Hopkins County, Kentucky
Hopkins County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,920, the county was formed in 1806 and named for General Samuel Hopkins, an officer in both the American Revolutionary War and War of 1812, and a Kentucky legislator and U. S. Congressman. The Madisonville, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Hopkins County, the topography ranges from flatlands along the broad river valleys of the Pond River, Tradewater River, and Green River, to hilly and rolling land in the southern and central parts of the county. Coal mines operate in the part of Hopkins County and agriculture is a mainstay in the northern part. Major crops are soybeans and tobacco, along with coal, resources include oil and natural gas. Hopkins County ranks second in the state both in terms of coal extracted and in total coal reserves remaining. The earliest inhabitants were prehistoric Native Americans who lived, one of their settlements was a rough stone structure on Fort Ridge, which has since been destroyed by strip mining for coal.
Some of the settlers were Revolutionary War veterans who received land grants for their service from Virginia in the area southwest of the Green River. Among these was Baron Von Steuben, a Prussian general who had trained George Washingtons Continental Army at Valley Forge during the winter of 1776-77 and he had received a grant of several thousand acres in the northwest part of the county. According to tradition, Von Steuben was wounded in an Indian attack on his first visit to Kentucky, nevertheless, a salt spring on his grant came to be known as Steubens Lick. By the 1880s, the community grew up around the lick was known as Manitou. Roads in the county often followed animal trails that led to salt, the major traces were those which connected the county seat at Madisonville with Henderson to the north, Hopkinsville to the south, and Russellville to the southeast. Numerous other trails led to the mills and ferries on the Pond and Tradewater Rivers, on January 3,1829, Ashbyburg in the northeastern part of the county was incorporated.
Located on the Green River, it thrived as a landing during the 19th century. Hopkins County was divided by the American Civil War, the harsh policies imposed by the occupying Union armies caused much more resentment and served to increase the sympathy for the Confederate cause. Ever since then, local politics have been dominated by the Democratic party. Farming was the occupation in Hopkins County for most of the 19th century. Around 1837 local blacksmith James Woolfolk found an outcropping of coal on his land, john Bayless Earle, for whom the town of Earlington, Kentucky was named, opened the first coal mine in the county in 1869
Barren River Lake State Resort Park
Barren River Lake State Resort Park is a 1, 053-acre park located in Barren County and extending into parts of Allen County and Monroe County. Barren River Lake, its feature, is an artificial lake created with the building of a 146-foot-high dam by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers begun in 1960. It covers approximately 10,000 acres and has 141 miles of shoreline, the park was dedicated in 1965. Fishing is an attraction at this park. The largest hybrid striped bass ever taken in Kentucky was caught in Barren River Lake in 1991, the lake contains several other species of fish, including crappie, smallmouth bass, white bass, and big channel catfish. The lake includes a marina to support boating and water skiing, numerous trails provide hiking and biking opportunities. The most popular hiking trail is the 1-mile Lewis Hill Trail which is known as the Connell Nature Trail. Guided horseback rides are available seasonally, the park features an eighteen-hole golf course. The Trashmasters cleanup day is a popular event that helps keep the park clean.
Also, each June, the park plays host to Glasgows Highland Games, Barren River Lake State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Glasgow Highland Games
Crushed pennyroyal leaves exhibit a very strong fragrance similar to spearmint. Pennyroyal is a culinary herb, folk remedy, and abortifacient. The essential oil of pennyroyal is used in aromatherapy, and is high in pulegone. Pennyroyal was commonly used as a cooking herb by the Greeks, the ancient Greeks often flavored their wine with pennyroyal. A large number of the recipes in the Roman cookbook of Apicius call for the use of pennyroyal, often along with such herbs as lovage and coriander. Although it was used for cooking in the Middle Ages. The fresh or dried leaves of the plant were used to flavor pudding, even though pennyroyal oil is extremely poisonous, people have relied on the fresh and dried herb for centuries. Early settlers in colonial Virginia used dried pennyroyal to eradicate pests, Pennyroyal was such a popular herb that the Royal Society published an article on its use against rattlesnakes in the first volume of its Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Pennyroyal is used to make herbal teas, although not proven to be dangerous to adults in small doses, is not recommended.
Consumption can be fatal to infants and children and it has been traditionally employed as an emmenagogue or as an abortifacient. Pennyroyal is used to settle an upset stomach and to relieve flatulence, Pennyroyal leaves, both fresh and dried, are especially noted for repelling insects. However, when treating infestations such as fleas, using the essential oil should be avoided due to its toxicity to both humans and animals, even at extremely low levels. Pennyroyal essential oil should never be taken internally because it is toxic, even in small doses. The metabolite menthofuran is thought to be the toxic agent. Complications have been reported attempts to use the oil for self-induced abortion. For example, in 1978, an 18-year-old pregnant woman from Denver, there are numerous studies that show the toxicity of pennyroyal oil to both humans and animals. 1897- A 23-year-old British woman died eight days after swallowing a tablespoon of pennyroyal in order to induce menstruation, circa 1909- The Supreme Court of Indiana convicted a Mr.
Carter of prescribing and administering pennyroyal pills to a pregnant woman who died two months after her miscarriage. August 1912- A 16-year-old girl from Maryland consumed 36 pennyroyal pills to induce abortion, an autopsy revealed that the herbal abortion was only partially successful
Christian County, Kentucky
Christian County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 73,955, the county was formed in 1797. Christian County is part of the Clarksville, TN–KY Metropolitan Statistical Area, the county is named for Colonel William Christian, a native of Augusta County, and a veteran of the Revolutionary War. He settled near Louisville, Kentucky in 1785, and was killed by Native Americans in southern Indiana in 1786, jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America was born in Fairview, Christian County, Kentucky, in 1808. United States Vice President Adlai Stevenson I was born in Christian County in 1835, the present courthouse, built in 1869, replaced a structure burned by Confederate cavalry in 1864 because the Union Army was using it as their barracks. The United States Supreme Court case Barker v. Wingo,407 U. S.514, arose out of a 1958 double-murder in Christian County, in 2006 and 2008, tornadoes touched down across northern Christian County, damaging homes in the Crofton area.
In 2017, northwestern Christian County will experience the longest duration of totality in the eclipse of August 21,2017 that will cross North America. The center will be in the Bainbridge/Sinking Fork area of the county, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 724 square miles, of which 718 square miles is land and 6.5 square miles is water. It is the second-largest county by area in Kentucky, the population density was 100 per square mile. There were 27,182 housing units at a density of 38 per square mile. 4. 83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race and this number, was estimated to be around 4% for a 2006 Census Estimate, according to the United States Census Bureau. 22. 50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was out with 28. 30% under the age of 18,15. 80% from 18 to 24,30. 10% from 25 to 44,16. 00% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 28 years, for every 100 females there were 106.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.60 males, the median income for a household in the county was $31,177, and the median income for a family was $35,240. Males had an income of $25,063 versus $20,748 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,611, about 12. 10% of families and 15. 00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19. 30% of those under age 18 and 13. 50% of those age 65 or over. A S. W. county of Kentucky
Jefferson Davis State Historic Site
The Jefferson Davis Monument State Historic Site is a Kentucky state park commemorating the birthplace of Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederate States of America, in Fairview, Kentucky. The sites focal point is a 351-foot concrete obelisk, in 1973, it was believed to be the fourth-tallest monument in the United States and the tallest concrete-cast one. Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. a Confederate general, first proposed the idea of a monument for Davis during a reunion of the Orphan Brigade of the Confederate Army in 1907. Construction began in 1917 but stopped in 1918 at a height of 175 feet due to building material rationing during World War I, construction resumed in January 1922 and was finished in 1924 at a cost of $200,000. The monuments base was set on bedrock and limestone was quarried on the site for use in its construction. The concrete walls are 8.5 feet thick at the base, the monument was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The obelisk was closed to the public from 1999 until May 2004 for renovations, at the top of the monument is an observation room with a window in each of the four walls.
Originally, this room could only be reached by climbing stairs which went around the interior of the monument, the Jefferson Davis State Historic Site is one of eleven historic sites in Kentucky which include small parks and are maintained by the Kentucky Department of Parks. The park covers 19 acres and includes open and covered picnic areas, at the visitors center museum, visitors can watch a video describing Davis life and the construction of the monument. Guided elevator tours of the monument are available daily, the center sells books and memorabilia about Davis, the American Civil War, and the surrounding area, as well as Kentucky handcrafts. The park is open from May 1 until October 31, the monument is the tallest unreinforced concrete structure in the world. No steel was used to reinforce the walls below its pyramidal top. As one pour was completed, large chunks of limestone were left projecting up to connect it to the next pour above and it is the tallest concrete obelisk in the world.
It is the second tallest obelisk in the world after the Washington Monument, the Crazy Horse Memorial, not yet completed, has a planned height of 563 feet. Elsewhere in the world, the Great Pyramid of Giza, Khafres Pyramid, Spring Temple Buddha, and Ushiku Daibutsu are taller monuments
Greenbo Lake State Resort Park
Greenbo Lake State Resort Park in Kentucky is a resort park in the northeastern part of the commonwealth, close to the town of Greenup, Kentucky in Greenup County on Kentucky State Route 1. The lodge contains a 232-seat dining room and it is centered on the 300-acre Greenbo Lake that features a boat dock and marina. There are over 25 miles of hiking and horseback trails, the park hosts a variety of community events each year including a quilt show, murder mystery dinner theaters, and a 5K race. Greenbo Lake State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Greenbo Lake State Resort Park American Byways
George Washington and Jefferson National Forests
The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests are U. S. National Forests that combine to form one of the largest areas of public land in the Eastern United States. They cover 1.8 million acres of land in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, approximately 1 million acres of the forest are remote and undeveloped and 139,461 acres have been designated as wilderness areas, which eliminates future development. George Washington National Forest was established on May 16,1918 as the Shenandoah National Forest, the forest was renamed after the first President on June 28,1932. Natural Bridge National Forest was added on July 22,1933, Jefferson National Forest was formed on April 21,1936 by combining portions of the Unaka and George Washington National Forests with other land. In 1995, the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests were administratively combined, the border between the two forests roughly follows the James River. The combined forest is administered from its headquarters in Roanoke, the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway, which is separately administered by the National Park Service, runs through the Forest.
Over 2,000 miles of hiking trails, including segments of the Appalachian Trail, virginias highest point, Mount Rogers, is located in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area that is part of the forest. Other notable mountains include Elliott Knob, which has one of the last remaining fire towers in the eastern U. S. Approximately 230,000 acres of old-growth forests, the deepest gorge east of the Mississippi River, Breaks Interstate Park, is located in the forest. Roaring Run Furnace is the site on the National Register of Historic Places owned by the Jefferson National Forest. The Forests vast and mountainous terrain harbors a variety of plant life—over 50 species of trees and over 2,000 species of shrubs. The Forests contain some 230,000 acres of old growth forests, the Ramseys Draft and Kimberling Creek Wildernesses in particular are mostly old-growth. The black bear is relatively common, enough so there is a short hunting season to prevent overpopulation. White-tailed deer, bald eagles, otter, the forests are popular hiking, mountain biking, and hunting destinations.
The Appalachian Trail extends for 330 miles from the end of Shenandoah National Park through the forest. The forest is within a two-hour drive for over ten people and thus receives large numbers of visitors. The George Washington National Forest is a destination for trail runners. It is the location for several Ultramarathons, including the Massanutten Mountain Trails 100 miler, the Old Dominion 100 miler, George Washington Forest is the venue for Nature Camp, a natural science education-oriented summer camp for youth
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Daniel Boone National Forest
Daniel Boone National Forest is the only national forest completely within the boundary of Kentucky. Established in 1937, it was named the Cumberland National Forest. The forest was named after Daniel Boone, a frontiersman and explorer in the late 18th century who contributed greatly to the exploration, in 1937, a national forest was established containing 1,338,214 acres within its proclamation boundary. As of June 1937, the Forest Service had purchased only 336,692 acres, most early purchases were large, isolated tracts owned by lumber and coal companies with but few inhabitants. The Forest Service has since had difficulty acquiring more land within the boundary, the bulk of which was. Due in part to World War II, funds for land acquisition were curtailed in the early 1940s, substantial acquisition efforts could not resume until the mid-1960s. The lengthy cessation of land acquisitions, except for period during the forests renaming, naming the forest entailed considerable debate. Protests began immediately after the national forest was named, the naming issue was reopened in the late 1950s.
The Forest Service investigated the name Cumberland, and found it came to Kentucky in 1750 when Thomas Walker named the Cumberland River in honor of Prince William Augustus, the Duke had defeated the Scottish Highlanders in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden, an especially brutal conflict. Many Scottish families fled to America and ultimately Kentucky as a result of the event, the Forest Service found that for their descendants still living in Eastern Kentucky, the name Cumberland was particularly distasteful. In addition, the Forest Service noted the influence of history on the names of places in Kentucky, during this period of time, place names with British connotations fell out of favor and changes were made. For example, prior to the Revolution, the Kentucky River was called the Louisa River, after the wife of the Duke of Cumberland, during the 1960s, a new movement to rename the national forest took place. Also during the 1960s, part of the national forest was designated a Primitive Weapons Area and set apart for hunting with longbow, crossbow, in 1970, this was the only US area where deer could legally be hunted with crossbows.
The park remains unique still for allowing only muzzle-loaded firearms, in 1967, a large and disconnected addition to the national forest was created, called the Redbird Purchase Unit, after a key purchase from the Red Bird Timber Company. About a third of the land within the national forest proclamation boundary is owned or managed by the Forest Service, the pattern of land ownership is highly fragmented and changes relatively frequently. One of the goals of the Forest Service is to consolidate holdings into larger blocks, the boundaries of Forest Service lands are marked in various ways, including red paint on trees. The shifting boundaries and growing size of Forest Service lands sometimes results in local complaints, in addition, it can be difficult for recreational users to know whether they are on Forest Service lands or not. No Trespassing signs are used by landowners, and conflicts between landowners and recreational users are not uncommon
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Natural Bridge State Resort Park
Its namesake natural bridge is the centerpiece of the park. The natural sandstone arch spans 78 ft and is 65 ft high, the natural process of weathering formed the arch over millions of years. The park is approximately 2,300 acres of which approximately 1,200 acres is dedicated by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission as a nature preserve, in 1981 this land was dedicated into the nature preserves system to protect the ecological communities and rare species habitat. The first federally endangered Virginia big eared bats, Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus, the park was founded as a private tourist attraction in 1895 by the Lexington and Eastern Railroad. In 1910, Louisville and Nashville Railroad acquired the land when it purchased the Lexingon, there are over 20 miles of trails over uneven terrain from moderate to strenuous difficulty, including trails to Whites Branch Arch, Hensons Cave Arch, and other scenic areas. Some of the most famous sites are the arch itself, Lovers Leap, the parks 0.
5-mile Original Trail to the natural bridge dates from the 1890s. Other trails include the 7. 5-mile Sand Gap Trail and the 0. 75-mile Balanced Rock Trail, five miles of the 307-mile Sheltowee Trace National Recreation Trail run through the park, including the Whittleton Trail which connects the park to the Red River Gorge Geologic Area. Activities such as hiking off-trails, disturbing wildlife, or collecting plants are not legal in any Kentucky State Park, Fat Mans Squeeze, a narrow passage in the rock formation, leads to the bottom of the arch. Natural Bridge has several unique sandstone formations, including the Balanced Rock. This is a block of sandstone balanced on the edge of a cliff near the Natural Bridge. The Balanced Rock, is located on Trail #2, not far above Hemlock Lodge, in the early days of the Park, it was called the Sphinx because, when viewed from the correct angle, it crudely resembles the Sphinx in Egypt. Although it is now called the Balanced Rock, it is in fact a pedestal rock - a single piece of stone that has weathered in such a fashion that its midsection is narrower than its cap or its base.
This formation is one of the biggest and most perfectly formed examples of a pedestal rock east of the Rocky Mountains, Natural Bridge State Park is a member of the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, and offers guided backpacking trips and natural history educational programs. Annual events open to the public include Herpetology Weekend each May, Natural Arches Weekend each February, the Kentucky Natives Societys Wildflower Weekend in April consists of Kentucky plants and how they are essential to the well-being of our natural ecosystems commonwealth. We incorporate research and support efforts to identify and protect endangered, the State Park is famous for hosting traditional Appalachian square dances. The traditional Appalachian style dances are held on Friday and Saturday evenings throughout the warm starlit Ky summers on the dance floor. The dance draws hundreds of participants and spectators, showcasing dance groups and singer/performer talents from all over