Baron Penrhyn is a title, created twice. The first creation came in the Peerage of Ireland in 1783 in favour of Richard Pennant, who had served as a Member of Parliament for Petersfield and Liverpool; this creation became extinct on his death in 1808. The next creation came in 1866 in the Peerage of the United Kingdom when the Conservative politician Edward Douglas-Pennant was created Baron Penrhyn, of Llandegai in the County of Carnarvon, he had represented Carnarvon in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Caernarvonshire. He was granted the estate of his father-in-law on the condition that he accepted his wife's maiden name, Pennant. Lord Penrhyn was the younger brother of The 17th Earl of Morton. In 1833 he had married Juliana Isabella Mary Pennant, eldest daughter and co-heiress of George Hay Dawkins-Pennant of Penrhyn Castle and in 1841 he assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Pennant. Lord Penrhyn was succeeded by the second Baron, he represented Carnarvon in Parliament as a Conservative.
On his death the title passed to the third Baron. He was a Conservative Member of Parliament for Northampton South, he was succeeded by the fourth Baron. He notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Caernarvonshire from 1933 to 1941. On his death in 1949 the line of the eldest son of the first Baron failed, he was succeeded by the fifth Baron. He was the son of second son of the first Baron. Lord Penrhyn was 101 years and 74 days when he died on 3 February 1967 and was the oldest hereditary peer; this record was not surpassed until the death of the seventh Viscount St Vincent in September 2006. He was succeeded by the sixth Baron; as of 2014 the title is held by the latter's nephew, the seventh Baron, who succeeded in 2003. As a descendant of the fourteenth Earl of Morton he is in remainder to this peerage and its subsidiary title the lordship of Dalkeith. Muriel FitzRoy, 1st Viscountess Daventry, wife of the Hon. Edward FitzRoy, Speaker of the House of Commons, was the sister of the fifth Baron Penrhyn.
The Douglas family of the second creation are the same of the same lineage as the Marquesses of Queensberry and are related to the Earls of Home. Richard Pennant, 1st Baron Penrhyn Edward Gordon Douglas-Pennant, 1st Baron Penrhyn George Sholto Gordon Douglas-Pennant, 2nd Baron Penrhyn Edward Sholto Douglas-Pennant, 3rd Baron Penrhyn Hugh Napier Douglas-Pennant, 4th Baron Penrhyn Frank Douglas-Pennant, 5th Baron Penrhyn Malcolm Frank Douglas-Pennant, 6th Baron Penrhyn Simon Douglas-Pennant, 7th Baron Penrhyn The heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon. Edward Sholto Douglas-Pennant; the heir apparent's heir presumptive is his brother Hon. Hugo Charles Douglas-Pennant. Earl of Morton Viscount Daventry Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, construction aggregate, sand, gravel, or slate is excavated from the ground. The word quarry can include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone. Types of rock extracted from quarries include: Chalk China clay Cinder Clay Coal Construction aggregate Coquina Diabase Gabbro Granite Gritstone Gypsum Limestone Marble Ores Phosphate rock Quartz Sandstone Slate Many quarry stones such as marble, granite and sandstone are cut into larger slabs and removed from the quarry; the surfaces finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster. Polished slabs are cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is considered a luxury and tends to be a durable surface, thus desirable. Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water have engineering problems with drainage; the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required.
For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet below sea level. To reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat; as a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows increase and it becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal. Some water-filled quarries are worked by dredging. Many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise and appearance. One of the more effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens in Victoria, BC, Canada. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries. To control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Many quarries fill with water after abandonment and become lakes. Others are made into landfills. Water-filled quarries can be deep 50 ft or more, cold, so swimming in quarry lakes is not recommended.
Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmer's muscles to weaken. Though quarry water is very clear, submerged quarry stones and abandoned equipment make diving into these quarries dangerous. Several people drown in quarries each year. However, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites; such lakes lakes within active quarries, can provide important habitat for animals. Clay pit Coal mining Collecting fossils Gravel pit List of minerals List of rock types List of stones Miner Mountaintop removal mining Opencast mining Quarry lake Quarries
Port Penrhyn is a harbour located just east of Bangor in north Wales at the confluence of the River Cegin with the Menai Strait. It was of great importance as the main port for the export of slate from the Penrhyn Quarry, the largest slate quarry in the world at the end of the nineteenth century, it was built, expanded, by the Pennant family of the nearby Penrhyn Castle. Penrhyn is the Welsh word for'promontory'; the port is used by coastal vessels up to about 3,000 tonnes deadweight and by fishing vessels. There are plans for expansion. Mitchell, Vic. Rhyl to Bangor. West Sussex: Middleton Press. Figs. 110-114. ISBN 9781908174154. OCLC 859594415. Port Penrhyn website
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface, it is applied to ore or rocks found at the surface because the overburden is thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling. In contrast, minerals that have been found underground but are difficult to retrieve due to hard rock, can be reached using a form of underground mining. To create an open-pit mine, the miners must determine the information of the ore, underground; this is done through drilling of probe holes in the ground plotting each hole location on a map. The information gained through the holes with provide an idea of the vertical extent of the ore's body; this vertical information is used to pit tentative locations of the benches that will occur in the mine.
It is important to consider the grade and economic value of the ore in the potential pit. Open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are referred to as "quarries." Open-pit mines are enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. However, some form of water control is required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake, if the mine is situated in a climate of considerable precipitation or if any layers of the pit forming the mine border productive aquifers. Open-pit mining is to be considered one of the most dangerous sectors in the industrial world, it causes significant effects to miners health, as well as damage to the ecological land. Open-pit mining causes changes to vegetation and bedrock, which contributes to changes in surface hydrology, groundwater levels, flow paths. Additionally, open-pit produces harmful pollutants depending on the type of mineral being mined, the type of mining process being used.
Open-cast mines are dug on benches. The interval of the benches depends on the deposit being mined, the mineral being mined, the size of the machinery, being used. Large mine benches are 12 to 15 metres thick. In contrast, many quarries do not use benches, as they are shallow. Mining can be conducted on more than one bench at a time, access to different benches is done with a system of ramps; the width of each bench is determined by the size of the equipment being used 20-40 metres wide. Downward ramps are created to allow mining on a new level to begin; this new level will become progressively wider to form the new pit bottom. Most walls of the pit are mined on an angle less than vertical. Waste rock is stripped when the pit becomes deeper, therefore this angle is a safety precaution to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. However, this depends on how weathered and eroded the rocks are, the type of rocks involved, it depends on the amount of structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a faults, joints or foliations.
The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, the flat part of the step is known as the bench or berm; the steps in the walls help prevent. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and shotcrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, enough to cause failures in the wall by itself. A haul road is situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks can drive, carrying ore and waste rock. Open-pit mines create a significant amount of waste. One million tons of ore and waste rock can move from the largest mines per day, a couple thousand tons moved from small mines per day. There is four main operations in a mine that contribute to this load: drilling, blasting and hauling. Waste rock is hauled to a waste dump. Waste dumps can be piled at the surface of the active pit, or in mined pits. Leftover waste from processing the ore is called tailings, is in the form of a slurry.
This is pumped to a tailings settling pond, where the water is reused or evaporated. Tailings dams can be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, cyanide, used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process. If proper environmental protections are not in place, this toxicity can harm the surrounding environment. Open-pit mining involves the process of disrupting the ground, which leads to the creation of air pollutants; the main source of air pollutants comes from the transportation of minerals, but their are various other factors including drilling and the loading and unloading of overburden. These type of pollutants cause significant damage to public health and safety in addition to damaging the air quality; the inhalation of these pollutants can cause issues to the lungs and increase mortality. Furthermore, the pollutants affect fauna in the areas surrounding open-pit mines. Open-pit gold mining is one of the highest potential mining threats on the environment as it affects the air and water chemistry.
The exposed dust may be toxic or radioactive, making it a health concern for the workers and the surrounding communities. A form of open-
Blondin (quarry equipment)
Blondins were a type of aerial ropeway employed in open pits in the slate quarries in Wales to transport wagons loads of rock between locations. They were named after the famous tightrope walker Charles Blondin; the first known use of Blondins in the quarry industry was at Penrhyn Quarry where they were installed by 1913. Penrhyn quarry was based around a single large pit over 400 feet deep, worked as a series of terraces. A variety of means were used to transport slate from the terraces to the mills where the rock was processed; the quarry had an extensive internal narrow gauge railway system in place and many terraces were connected via inclines. Blondins were developed to connect more remote terraces directly to the mills - they were distinguished by the fact that rock was transported on the ropeways in railway wagons slung from cradles; the ropeways ran horizontally or nearly horizontally until the cradle hit a stop, at which point the wagons were automatically lowered to ground level where they were moved by rail to the point of loading or unloading.
Other nearby quarries adopted Blondins, notably those in the Nantlle Valley. Stuart Baker. "5: Blondins". In Gordon & Ann Hatherill. Slate Quarry Album. RCL Publications. Pp. 38–43. ISBN 978-0-9538763-8-9
Slate industry in Wales
The existence of a slate industry in Wales is attested since the Roman period, when slate was used to roof the fort at Segontium, now Caernarfon. The slate industry grew until the early 18th century expanded until the late 19th century, at which time the most important slate producing areas were in northwest Wales, including the Penrhyn Quarry near Bethesda, the Dinorwic Quarry near Llanberis, the Nantlle Valley quarries, Blaenau Ffestiniog, where the slate was mined rather than quarried. Penrhyn and Dinorwig were the two largest slate quarries in the world, the Oakeley mine at Blaenau Ffestiniog was the largest slate mine in the world. Slate is used for roofing, but is produced as thicker slab for a variety of uses including flooring and headstones. Up to the end of the 18th century, slate was extracted on a small scale by groups of quarrymen who paid a royalty to the landlord, carted slate to the ports, shipped it to England and sometimes France. Towards the close of the century, the landowners began to operate the quarries themselves, on a larger scale.
After the government abolished slate duty in 1831, rapid expansion was propelled by the building of narrow gauge railways to transport the slates to the ports. The slate industry dominated the economy of north-west Wales during the second half of the 19th century, but was on a much smaller scale elsewhere. In 1898, a work force of 17,000 men produced half a million tons of slate. A bitter industrial dispute at the Penrhyn Quarry between 1900 and 1903 marked the beginning of its decline, the First World War saw a great reduction in the number of men employed in the industry; the Great Depression and Second World War led to the closure of many smaller quarries, competition from other roofing materials tiles, resulted in the closure of most of the larger quarries in the 1960s and 1970s. Slate production continues on a much reduced scale; the slate industry in North Wales is on the tentative World Heritage Site list whilst Welsh slate has been designated by the International Union of Geological Sciences as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.
The slate deposits of Wales belong to three geological series: Cambrian and Silurian. The Cambrian deposits run south-west from Conwy to near Criccieth. There are smaller outcrops elsewhere, for example on Anglesey; the Ordovician deposits run south-west from Betws-y-Coed to Porthmadog. There is another band of Ordovician slate further south, running from Llangynnog to Aberdyfi, quarried in the Corris area, with a few outcrops in south-west Wales, notably Pembrokeshire; the Silurian deposits are further east in the Dee valley and around Machynlleth. The virtues of slate as a building and roofing material have been recognized since the Roman period; the Roman fort at Segontium, was roofed with tiles, but the levels contain numerous slates, used for both roofing and flooring. The nearest deposits are about five miles away in the Cilgwyn area, indicating that the slates were not used because they were available on-site. During the mediaeval period, there was small-scale quarrying of slate in several areas.
The Cilgwyn quarry in the Nantlle Valley dates from the 12th century, is thought to be the oldest in Wales. The first record of slate quarrying in the neighbourhood of the Penrhyn Quarry was in 1413, when a rent-roll of Gwilym ap Griffith records that several of his tenants were paid 10 pence each for working 5,000 slates. Aberllefenni Slate Quarry may have started operating as a slate mine as early as the 14th century; the earliest confirmed date of operating dates from the early 16th century when the local house Plas Aberllefenni was roofed in slates from this quarry. Transport problems meant that the slate was used close to the quarries. There was some transport by sea. A poem by the 15th century poet Guto'r Glyn asks the Dean of Bangor to send him a shipload of slates from Aberogwen, near Bangor, to Rhuddlan to roof a house at Henllan, near Denbigh; the wreck of a wooden ship carrying finished slates was discovered in the Menai Strait and is thought to date from the 16th century. By the second half of the 16th century, there was a small export trade of slates to Ireland from ports such as Beaumaris and Caernarfon.
Slate exports from the Penrhyn estate are recorded from 1713 when 14 shipments totalling 415,000 slates were sent to Dublin. The slates were carried to the ports by pack-horses, by carts; this was sometimes done by women, the only female involvement in what was otherwise an male industry. Until the late 18th century, slate was extracted from many small pits by small partnerships of local men, who did not own the capital to expand further; the quarrymen had to pay a rent or royalty to the landlord, though the quarrymen at Cilgwyn did not. A letter from the agent of the Penrhyn estate, John Paynter, in 1738 complains that competition from Cilgwyn was affecting the sales of Penrhyn slates; the Cilgwyn slates could be sold at a higher price. Penrhyn introduced larger sizes of slate between 1730 and 1740, gave these sizes the names which became standard; these ranged from "Duchesses", the largest at 24 inches by 12 inches, through "Countesses", "Ladies" and "Doubles" to the smallest "Singles". Methusalem Jones a quarryman at Cilgwyn, began to work the Diffwys quarry at Blaenau Ffestiniog in the 1760s, which became the first large quarry in the area.
The large landowners were content to issue "take notes", allowing individuals to quarry slates on their lands for a yearly rent
Penrhyn Quarry Railway
The Penrhyn Quarry Railway first opened in 1798 as the Llandegai Tramway. Constructed to transport slate from Lord Penrhyn's slate quarries at Bethesda to Port Penrhyn at Bangor, the railway was around six miles long and used a gauge of 1 ft 10 3⁄4 in; the line was one of the earliest narrow gauge railways in the world. It closed on 24 July 1962. In 2012, a section of the railway southwards from Coed y Parc was restored by Penrhyn Quarries Ltd. and further sections were planned. Events were held each year on the restored section on the line, by Felin Fawr Cyf and PQR Engineering Ltd. At the end of 2016 a new company was formed to operate the railway and Penrhyn Rail Ltd operated regular services beginning in February 2017. In July 2017, the railway closed just ahead of the fifth anniversary of operations at Felin Fawr; the earliest predecessor to the Penrhyn Quarry Railway was the one mile long 2 ft 1⁄2 in gauge Llandegai Tramway, built in 1798. The tramway was connected to a local flint mill that ground chert into flints.
These were transported to Porth Penrhyn on the coast by the tramway, one of the earliest overground railways in Britain. It included two balanced gravity inclines one from the floor of the Cegin valley near Llandegai to the hills above Bangor, the other dropping from there to the mill. Both inclines used vertically mounted winding drums; the success of the Llandegai Tramway encouraged the owners of the Penrhyn quarry to consider a similar tramway from their slate quarry to Porth Penrhyn. The plan subsumed the existing tramway into a longer railroad. Construction started on 2 September 1800, relaying and extending the Llandegai Tramway, with the first slate train traveling on 25 June 1801; the new railway was 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in gauge. The connection to the Llandegai flint mill continued to be used until 1831; the railroad was operated by horse power along with gravity and three balanced inclines – "Port" near Llandegai, inherited from the Llandegai Tramway, "Dinas" north east of Tregarth and "Cilgeraint" a short distance north of Coed-y-Parc workshops in Bethesda.
The longest extended for 220 yards. With hindsight this seems hard work, but the overall gain was remarkable, shown not least by the cost of transport falling from 4 shillings per ton to 1 shillingBy the early 1870s the Penrhyn Quarry Railway was no longer able to keep up with the output of the Penrhyn quarry. By 1874 the decision had been made to replace the railroad with a steam locomotive worked railway without rope-hauled inclines. Steam locomotives had been introduced with great success on the quarry's internal railway system and at the nearby Dinorwic Quarry; the Ffestiniog Railway's example had shown that running a 2 ft gauge line for several miles from quarry to sea was feasible, that company's Charles Easton Spooner was retained to survey and map possible routes to the port. The Penrhyn directors saw every reason not to follow the Padarn Railway's example and build a main line built to a gauge of 4 ft, joining lines in its quarries to lines in its dock both at a much narrower gauge.
All Penrhyn tracks were of the same narrow gauge, so no costly and inefficient internal trans-shipments were needed. At the end of 1875 the first "mainline" locomotive was delivered to Port Penrhyn and moved to the quarry workshops at Coed y Parc; the railroad was converted into the new railway in five stages from 1877 to 1878. The first locomotives used on the new railway were three. Although successful, these locomotives were not powerful enough for the substantial traffic that passed down the line. In 1882 the railway ordered'Charles', a large 0-4-0ST from Hunslet. Charles proved successful and was followed by'Blanche' and'Linda' in 1893 to the same basic design; these locomotives were the mainstay of the railway for the rest of its life. There was a significant demand for building materials after the First World War, as Britain recovered from the conflict and many new houses were built to replace slums; the slate industry had been mothballed during the conflict, but now found itself in a boom period.
Shortly after the war, the quarry began producing Fullersite - ground slate waste -, shipped in large quantities along the railway. In 1924, with traffic continuing the rise, three additional Baldwin locomotives were purchased; these had been built for war use by the United States Army Transport Corp, were refurbished before being sold to the railway, but were not successful, after three years of intermittent use they were put aside. After the Second World War, there was a short boom in demand for Welsh slate, to meet reconstruction needs throughout the United Kingdom; however this proved to be a short-lived period of success, cheap foreign imports of slate and new man-made roofing materials began to eat into the market for the higher-quality and more expensive Penrhyn product. A steady decline in traffic through the 1950s and an growth in the use of roads for transporting slates direct from the quarry to market meant the end of the railway was inevitable. In June 1962, the last slate train ran, though a few unofficial trips were run as late as the summer of 1963.
Heading seawards from the quarry at Bethesda the first incline was bypassed by building an parallel straight line at a gentler end-to-end gradient whose foot was some distance north of the foot of the incline. A similar approach was not feasible for the other two inclines, so the traditional approach was taken – to increase