godfrey Thorn and civil engineer. Youngest brother Henry W. Wilson, civil engineer, joined the firm in 1886, was promoted to partner in 1899. All three Wilson brothers attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY. Joseph studied metallurgy at the University of Pennsylvania.
Joseph worked in the construction department of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1860 to 1876, designing bridges and railroad structures, including several commuter stations on the Main Line. For a PRR subsidiary, he designed the Baltimore & Potomac Railroad Passenger Terminal in Washington, DC, the station in which U. S. President James A. Garfield was assassinated in 1881; the National Gallery of Art now occupies its site at 6th Street & Constitution Avenue on the National Mall. John did engineering work including the PRR and the Reading Railroad. Wilson Brothers & Company was founded on January 1, 1876. For the 1876 Centennial Exposition, Henry Petit and Joseph M. Wilson co-designed the Main Exhibition Building—the largest building in the world, 1,876 feet in length and enclosing 21-1/2 acres; the pair designed Machinery Hall, oversaw construction of the other principal buildings. Joseph co-authored a 3-volume history of the Philadelphia World's Fair. Joseph's commission for Philadelphia's Presbyterian Hospital, may be related to work on Presbyterian churches, nursing homes and an orphanage.
The firm's extensive work for financer Anthony J. Drexel, the city's wealthiest citizen and a Roman Catholic, may have led to subsequent commissions for convents and Catholic hospitals. In Philadelphia, the firm designed the headquarters for the Baldwin Locomotive Works. In 1881, the PRR hired the firm to design its main passenger terminal at Broad & Filbert Streets in Center City Philadelphia, directly west of City Hall; this was one of the first steel-framed buildings in America to use masonry not as structure, but as a curtain wall. The station was admired. Eleven years the Wilson Brothers' Gothic Revival station was incorporated into Frank Furness's far larger Broad Street Station; the Wilsons designed its new train shed, at the time, the largest single-span train shed in the world. In 1885, the Wilsons designed a high-ceilinged, 2-story banking house for Drexel & Company, on the southeast corner of 5th & Chestnut Streets in Philadelphia. Four years Drexel wished to expand, but Independence National Bank next door refused to sell.
In response, Joseph Wilson designed the Drexel Building, a 10-story, H-shaped addition that surrounded Independence National Bank on the east and south sides, permanently depriving the neighbor of sunlight. The iron-skeletoned addition was built atop Drexel's banking house, was one of the first examples of X-bracing. One of the buildings demolished for this was Library Hall, the Library Company of Philadelphia's headquarters, design by William Thornton. In an ironic turn of events, the Drexel Building itself was demolished in 1959, a replica of Library Hall was built on its original site by the American Philosophical Society. Following the deaths of the two older brothers, the firm continued as Wilson and Richards. Pennsylvania Railroad, Connecting Railway Bridge over Schuylkill River, Philadelphia, PA Bryn Mawr Station, Bryn Mawr, PA Wynnewood Station, Wynnewood, PA Haverford Station, Haverford, PA Bryn Mawr Hotel, Bryn Mawr, PA Ardmore Station, Ardmore, PA Broad Street Station, Philadelphia, PA Wayne Railroad Station, Jct. of N. Wayne Ave. and Station Rd. Wayne, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed.
Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge over Delaware River, Trenton, NJ Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge over Susquehanna River, west of Harrisburg, PA Train shed for expanded Broad Street Station, Philadelphia, PA. Reading Railroad Overpass Spring Garden Pumping Station, East River Drive, Fairmount Park Presbyterian Hospital Joseph D. Potts house alterations, formally WXPN-FM, now the University of Pennsylvania Press A. J. Holman and Company, 1222-26 Arch St. NRHP-listed. St. Andrew Episcopal Church, now St. Andrew & St. Monica Episcopal Ch
The Reading Company was a company, involved in the railroad industry in southeast Pennsylvania and neighboring states from 1924 until 1976. Called the Reading Railroad and logotyped as Reading Lines, the Reading Company was a railroad holding company for the majority of its existence and was a railroad during its years, it was a successor to the Philadelphia and Reading Railway Company founded in 1833. Until the decline in anthracite loadings in the Coal Region after World War II, it was one of the most prosperous corporations in the United States. Competition with the modern trucking industry that used the Interstate highway system for short distance transportation of goods known as short hauls, compounded the company's problems, forcing it into bankruptcy in the 1970s, its railroad operations were merged into Conrail in 1976, but the corporation lasted into 2000, disposing of valuable real estate holdings. The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was one of the first railroads in the United States.
Along with the Little Schuylkill, a horse-drawn railroad in the Schuylkill River Valley, it formed the earliest components of what became the Reading Company. The P&R was constructed to haul anthracite coal from the mines in northeastern Pennsylvania's Coal Region to Philadelphia; the original P&R mainline extended south from the mining town of Pottsville to Reading and onward to Philadelphia, following the graded banks of the Schuylkill River for nearly all of the 93-mile journey. The line contained double track upon its completion in 1843; the P&R became profitable immediately. Energy-dense coal had been replacing scarce wood as fuel in businesses and homes since the 1810s, P&R-delivered coal was one of the first alternatives to the near-monopoly held by Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company since the 1820s. Soon the P&R bought or leased many of the railroads in the Schuylkill River Valley and extended westward and north along the Susquehanna into the southern end of the Coal Region. In Philadelphia, the Reading built Port Richmond, the self-proclaimed "Largest owned railroad tidewater terminal in the world", which burnished the P&R's bottom lines by allowing coal to be loaded onto ships and barges for export.
In 1871, the Reading established a subsidiary called the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, which set about buying anthracite coal mines in the Coal Region. This vertical expansion gave the P&R full control of coal from mining through to market, allowing it to compete with like-organized competitors such as Lehigh Coal & Navigation and the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company; the heavy investment in coal paid off quickly. By 1871, the Reading was the largest company in the world, with $170,000,000 in gross value, may have been the first conglomerate in the world. In 1879, the Reading gained control of the North Pennsylvania Railroad and gained access to the burgeoning steel industry in the Lehigh Valley; the Reading further expanded its coal empire by reaching New York City by gaining control of the Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad in 1879, building the Port Reading Railroad in 1892 with a line from Port Reading Junction to the Port Reading on the Arthur Kill. This allowed direct delivery of coal to industries in the Port of New York and New Jersey in northeastern New Jersey and New York City by rail and barge instead of the longer trip by ships from Port Richmond around Cape May.
Instead of broadening its rail network, the Reading invested its vast wealth in anthracite and its transport in the mid-19th century. This led to financial trouble in the 1870s. In 1890, Reading president Archibald A. McLeod saw that more riches could be earned by expanding its rail network and becoming a trunk railroad. McLeod went about trying to control neighboring railroads in 1891, he was able to gain control of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, the Boston and Maine Railroad. The Reading achieved its goal of becoming a trunk road, but the deal was scuttled by J. P. Morgan and other rail barons, who did not want more competition in the northeastern railroad business; the Reading was relegated to a regional railroad for the rest of its history. The Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road was chartered April 4, 1833, to build a line between Philadelphia and Reading, along the Schuylkill River; the portion from Reading to Norristown opened July 16, 1838, the full line December 9, 1839.
Its Philadelphia terminus was at the state-owned Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad on the west side of the Schuylkill River, from which it ran east on the P&C over the Columbia Bridge and onto the city-owned City Railroad to a depot at the southeast corner of Broad and Cherry Streets. An extension northwest from Reading to Mount Carbon on the Schuylkill River, opened on January 13, 1842, allowing the railroad to compete with the Schuylkill Canal. At Mount Carbon, it connected with the earlier Mount Carbon Railroad, continuing through Pottsville to several mines, would be extended to Williamsport. On May 17, 1842, a freight branch from West Falls to Port Richmond on the Delaware River north of downtown Philadelphia opened. Port Richmond became a large coal terminal. On January 1, 1851, the Belmont Plane on the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, just west of the Reading's connection, was abandoned in favor of a new bypass, the portion of the line east of it was sold to the Reading, the only company that continued using the old route.
The Lebanon Valley Railroad was chartered in 1836 to build from Reading west to Harrisburg. Reading financed the construction of the Rutherford Yard to compete with the PRR's nearby Enola Yard; the Reading took it over and began construction in 1854, opening the line in 1856. This