Lehigh County, Pennsylvania
Lehigh County is a county located in the Lehigh Valley region of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 349,497, its county seat is the state's third-largest city behind Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. The county, first settled around 1730, was formed in 1812 with the division of Northampton County into two counties, it is named after the Lehigh River, whose name is derived from the Delaware Indian term Lechauweki or Lechauwekink, meaning "where there are forks". Lehigh County is part of the New York City metropolitan area, but borders the Delaware Valley and is a part of the Philadelphia media market, it is one of the fastest-growing counties in Pennsylvania. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 348 square miles, of which 345 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is water. The Lehigh Valley, which includes all of Lehigh and Northampton counties, is bounded on the north by Blue Mountain, a ridge of the Appalachian mountain range with an altitude of 1,300 to 1,604 feet, on the south by South Mountain, a ridge of 700 to 1,100 feet that cuts through the southern portions of the two counties.
The highest point in Lehigh County is Bake Oven Knob, a mass of Tuscarora conglomeratic rocks that rise about 100 feet above the main ridge of the Blue Mountain in northwestern Heidelberg Township. Lehigh County is in the Delaware River watershed. While most of the county is drained by the Lehigh River and its tributaries, the Schuylkill River drains regions in the south of the county via the Perkiomen Creek and the northwest via the Maiden Creek. Berks County Bucks County Carbon County Montgomery County Northampton County Schuylkill County Most of the county's climate is considered to fall in the humid continental climate zone. Summers are hot and muggy and spring are mild, winter is cold. Precipitation is uniformly distributed throughout the year. For the city of Allentown, January lows average −6 °C and highs average 1.3 °C. The lowest recorded temperature was −26.7 °C in 1912. July lows average 17.6 °C and highs average 29.2 °C, with an average relative humidity of 82%. The highest temperature on record was 40.6 °C in 1966.
Early fall and mid winter are driest, with October being the driest month with only 74.7 mm of average precipitation. Snowfall is variable, with some winters bringing light snow and others bringing numerous significant snowstorms. Average snowfall is 82.3 centimetres per year, with the months of January and February receiving the highest at just over 22.86 centimetres each. Rainfall is spread throughout the year, with eight to twelve wet days per month, at an average annual rate of 110.54 centimetres. As of the 2010 census, the county was 71.6% White Non-Hispanic, 6.1% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American or Alaskan Native, 2.9% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian, 2.9% were two or more races, 8.6% were some other race. 18.8% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 312,090 people, 121,906 households, 82,164 families residing in the county; the population density was 900 people per square mile. There were 128,910 housing units at an average density of 372 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 87.02% White, 3.56% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 2.10% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.28% from other races, 1.83% from two or more races. 10.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.1 % were of 7.9 % Italian, 7.7 % Irish, 6.2 % Pennsylvania German and 5.6 % American ancestry. 85.0 % spoke 8.4 % Spanish and 1.2 % Arabic as their first language. There were 121,906 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.60% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 15.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.60 males. As of January 2010, there were 223,867 registered voters in Lehigh County: Democratic: 112,412 Republican: 76,904 Other Parties: 34,551 Lehigh County and neighboring Northampton County are part of Pennsylvania's 15th Congressional district; the 15th Congressional district is a contentious swing district with neither Republicans nor Democrats winning the district consistently. Voters elected Republican Charlie Dent in 2004, 2006 and 2008 and Republican Pat Toomey in 1998, 2000, 2002. In 2004, the county narrowly voted for John Kerry over George W. Bush for President, in 2008 the county gave all statewide Democratic candidates significant leads and Barack Obama a victory of more than 15 points over John McCain, 57.1% to 41.5%. In 2012, President Obama carried the county again, but by a narrower margin: 53.17% to 45.52%. All five statewide winners carried it in November 2004.
Although the Republican Party has been dominant in county-level politics, the Democratic Party has made substantial inroads this decade. In 2005, Bethlehem Mayor Don Cunningham unseated incumbent County Executive Jane Ervin to
Columbia County, Pennsylvania
Columbia County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 67,295, its county seat is Bloomsburg. The county was created on March 22, 1813, from part of Northumberland County and named for Columbia, a poetic name for the United States that alludes to Christopher Columbus. Columbia County is part of PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 490 square miles, of which 483 square miles is land and 7.1 square miles is water. The southern tip of Columbia County is part of the Coal Region; the area of the county from the Susquehanna River south to several miles south of Numidia is farmland and state game lands. Around the Susquehanna River, there are several communities, such as Catawissa. From the Susquehanna River north as far as Waller, the county is farmland with several patches of forest. North of Waller, the county is state game lands and mountains; the major streams in Columbia County are the Susquehanna River, Fishing Creek, Briar Creek, Catawissa Creek, Roaring Creek.
Note: Only mountains higher than 1,500 feet are listed Source: I-80 US 11 PA 42 PA 44 PA 54 PA 61 PA 93 PA 118 PA 239 PA 254 PA 339 PA 442 PA 487 PA 642 Sullivan County Luzerne County Schuylkill County Northumberland County Montour County Lycoming County Part of Ricketts Glen State Park is in the northern portion of Columbia County. As of the census of 2000, there were 64,151 people, 24,915 households, 16,568 families residing in the county; the population density was 132 people per square mile. There were 27,733 housing units at an average density of 57 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.59% White, 0.80% Black or African-American, 0.15% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 33.2% were of German, 10.0% American, 9.4% Irish, 8.1% Italian, 6.7% Polish and 6.2% English ancestry. There were 24,915 households out of which 27.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.80% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.50% were non-families.
26.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.80% under the age of 18, 14.30% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males. The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Columbia County as the Bloomsburg-Berwick, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census the metropolitan area ranked 20th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 368th most populous in the United States with a population of 82,562. Columbia County is a part of the larger Bloomsburg-Berwick-Sunbury, PA Combined Statistical Area, which combines the populations of Columbia County as well as Montour, Northumberland and Union Counties in Pennsylvania.
The Combined Statistical Area ranked 8th in the State of Pennsylvania and 115th most populous in the United States with a population of 264,739. As of November 2011, there were 41,026 registered voters in Columbia County. Democratic: 20,961 Republican: 19,438 Other Parties: 6,853 While the county registration tends to be evenly matched between Democrats and Republicans, the county trends Republican in statewide elections. While John McCain received 51.6% of its vote to 47.1% for Barack Obama, this was a far-closer margin than the 20 points that George W. Bush carried it by in 2004; each of the three row-office statewide winners carried Columbia in 2008. In 2006, Democrat Bob Casey Jr. received 51% of its vote when he unseated incumbent Republican US Senator Rick Santorum and Ed Rendell received 50.6% of the vote against Lynn Swann. For many years Columbia County was represented in the State House by a conservative Democrat in the 109th district until John Gordner changed parties to Republican in 2001.
He was succeeded by Republican David R. Millard. Columbia is in 11th Congressional district. Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania Benton Area School District Berwick Area School District Bloomsburg Area School District Central Columbia School District Millville Area School District Mount Carmel Area School District North Schuylkill School District Southern Columbia Area School District Columbia-Montour Area Vocational-Technical School SusQ Cyber Charter School - Bloomsburg Bald Hill School - Millville Bloomsburg Christian School - Bloomsburg Bloomsburg University Special Education Institute Columbia Co Christian School - Bloomsburg Greenwood Friends School - Millville Heritage Christian Academy - Berwick Holy Family Consolidate - Berwick Keystone National High School - Bloomsburg New Story - Berwick Pennsylvania Institute For Conservation Education - Bloomsburg Rainbow Hill School - Benton St Columba School - Bloomsburg Saint Matthews - Bloomsburg Turkey Ridge School - Bloomsburg Bloomsburg Public Library Columbia County Traveling Library McBride Memorial Library Orangeville Public Library Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities
Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Delaware County, colloquially referred to as Delco, is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. With a population of 562,960, it is the fifth most populous county in Pennsylvania, the third smallest in area; the county was created on September 26, 1789, from part of Chester County, named for the Delaware River. Its county seat is Media; until 1850, Chester was the county seat of Delaware County and, before that, of Chester County. Delaware County is adjacent to the city-county of Philadelphia and is included in the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area. Delaware County is the only county covered in its entirety by area codes 610 and 484. Delaware County lies in the river and bay drainage area named "Delaware" in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, Governor of the nearby English colony of Virginia; the land was explored by Henry Hudson in 1609, over the next several decades it was variously claimed and settled by the Swedes, the Dutch, the English.
Its original human inhabitants were the Lenni-Lenape tribe of American Indians. Once the Dutch were defeated and the extent of New York was determined, King Charles II of England made his grant to William Penn in order to found the colony which came to be named Pennsylvania. Penn divided his colony into three counties: Bucks and Chester; the riverfront land south of Philadelphia, being the most accessible, was granted and settled. In 1789, the southeastern portion of Chester County was divided from the rest and named Delaware County for the Delaware River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 191 square miles, of which 184 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles is water. It is the third-smallest county in Pennsylvania by area. Delaware County is diamond- or kite-shaped, with the four sides formed by the Chester County boundary to the northwest, the boundary with the state of Delaware to the southwest, the Delaware River (forming the border with the state of New Jersey to the southeast, the city of Philadelphia and Montgomery County to the east and northeast.
The lowest point in the state of Pennsylvania is located on the Delaware River in Marcus Hook in Delaware County, where it flows out of Pennsylvania and into Delaware. The highest point in Delaware County is 500 feet at two points southeast of Wyola in Newtown Township. Waterways in Delaware County flow in a southward direction and drain into the Delaware River; the waterways are, from west to east: the Brandywine River, Naaman's Creek, Stoney Creek, Chester Creek, Ridley Creek, Crum Creek, Muckinipates Creek, Darby Creek and Cobbs Creek. Crum Creek was dammed in 1931 near Pennsylvania Route 252 to fill Springton Lake, an 391-acre drinking water reservoir maintained by Aqua America, the county's largest lake; the Trainer Refinery and the Port of Chester along located along the shores of the Delaware River. Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Gloucester County, New Jersey New Castle County, Delaware Chester County, Pennsylvania Delaware County is one of four counties in the United States to border a state with which it shares the same name.
John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge 2,600 acres of the county are occupied by the Ridley Creek State Park. Delaware County is divided by the boundary between the humid subtropical and the hot-summer humid continental climate; the hardiness zones are 7b. As of the 2010 census, the county was 71.1% White non-Hispanic, 19.7% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American or Alaskan Native, 4.7% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian, 2.0% were two or more races, 0.9% were some other race. 3.0% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 550,864 people, 206,320 households, 139,472 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,990 people per square mile. There were 216,978 housing units at an average density of 1,178 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.32% White, 14.52% African American, 0.11% Native American, 3.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. 1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
24.6 % were of Irish, 10.1 % German and 6.7 % English ancestry. There were 206,320 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.80% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,092, the median income for a family was $61,590. Males had a median income of $44,155 versus $31,831 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,040.
About 5.80% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.00% of
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes; the most popular view is. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but to a community, society or the state; such acts are punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists; the state has the power to restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
To be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure; when informal relationships prove insufficient to establish and maintain a desired social order, a government or a state may impose more formalized or stricter systems of social control. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform. Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary in their severity; some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: legal mutilation, capital punishment or life without parole. A natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes. The sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between crime; when Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment"; the Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress." The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a private or moral wrong.
In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness", according to etymonline.com. It was brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, accusation; the word may derive from the Latin cernere – "to decide, to sift". But Ernest Klein rejects this and suggests *cri-men, which would have meant "cry of distress". Thomas G. Tucker suggests a root in "cry" words and refers to English plaint, so on; the meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen "deceit, treachery". Crime wave is first attested in 1893 in American English. Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission, it depends on the nature of the legal consequences. An act or omission is a crime if it is capable of being followed by what are called criminal proceedings. History The following definition of "crime" was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.
For the purpose of section 243 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992, a crime means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cult
Washington County, Pennsylvania
Washington County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 207,820, its county seat is Washington. The county was created on March 1781, from part of Westmoreland County; the city and county were both named after American Revolutionary War leader George Washington, who became the first President of the United States. Washington County is part of PA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is home to Washington County Airport, located three miles southwest of Washington. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 861 square miles, of which 857 square miles is land and 3.9 square miles is water. Beaver County Allegheny County Westmoreland County Fayette County Greene County Marshall County, West Virginia Ohio County, West Virginia Brooke County, West Virginia Hancock County, West Virginia As of the census of 2000, there were 202,897 people, 81,130 households, 56,060 families residing in the county; the population density was 237 people per square mile.
There were 87,267 housing units at an average density of 102 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.27% White, 3.26% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 0.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.3% were of German, 17.2% Italian, 10.6% Irish, 8.6% English, 7.9% Polish and 6.2% American ancestry. There were 81,130 households out of which 28.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 10.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.20% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 17.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 92.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.00 males. As of 1800, this county was settled by people of Scot-Irish heritage because "prime lands" were taken by the Germans and the Quakers; the County of Washington is governed by a three-member publicly elected commission. The three commissioners serve in legislative capacities. By state law, the commission must have a minority party guaranteeing a political split on the commission; each term is for four years. The three current commissioners for Washington County are Lawrence Maggi, Diana Irey, Harlan G. Shober Jr.. Maggi was the Democratic nominee for Pennsylvania's 18th congressional district against Republican incumbent Tim Murphy in 2012. Maggi earned only 36 percent of the vote. Irey was the Republican candidate for Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district and lost to the late Democratic incumbent John Murtha in the 2006 election; the Washington County Court of Common Pleas, the Twenty-Seventh Judicial District of Pennsylvania, is the state trial court, sitting in and for Washington County.
It serves as the court of original jurisdiction for the region. There are five judges, which the county's citizens elect to ten year terms, under the laws of the Commonwealth; the President Judge is Katherine B. Emery. Judges of the court are: Katherine B. Emery, P. J. John F. DiSalle, J. Gary Gilman, J. Valarie Costanzo, J. Michael J. Lucas, J. Additionally, magisterial district judges serve throughout the county to hear traffic citations, issue warrants, decide minor civil matters; the Democratic Party has been dominant in county-level politics and national politics, only voting Republican for president in Richard Nixon's 1972 landslide victory over George McGovern. However, like much of Appalachian coal country, Washington has trended Republican in recent years. In 2000, Democrat Al Gore won 53% of the vote and Republican George W. Bush won 44%. In 2004, Democrat John Kerry received 50.14% of the vote and Bush received 49.57% a difference of 552 votes. In 2008, Republican John McCain won 51% to Democrat Barack Obama's 46% and each of the three state row office winners carried Washington County.
As of November 7th 2017, there were 139,790 registered voters in the county. Registered Democrats have a plurality of 67,424 registered voters, compared to 56,274 registered Republicans, 752 registered Libertarians, 123 registered Greens, 15,217 voters registered to other parties or none. Clerk of Courts, Barbara Gibbs, Democrat Controller, Michael Namie, Democrat Coroner, Timothy Warco, Democrat District Attorney, Eugene Vittone, Republican Prothonotary, Phyllis Ranko-Matheny, Democrat Recorder of Deeds, Deborah Bardella, Democrat Register of Wills, Mary Jo Poknis, Democrat Sheriff, Samuel Romano, Democrat Treasurer, Francis L. King, Democrat Public Safety Director, Jeffrey A. Yates, Independent Jim Christiana, Republican, 15th district Richard Saccone, Republican, 39th district John A. Maher, Republican, 40th district Jason Ortitay, Republican, 46th district Tim O'Neal, Republican, 48th district Bud Cook, Republican, 49th district Pam Snyder, Democrat, 50th district Guy Reschenthaler, Republican, 37th district Camera Bartolotta, Republican, 46th district Guy Reschenthaler, Republican, 14th district Pat Toomey, Republican Bob Casey, Jr. Democrat Pony League baseball was founded in Washington County in 1951 for
Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Bucks County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 625,249, making it the fourth-most populous county in Pennsylvania and the 99th-most populous county in the United States; the county seat is Doylestown. The county is named after the English county of Buckinghamshire or more its shortname. Bucks County constitutes part of the northern boundary of the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, more known as the Delaware Valley, it is located northeast of Philadelphia and forms part of the southern tip of the eastern state border. Bucks County is one of the three original counties created by colonial proprietor William Penn in 1682. Penn named the county after Buckinghamshire, the county, he built a country estate called Pennsbury Manor in Bucks County. Some places in Bucks County were named after locations in Buckinghamshire, including Buckingham Township, named after the county town of Buckinghamshire.
Bucks County was much larger than it is today. Northampton County was formed in 1752 from part of Bucks County, Lehigh County was formed in 1812 from part of Northampton County. General George Washington and his troops camped in Bucks County as they prepared to cross the Delaware River to take Trenton, New Jersey, by surprise on the morning of December 26, 1776, their successful attack on Britain's Hessian forces was a turning point in the American War of Independence. The town of Washington Crossing and Washington Crossing Historic Park were named to commemorate the event. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622 square miles, of which 604 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water; the southern third of the county between Philadelphia and Trenton, New Jersey called Lower Bucks, resides in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, is flat and near sea level, the county's most populated and industrialized area. Bucks County shares a western border with Montgomery County, borders Philadelphia to the southwest, Northampton and Lehigh Counties to the north.
From north to south, it is linked to Warren, Hunterdon and Burlington Counties in New Jersey by bridges. Tohickon Creek and Neshaminy Creek are the largest tributaries of the Delaware in Bucks County. Tohickon Creek empties into the river at Point Neshaminy at Croydon. Lehigh County Northampton County Warren County, New Jersey Hunterdon County, New Jersey Mercer County, New Jersey Burlington County, New Jersey Philadelphia County Montgomery County Relatively speaking, Bucks County experiences warm/hot and humid summers with chilly/cold and somewhat snowy winters. Episodes of high humidity occur every year during or close to the summer months occasionally reaching extreme levels; when high humidity combines with air temperatures in the mid-upper 90's, dangerous heat index values of >= 105 °F can sometimes result. Winter minimum air temperatures fall into the single digits to below 0 °F; when the coldest temperatures combine with higher winds, wind chill values can sometimes plummet below 0 °F to as cold as -20 °F. Spring and fall are comparatively tranquil.
The climate cools as one moves from the lower elevation, dense suburban areas in southern Bucks County, to the higher elevation, rural areas of northern Bucks. Precipitation is well-distributed throughout the year; the average seasonal snowfall, which can occur from as early as October to as late as April, is around 2 feet in extreme southern Bucks, around 3 feet in the highest elevations of far northern Bucks. The fall foliage season peaks in mid-October in northern Bucks, mid-late October in central Bucks, late-October/early-November in southern Bucks; these dates correlate with the typical date of first freeze. Peak spring foliage occurs during the month of April, which correlates with the typical date of last freeze. Bucks County has four distinct seasons and has a hot-summer humid continental climate except for some far southern lowlands including Bristol which have a humid subtropical climate; the hardiness zones are 7a. Monthly climatic averages for Quakertown, upper Bucks County, PA. Monthly climatic averages for Doylestown, central Bucks County, PA.
Monthly climatic averages for Bristol, lower Bucks County, PA. As of the 2010 census, there were 625,249 people; the population density was 1,034.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.6% White non-Hispanic, 3.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 4.1% Asian 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.7% were of two or more races, 1.5% were of other races. 4.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 218,725 households, 160,981 families residing in the county. There were 225,498 housing units at an average density of 371 per square mile. 20.1 % were of 19.1 % Irish, 14.0 % Italian, 7.5 % English and 5.9 % Polish ancestry. There were 218,725 households, out of which 35.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.20% were married coup
Government of Pennsylvania
The Government of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the governmental structure of the state of Pennsylvania as established by the Pennsylvania Constitution. It is composed of three branches: executive and judicial; the capital of the Commonwealth is Harrisburg. The elected officers are: In Pennsylvania all members of the executive branch are not on the ballot in the same year: elections for governor and lieutenant governor are held in years when there is not a presidential election, while the other three statewide offices are elected in presidential election years; the Governor's Cabinet comprises the directors of various state agencies: Department of Community and Economic Development Department of Aging Office of General Counsel Department of Insurance Department of Corrections Department of Transportation Department of State Department of General Services Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Emergency Management Agency Department of Health Department of Banking and Securities Office of the Budget Department of Environmental Protection Pennsylvania State Police Office of Inspector General Department of Human Services Department of Labor & Industry Department of Agriculture Department of Revenue Department of Military and Veterans Affairs Office of Administration Department of Education Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs The Pennsylvania Bulletin is the weekly gazette containing proposed and emergency rules and other notices and important documents, which are codified in the Pennsylvania Code.
The Pennsylvania General Assembly is the bicameral state legislature composed of 253 members: the House of Representatives with 203 members, the Senate with 50 members. The Speaker of the House of Representatives or their designated speaker pro tempore holds sessions of the House; the President of the Senate is the Lieutenant Governor, who has no vote except in the event of tie in the Senate, where the vote is 25-25. The legislature meets in the Pennsylvania State Capitol in Harrisburg, its session laws are published in the official Laws of Pennsylvania, which are codified in the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes. Members of the Senate and the House cannot hold a position in any civic office, both the houses may expel a member with two-thirds vote. Any member, expelled for corruption may never run again for reelection in either portion of the legislature. Pennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts, most of which have magisterial district judges, who preside over minor criminal offenses and small civil claims.
Magisterial District Judges preside over preliminary hearings in all misdemeanor and felony criminal cases. Most criminal and civil cases originate in the Courts of Common Pleas, which serve as appellate courts to the district judges and for local agency decisions; the Superior Court hears all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. It has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance; the Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the final appellate court. All judges in Pennsylvania are elected. In total, 439 judges preside over the Court of Common Pleas, 9 judges preside over the Commonwealth Court, 15 judges preside over the Superior Court, 7 justices preside over the Supreme Court. Elected judges run in 10 year terms, at which point they are required to run in a non-partisan retention election if they wish to continue to serve.
Local government in Pennsylvania consists of five types of local governments: county, borough and school district. All of Pennsylvania is included in one of the state's 67 counties and each county is divided into one of the state's 2,562 municipalities. There are no independent cities or unincorporated territory within Pennsylvania. Local municipalities are either governed by statutes enacted by the Pennsylvania Legislature and administered through the Pennsylvania Code, by a home rule charter or optional form of government adopted by the municipality with consent of the Legislature. Municipalities may enforce local ordinances. Pennsylvania enacted the Local Government Commission by an Act of Assembly; the commission is one of the oldest in the country, composed of five members of the state Senate and House of Representatives who are appointed by the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House. The commission provides assistance to Members of the General Assembly on researching local issues.
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