1. Library – A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a building or room, or a virtual space. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items, in Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e. g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period. A library is organized for use and maintained by a body, an institution. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information, Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide facilities for access to their electronic resources. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats, the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. These archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt, the earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit, besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC, philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty. Also, evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians, the Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II, an early organization system was in effect at Alexandria. The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Anatolia, now part of Selçuk, Turkey was built in honor of the Roman Senator Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus by Celsus’ son, the library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BCLibrary – Library at Melk Abbey in Austria
2. Library science – Rather than classifying information based on nature-oriented elements, as was previously done in his Bavarian library, Schrettinger organized books in alphabetical order. The first American school for science was founded by Melvil Dewey at Columbia University in 1887. It is an aspect of the field of librarianship. Historically, library science has also included archival science, LIS should not be confused with information theory, the mathematical study of the concept of information. Library and information science can also be seen as an integration of the two fields of science and information science, which were separate at one point. Library philosophy has been contrasted with science as the study of the aims. The earliest text on library operations, Advice on Establishing a Library was published in 1627 by French librarian, Naudé wrote prolifically, producing works on many subjects including politics, religion, history, and the supernatural. He put into all the ideas put forth in Advice when given the opportunity to build. Martin Schrettinger wrote the textbook on the subject from 1808 to 1829. The Jefferson collection provided the start of what became the Library of Congress, the term library economy was common in the U. S. until 1942, with the library science predominant through much of the 20th century. Later, the term was used in the title of S. R. Ranganathans The Five Laws of Library Science, published in 1931, and in the title of Lee Pierce Butlers 1933 book, An introduction to library science. S. R. Ranganathan conceived the five laws of science and the development of the first major analytico-synthetic classification system. In India, he is considered to be the father of science, documentation. He was one of the first faculty at the University of Chicago Graduate Library School and this research agenda went against the more procedure-based approach of library economy, which was mostly confined to practical problems in the administration of libraries. While Ranganathans approach was philosophical it was tied more to the day-to-day business of running a library. A reworking of Ranganathans laws was published in 1995 which removes the constant references to books, in more recent years, with the growth of digital technology, the field has been greatly influenced by information science concepts. This university was the first in Asia to begin teaching library science, the Punjab Library Primer was the first textbook on library science published in English anywhere in the world. The first textbook in the United States was the Manual of Library Economy and this report had a significant impact on library science training and educationLibrary science – Portrait of Gabriel Naudé, author of Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627), later translated into English in 1661.
3. Information science – Information science should not be confused with information theory or library science. Information theory is the study of the types of communications we use, such as verbal, signal transmission, encoding, Information science as an academic discipline is often taught in combination with Library science as Library and Information Science. Library science as such is a related to the dissemination of information through libraries making use of the principles of information science. Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the involved and then applying information. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system and it must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society. Several institutions have formed an I-School Caucus, but numerous others besides these also have comprehensive information foci and it is concerned with that body of knowledge relating to the origination, collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, transmission, transformation, and utilization of information. It has both a pure science component, which inquires into the subject without regard to its application, and an applied science component, some authors use informatics as a synonym for information science. This is especially true when related to the concept developed by A. I, Mikhailov and other Soviet authors in the mid-1960s. The Mikhailov school saw informatics as a related to the study of scientific information. Informatics is difficult to define because of the rapidly evolving. Definitions reliant on the nature of the used for deriving meaningful information from data are emerging in Informatics academic programs. Regional differences and international terminology complicate the problem, some people note that much of what is called Informatics today was once called Information Science – at least in fields such as Medical Informatics. Brian Campbell Vickerys Information Systems places information systems within IS, ellis, Allen, & Wilson, on the other hand, provide a bibliometric investigation describing the relation between two different fields, information science and information systems. Philosophy of information studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of science, information technology. In computer science and information science, an ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and it can be used to reason about the entities within that domain and may be used to describe the domain. More specifically, an ontology is a model for describing the world consists of a set of types, properties. Exactly what is provided around these varies, but they are the essentials of an ontology, there is also generally an expectation that there be a close resemblance between the real world and the features of the model in an ontology. In theory, an ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation, an ontology renders shared vocabulary and taxonomy which models a domain with the definition of objects and/or concepts and their properties and relationsInformation science – The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval.