New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Architecture of New York City
The building form most associated with New York City is the skyscraper, which has shifted many commercial and residential districts from low-rise to high-rise. Surrounded by water, the city has amassed one of the largest and most varied collection of skyscrapers in the world. New York has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods; these include the Woolworth Building, an early Gothic revival skyscraper with large-scale gothic architectural detail. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below; the Art Deco design of the Chrysler Building and Empire State Building, with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The Chrysler building is considered by many historians and architects to be one of New York's finest, with its distinctive ornamentation such as V-shaped lighting inserts capped by a steel spire at the tower's crown.
An early influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building, distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers; the character of New York's large residential districts is defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In the outer boroughs, large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian. Split two-family homes are widely available across the outer boroughs, for example in the Flushing area. Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hues.
A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the presence of wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 19th century, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could burst municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, including Jackson Heights in Queens, which became more accessible with expansion of the subway. New York has two main concentrations of high-rise buildings: Midtown Manhattan and Lower Manhattan, each with its own uniquely recognizable skyline. Midtown Manhattan, the largest central business district in the world, is home to such notable buildings as the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, Citigroup Center and Rockefeller Center. Lower Manhattan comprises the third largest central business district in the United States. Lower Manhattan was characterized by the omnipresence of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center from its completion in 1973 until its destruction in the September 11 attacks, 2001.
In the first decade of the 21st century, Lower Manhattan saw reconstruction to include the new One World Trade Center. The Downtown skyline received new designs from such architects as Santiago Calatrava and Frank Gehry. Goldman Sachs is building a 225-metre-tall, 43-floor building across the street from the World Trade Center site. New York City has a long history of tall buildings, it has been home to 10 buildings that have held the world's tallest habitable building title at some point in history, although half have since been demolished. The first building to bring the world's tallest title to New York was the New York World Building, in 1890. New York City was home to the world's tallest building for 75 continuous years, starting with the Park Row Building in 1899 and ending with 1 World Trade Center upon completion of the Sears Tower in 1974; the 1899 Park Row Building, one of the world's earliest skyscrapers, is still standing. The high-rise buildings of Brooklyn constitute a third, much smaller skyline.
The high-rise buildings in downtown Brooklyn are centered around a major NYC subway hub. Downtown Brooklyn is experiencing an extensive building boom, with new high rise luxury residential towers, commercial space and a new arena in the planning stages; the building boom in Brooklyn has had a great deal of opposition from local civic and environmental groups which contend that Brooklyn needs to maintain its human scale. The borough of Queens has been developing its own skyline in recent years with One Court Square, the Queens West development of several residential towers along the East River waterfront; the 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Empire State Building, a 102-story contemporary Art Deco style building, was designed by Shreve and Harmon and finished in 1931, it was the world's tallest building for a record 42 years. The tower takes its name from the nickname of New York State and is the third tallest building in the city, the first being One World Trade Center, second belonging to 432 Park Avenue.
It was the first building to go beyond the 100+ story mark, has one of the world's most visited observation decks, which over 110 million have visited since its completion. The buil
One Penn Plaza
One Penn Plaza is a skyscraper in New York City, located between 33rd Street and 34th Street, west of Seventh Avenue, adjacent to Pennsylvania Station and Madison Square Garden. It is the tallest building in the Pennsylvania Plaza complex of office buildings and entertainment facilities; the skyscraper was designed by Kahn & Jacobs and completed in 1972. It reaches 750 feet with 57 floors; the tower has three setbacks at 7th, 14th, 55th floors. From its location on the west side of Manhattan, most south and north-facing tenants have unobstructed views of the Hudson River; the lobby was refurbished in 1995 and is undergoing another refurbishment beginning in 2019. One Penn Plaza is owned by Vornado Realty Trust, it was owned by Helmsley-Spear Inc. which sold the building for $420 million in the late 1990s. In 2009, plans were made to install a cogeneration plant in order to heat the building more efficiently. By 2010, it was reported that when the new plant was activated, it nearly cut the building's carbon output in half.
More than 80 percent of the action in the 2011 independent film Margin Call was shot on the 42nd floor of the building, vacated by a trading firm. One Penn Plaza is built with structural steel and concrete, with grey solar glass and anodized aluminum on the outside walls; the building has 44 elevators in seven banks. An underground parking garage provides 695 spaces for cars and is accessible from both 33rd and 34th Streets. Direct passageways at each end of the building provide underground connections to the Long Island Rail Road concourse of Pennsylvania Station, located one block to the south; the ground floor is leased to several commercial tenants, including the top floor of a 142,000 square feet, three-story K-Mart store, a restaurant. A public plaza and fountain are located on the west end of the building. Unlike traditional fountains, steam is dispensed in the winter and fog is dispensed in the summer to prevent water from splashing out during gusty wind conditions. Derek Smith Law Group, occupies Suite 4905 on the 49th Floor.
Law firm Gibbons P. C. occupies the entire 37th floor. MarkLogic, an enterprise NoSQL software vendor, has a suite of offices on the 42nd floor. Mitel Networks, a "unified communications solution" provider, occupies a suite of offices on the 25th floor; the Negotiation Institute occupies the 49th floor. WSP USA Parsons Brinckerhoff, is headquartered in One Penn Plaza and occupies the 2nd and 3rd floors. URS Corporation New York City Office occupies most of the 7th floors of One Penn Plaza. Riverbed Technology occupies a suite of offices on the 17th floor. Goetz Fitzpatrick LLP, a law firm, occupies a quarter of the 31st floor. CipherHealth has their headquarters on most of the 31st floor. Insight Enterprises has offices on the 19th floor. Cookie Jar Entertainment has an office in Suite 3324. Fullymail America, 20th and 21st floor. Milliman, Inc. a worldwide actuarial consulting firm, occupies the 38th floor. Vining Sparks IBG, LP, an investment services broker-dealer has offices on the 16th floor Cisco Systems, a Fortune 500 IT networking and telephony company, occupies part of the 6th and the entire 9th floor.
Polycom, a telecommunications equipment manufacturer, occupies the 48th floor. DLB Associates, the mechanical and electrical engineers for the majority of Google's datacenters worldwide, occupies the 26th floor. Icon Penn Plaza Parking operates the 695 car underground parking garage as of April 1, 2013 The North Highland Company, a management consulting firm Blue Polo Interactive, has an office in suite 5320. Logicalis Inc. US Headquarters is located on the 51st floor. CS Technology, worldwide IT management consultancy, is headquartered on the 54th floor Lexington Realty Trust is located on the 40th floor. Corvil Limited, US headquarters are located on the 14th floor as of January 2017; some of their customers include 18 of the top 20 global investment banks and most of the world's exchanges. Molton Brown USA Limited, corporate offices located on the 41st floor Infoblox-NYC Sales office located on the 36th floor Gigamon, NY Region Offices are located on the 14th Floor. Gigamon is the worldwide leader in network visibility solutions.
Lugo Cucina Italiana, an Italian Restaurant owned by LDV Hospitality, is located at street level WhoTrades subsidiary Just2Trade, an online equity trading and financial services firm, has offices on the 16th floor Rapaport Law Firm, PLLC, an employment litigation firm, occupies a suite of offices on the 24th floor List of tallest buildings in New York City
34th Street (Manhattan)
34th Street is a major crosstown street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It runs the width of Manhattan Island from West Side Highway on the West Side to the FDR Drive on the East Side. 34th Street is used as a crosstown artery between New Jersey to the west and Queens to the east, connecting the Lincoln Tunnel to New Jersey with the Queens Midtown Tunnel to Long Island. Several notable buildings are located directly along 34th Street, including the Empire State Building, Macy's Herald Square, Javits Center. Other structures, such as Pennsylvania Station, are located within one block of 34th Street; the street hosts the crosstown M34/M34A bus contains several subway stops. The street was designated by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 that established the Manhattan street grid as one of 15 east-west streets that would be 100 feet in width. In April 2010, the New York City Department of Transportation proposed to add bus rapid transit along the 34th Street corridor. To create exclusive lanes for buses, the street would be converted to one-way westbound operation west of Sixth Avenue and one-way eastbound operation east of Fifth Avenue.
The street was kept in two-way operation. At the west end of the street one finds the Hudson River, the West Midtown Ferry Terminal, the West 30th Street Heliport, the Hudson River Greenway, the West Side Highway, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New York City's main convention center. On the West Side, 34th Street is in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood, at the north end of the West Side Yard; until 2017 the southwest corner at Tenth Avenue had McDonald's with a drive-thru and a small parking lot, a rarity in Manhattan. On Ninth is B&H Photo Video, a large retailer of photographic and electronic equipment. Further east at Eighth and 33rd, the Post Office and Penn Station dominate on the south side of the street, serving Amtrak trains to destinations all over the United States and Canada, Long Island Rail Road and New Jersey Transit trains to suburbs. Above Penn Station sits Madison Square Garden, which calls itself "the world's most famous arena"; the grand stairs of the James Farley Post Office are built on the scale of the former Penn Station.
The architecture of the post office gives a flavor of what the area was like in the height of the railroad era. 34th Street is a major shopping street. Though it endured a decline in the 1970s, it rebounded late in the 20th century with new stores and new energy. A giant video board and light display at 34th and Broadway is like a mini Times Square. Between Seventh Avenue and Broadway, one will find Macy's, the famous department store immortalized in the Christmas movie Miracle on 34th Street, it claims to be the "world's largest store." The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade ends on 34th Street. A block south of 34th, at Sixth Avenue and 33rd Street, is the Manhattan Mall, an indoor shopping mall built inside what had been the flagship location of the Gimbel's department store. Branches of large chain stores operate between 8th and 5th Avenues. East of Herald Square and the hectic shopping district, the influence of the East Side and the sedate corporate office towers of the neighborhoods Kips Bay and Murray Hill starts to take hold.
On Fifth Avenue one finds the Empire State Building. The second tallest building in the city, it stands on a rare ledge of solid Manhattan schist dominating the skyline. North, at 38th Street and 5th Avenue is Lord & Taylor. At the far end one finds bulky luxury residential buildings and a great number of dogs patronizing the pet care parlors that serve the pure-bred loving populations of Kips Bay, the name of both the neighborhood and its eponymous bend in the East River where 34th Street ends. At the riverbank are the FDR Drive, the East River Greenway for bicycling to the south end of Manhattan, a small parking lot for New York University, the East 34th Street Ferry Landing, the East 34th Street Heliport; the New York Post listed one part of the street – the block of between Sixth and Seventh Avenues – as one of "the most dangerous blocks in the city" because police crime statistics for 2015 showed that 44 burglaries and 244 grand larcenies had been reported there, more property theft than for any other city block.
Places located along or within one block of 34th Street include: Jacob K. Javits Convention Center Hudson Yards buildings Congregation Beth Israel West Side Jewish Center Manhattan Center Hammerstein Ballroom New Yorker Hotel One Penn Plaza New York City Pennsylvania Station Macy's Herald Square Mercy College Herald Square Empire State Building Sy Syms School of Business New York Estonian House St. Vartan Cathedral Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine of New York University Medical Center Pennsylvania Station is located on 33rd Street, one block south, between Seventh and Eighth Avenues. New York City Bus's M34 and M34A buses run crosstown across 34th Street; the following New York City Subway stations serve 34th Street: 34th Street–Hudson Yards.
McKim, Mead & White
McKim, Mead & White was a prominent American architectural firm that thrived at the turn of the twentieth century. The firm's founding partners were William Rutherford Mead and Stanford White, they hired many other architects, associates and draftsmen, who came to prominence during or after their time at the firm. The firm's New York City buildings include Manhattan's former Pennsylvania Station, the Brooklyn Museum, the main campus of Columbia University. Elsewhere in New York State and New England, the firm designed college, library and other buildings such as the Boston Public Library and Rhode Island State House. In Washington, D. C. the firm renovated the West and East Wings of the White House, designed Roosevelt Hall on Fort Lesley J. McNair and the National Museum of American History. Across the United States, the firm designed buildings in Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee and Wisconsin. Other examples are in Canada and Italy. McKim and Mead joined forces in 1872, they were joined in 1879 by White, like McKim, had worked for architect Henry Hobson Richardson.
Their work applied the principles of Beaux-Arts architecture, the adoption of the classical Greek and Roman stylistic vocabulary as filtered through the Parisian École des Beaux-Arts, the related City Beautiful movement after 1893 or so. Its vision was to clean up the visual confusion of American cities and imbue them with a sense of order and formality during America's Gilded Age. According to one scholar, "Running through the world of McKim, Mead & White was a sense of the exploration of life's pleasures. A circle of bisexual and homosexual entertainment can be traced within the office; the circle included Stanford White, Saint Gaudens, Joseph M. Wells, Frank Millet, Whitney Warren, Thomas Hastings and Mead, many others."The firm retained its name long after the deaths of founding partners White, McKim, Mead. Among the firm's final works under the name McKim, Mead & White was the National Museum of American History in Washington, D. C. Designed by partner James Kellum Smith, it opened in 1964.
Smith died in 1961, the firm was soon renamed Steinmann and White. In 1971, it became Associates. Henry Bacon – worked at the firm from about 1886 through 1897. William A. Boring – worked at the firm in 1890 before forming a separate partnership with Edward Lippincott Tilton. Charles Lewis Bowman – a draftsman at the firm until 1922, noted for his large number of private residences throughout Westchester County, New York including Bronxville, Pelham Manor and New Rochelle. A. Page Brown - worked with the firm beginning in the 1880s. Walker O. Cain – worked at the firm. J. E. R. Carpenter – worked at the firm for several years before designing much of upper Fifth and Park Avenues, including 907 Fifth Avenue, 825 Fifth Avenue, 625 Park Avenue, 550 Park Avenue and the Lincoln Building on 42nd Street. John Merven Carrère – worked with McKim, Mead & White from 1883 through 1885 joined Thomas Hastings to form the firm Carrère and Hastings. Thomas Harlan Ellett. Cass Gilbert -- worked with the firm until 1882.
Arthur Loomis Harmon – of Shreve and Harmon. Thomas Hastings – of Carrère and Hastings, worked with McKim, Mead & White from 1883 through 1885. John Galen Howard John Mead Howells William Mitchell Kendall, worked with the firm from 1882 until his death. Harrie T. Lindeberg – started at the firm in 1895 as an assistant to Stanford White and remained with the firm until White's death in 1906. Austin W. Lord – worked with the firm in 1890-94 on designs for Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences, the Metropolitan Club, buildings at Columbia University Harold Van Buren Magonigle Albert Randolph Ross Philip Sawyer James Kellum Smith – a member of the firm from 1924 to 1961, he designed academic buildings, but his last major work was the National Museum of American History. Egerton Swartwout of Tracy and Swartwout – both Tracy and Swartwout worked together for the firm on multiple projects prior to starting their own practice. Edward Lippincott Tilton – helped design the Boston Public Library in 1890 before leaving with Boring.
Robert von Ezdorf – took over much of the firm's business after White's death. Joseph M. Wells – worked as firm's first Chief Draftsman from 1879–90. William M. Whidden – worked at the firm from at least 1882 until 1888. Notes Bibliography Baker, Paul R. Stanny: The Gilded Life of Stanford White. New York: Free Press, 1989. ISBN 0-02-901781-5 Broderick, Mosette. Triumvirate: McKim, Mead & White: Art, Architecture and Class in America's Gilded Age New York: Knopf, 2010. ISBN 0-394-53662-2 McKim, Mead & White. A Monograph of the Work of McKim, Mead & White, 1879-1915. N
Association for Computing Machinery
The Association for Computing Machinery is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society; the ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, with nearly 100,000 members as of 2019. Its headquarters are in New York City; the ACM is an umbrella organization for scholarly interests in computer science. Its motto is "Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession"; the ACM was founded in 1947 under the name Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, changed the following year to the Association for Computing Machinery. ACM is organized into over 171 local chapters and 37 Special Interest Groups, through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 university chapters; the first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Many of the SIGs, such as SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences, which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields.
The groups publish a large number of specialized journals and newsletters. ACM sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer. ACM publishes over 50 journals including the prestigious Journal of the ACM, two general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM and Queue. Other publications of the ACM include: ACM XRDS "Crossroads", was redesigned in 2010 and is the most popular student computing magazine in the US. ACM Interactions, an interdisciplinary HCI publication focused on the connections between experiences and technology, the third largest ACM publication. ACM Computing Surveys ACM Computers in Entertainment ACM Special Interest Group: Computers and Society A number of journals, specific to subfields of computer science, titled ACM Transactions; some of the more notable transactions include: ACM Transactions on Computer Systems IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics ACM Transactions on Computational Logic ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction ACM Transactions on Database Systems ACM Transactions on Graphics ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing and Applications IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages.
ACM has made all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and has a Guide to Computing Literature. Individual members additionally have access to Safari Books Online and Books24x7. ACM offers insurance, online courses, other services to its members. In 1997, ACM Press published Wizards and Their Wonders: Portraits in Computing, written by Christopher Morgan, with new photographs by Louis Fabian Bachrach; the book is a collection of historic and current portrait photographs of figures from the computer industry. The ACM Portal is an online service of the ACM, its core are two main sections: the ACM Guide to Computing Literature. The ACM Digital Library is the full-text collection of all articles published by the ACM in its articles and conference proceedings; the Guide is a bibliography in computing with over one million entries. The ACM Digital Library contains a comprehensive archive starting in the 1950s of the organization's journals, magazines and conference proceedings.
Online services include a forum called Tech News digest. There is an extensive underlying bibliographic database containing key works of all genres from all major publishers of computing literature; this secondary database is a rich discovery service known as The ACM Guide to Computing Literature. ACM adopted a hybrid Open Access publishing model in 2013. Authors who do not choose to pay the OA fee must grant ACM publishing rights by either a copyright transfer agreement or a publishing license agreement. ACM was a "green" publisher. Authors may post documents on their own websites and in their institutional repositories with a link back to the ACM Digital Library's permanently maintained Version of Record. All metadata in the Digital Library is open to the world, including abstracts, linked references and citing works and usage statistics, as well as all functionality and services. Other than the free articles, the full-texts are accessed by subscription. There is a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement.
Some authors see a centralized peer–review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Journal of Machine Learning Research and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology. In addition to student and regular members, ACM has several advanced membership grades to recognize those with multiple years of membership and "demonstrated performance that sets them apart from their peers"; the number of Fellows, Distinguished Members, Senior Members cannot exceed 1%, 10%, 25% of the total number of professional members, respect
Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal is a commuter rail terminal located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Grand Central is the southern terminus of the Metro-North Railroad's Harlem and New Haven Lines, serving the northern parts of the New York metropolitan area, it contains a connection to the New York City Subway at Grand Central–42nd Street. The terminal is the third-busiest train station in North America, after Toronto Union Station and New York Penn Station; the distinctive architecture and interior design of Grand Central Terminal's station house have earned it several landmark designations, including as a National Historic Landmark. Its Beaux-Arts design incorporates numerous works of art. Grand Central Terminal is one of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions, with 21.9 million visitors in 2013, excluding train and subway passengers. The terminal's main concourse is used as a meeting place, is featured in films and television. Grand Central Terminal contains a variety of stores and food vendors, including a food court on its lower-level concourse.
Grand Central Terminal was named for the New York Central Railroad. Opened in 1913, the terminal was built on the site of two named predecessor stations, the first of which dates to 1871. Grand Central Terminal served intercity trains until 1991, when Amtrak began routing its trains through nearby Penn Station; the East Side Access project, which will bring Long Island Rail Road service to a new station beneath the terminal, is expected to be completed in late 2022. Grand Central covers 48 acres and has 44 platforms, more than any other railroad station in the world, its platforms, all below ground, serve 26 on the lower. 43 tracks are in use for passenger service. Another eight tracks and four platforms are being built on two new levels deep underneath the existing station as part of East Side Access. Unlike most stations in the Metro-North system, Grand Central Terminal is owned by Midtown Trackage Ventures, a private company, rather than by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which operates Metro-North and most of its stations, including Grand Central.
Grand Central Terminal was named by and for the New York Central Railroad, which built the station and its two precursors on the site. It has "always been more colloquially and affectionately known as Grand Central Station", the name of its immediate precursor that operated from 1900 until 1910 and which shares its name with the nearby U. S. Post Office station at 450 Lexington Avenue and, with the Grand Central–42nd Street subway station next to the terminal. Grand Central Terminal serves some 67 million passengers a year, more than any other Metro-North station. At morning rush hour, a train arrives at the terminal every 58 seconds. Three of Metro-North's five main lines terminate at Grand Central: Harlem Line to Wassaic, New York Hudson Line to Poughkeepsie, New York New Haven Line to New Haven, Connecticut New Canaan Branch to New Canaan, Connecticut Danbury Branch to Danbury, Connecticut Waterbury Branch to Waterbury, ConnecticutThrough these lines, the terminal serves Metro-North commuters traveling to and from the Bronx in New York City.
The New York City Subway's adjacent Grand Central–42nd Street station serves these routes: 4, 5, 6, <6> trains, situated diagonally under the Pershing Square Building, 42nd Street, Grand Hyatt New York 7 and <7> trains, under 42nd Street between Park Avenue and west of Third Avenue S train, under 42nd Street between Madison Avenue and Vanderbilt AvenueThese MTA Regional Bus Operations buses stop near Grand Central: NYCT Bus: M1, M2, M3, M4 and Q32 local buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue X27, X28, X37, X38, SIM4C, SIM6, SIM8, SIM8X, SIM11, SIM22, SIM25, SIM26, SIM30, SIM31 and SIM33C express buses at Madison Avenue X27, X28, X37, X38, SIM4C, SIM8, SIM8X, SIM25, SIM31 and SIM33C express buses at Fifth Avenue M42 local bus at 42nd Street M101, M102 and M103 local buses at Third Avenue and Lexington Avenue X27, X28, X63, X64 and X68 express buses at Third Avenue SIM6, SIM11, SIM22 and SIM26 express buses at Lexington Avenue MTA Bus: BxM3, BxM4, BxM6, BxM7, BxM8, BxM9, BxM10, BxM18, BM1, BM2, BM3, BM4 and BM5 express buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue BxM1 express bus at Lexington Avenue BxM1, QM21, QM31, QM32, QM34, QM35, QM36, QM40, QM42 and QM44 express buses at Third Avenue Academy Bus: SIM23 and SIM24 express buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue The terminal and its predecessors were designed for intercity service, which operated from the first station building's completion in 1871 until Amtrak ceased operations in the terminal in 1991.
Through transfers, passengers could connect to all major lines in the United States, including the Canadian, the Empire Builder, the San Francisco Zephyr, the Southwest Limited, the Crescent, the Sunset Limited under Amtrak. Destinations included San Francisco, Los Angeles, New Orleans and Montreal. Another notable former train was New York Central's 20th Century Limited, a luxury service that oper