Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Cornwall College is a further education college situated on various sites throughout Cornwall, United Kingdom, with its main centre in St Austell. The college is a member of the Collab Group of high performing schools, it is part of the Combined Universities in Cornwall, offers higher education courses to master's degree level under franchise from the University of Plymouth. Cornwall College is the only college in South West England to be a Centre of Vocational Excellence in four areas; the college has five AoC Beacon Awards, highlighting the College’s ability to work in partnership with external organisations, in 2016 was one of just two colleges to be awarded the Queen’s Anniversary Prize for Further and Higher Education. It is one of 26 training providers to have been awarded the UK government's Training Quality Standard. There are eight campuses within the Cornwall College group, at Camborne, Saltash, St Austell, Duchy College and Stoke Climsland, Bicton College and Falmouth Marine School.
35,000 young people from the age 16 study at the college each year, 2,000 of whom are undertaking university-level courses. Besides A-levels and apprenticeships, courses are offered in Media & Performing Arts. See Category:People educated at Cornwall College John Barnes, 5th Baron Gorell, Chartered surveyor David Law, Tennis Podcast Cornwall College Students' Union Official website
St Mabyn Church of England Primary School
St Mabyn C of E Primary School is a Church of England Primary School with academy status located in the village of St Mabyn between Bodmin and Wadebridge, Cornwall UK. The school educates boys and girls between the ages of four and eleven and has 62 pupils with three mixed age classes; the school federated with St Tudy C of E Primary School in January 2010 with Karen Holmes as joint head. It forms part of the Saints Way Multi Academy Trust, which includes St Tudy C of E Primary School, St Petroc's Church of England Primary School, Lerryn CE Primary School and St Winnow CE School; the head is now Stuart Renshaw. The parochial school was founded by a deed of grant dated October 1, 1845; the site was given by Viscount Falmouth on July 31, 1846. The land was part of the manor of Trevisquite, within the parish of St Mabyn. In 1846 the building work was completed at a total cost of £445; the walls of the school cottage were built with stone from Treblethick quarry. In March 1897 there was a meeting regarding the enlargement of the school buildings and in April 1897 a 3d in the pound rate was levied for a year to fund the building.
In June 1897 a tender from Mr A. Hamley for £155-10s for the masonry was accepted by the school committee. In February 1898 Miss Giles was engaged as an additional teacher at a salary of £18 and in March 1898 Edith May was appointed at a salary of £25 a year; the H. M. Inspectors' report of the higher classes in 1899 was so unsatisfactory that the committee asked Miss Giles to resign and in January 1900 Mr and Mrs Giles were given 3 months notice to quit. In 2009 there was a proposal to replace St Mabyn and St Tudy schools with a purpose built facility at Longstone, an action group was set up and Cornwall Council dropped the plans. In 2012 the school joined the Saints Way Multi Academy Trust with an assurance that "there was a solemn commitment to ensure that each individual school would retain its own identity and ethos". Thomas Hurcombe Thomas Giles James F. Reid Cyril Hannafore D. A. J. Hicks Leonard Truran J. Henchley Daphne Puttock Karen Holmes Jago children's book illustrator. Ben Oliver cornish record holder for the 100m and 400m Wheelchair racing and ranked best in the world at 800 metres, having set a new European record.
Tristan Stephenson mixologist and industry expert. The school was judged by Ofsted as good and improving in 2010; the 2014 Ofsted inspection said. The principal of the academy complained to Ofsted about "a lack of consistency in the way inspectors reach their headline conclusions.” The 2017 Ofsted rated the school as good. May 2002 June 2007 May 2010 January 2017 School website
Pool Academy is a mixed secondary school with academy status, located in Pool in the English county of Cornwall. The school has been known as Pool Comprehensive School and Pool School and Community College before gaining specialist status when it was renamed Pool Business and Enterprise College; the school was renamed Pool Academy. Pool Academy offers GCSEs as programmes of study for pupils; the school is the home ground of Duchy Hockey Club. In 2016, Dagmara Przybysz, a 16-year-old student of Pool Academy, was found hanged in the school's bathroom. During an inquest, testimony was received that she had suffered bullying over her Polish nationality; however the school had received no reports of racism and the coroner recorded an open verdict concluding that there was no evidence of mental health issues “or any significant racism or bullying issues prior to death" Official website
For the community in Cochrane District, Canada, see: Calstock, OntarioCalstock is a civil parish and a large village in south east Cornwall, United Kingdom, on the border with Devon. The village is situated on the River Tamar 6 miles south west of Tavistock and 10 miles north of Plymouth; the parish had a population of 6,095 in the 2001 census. This had increased to 6,431 at the 2011 census; the parish encompasses 5,760 acres of land, 70 acres of water, 44 acres of the tidal Tamar. As well as Calstock, other settlements in the parish include Albaston, Gunnislake, Latchley, Coxpark, Drakewalls, Norris Green, Rising Sun and St Ann's Chapel. Calstock village is within the Tamar Valley AONB, is overlooked by Cotehele house and gardens, lies on the scenic Tamar Valley railway. Calstock railway station opened on 2 March 1908; the village is twinned with Saint-Thuriau in France. There is evidence of human settlement in Calstock from Roman, or pre-Roman times, settlers attracted by the rich source of minerals, such as tin, in the area.
A Roman fort, only the third known in Cornwall, was discovered next to the church in 2008. In Saxon times Calstock was in the Kingdom of Cornwall, which resisted the spread of Wessex from the east. In 838 CE Wessex had spread as far as the Tamar, a battle for independence was fought near Calstock. Following the Norman Conquest, Calstock manor was recorded in the Domesday Book; the Saxon manor was taken over, in the 14th century became part of the Duchy of Cornwall: one of the 17 Antiqua maneria. At the time of Domesday Book the manor was held by Reginald from Count of Mortain. There were two and a half hides of land for 12 ploughs. Reginald held one virgate of land with 12 serfs. 30 villeins and 30 smallholders had the rest of the land with 6 ploughs. There were 100 acres of 3 square leagues of pasture and 3 pigs; the value of the manor was £3 sterling though it had been worth £6. The manor was sold by the Duchy to John Williams of Scorrier House circa 1807. Mining was important in Calstock with the Duchy mining silver.
The industry was booming in the late 19th century, the discovery of copper, coupled with nearby granite quarrying, made Calstock a busy port. The rapid population boom due to the growth of industry led, to an outbreak of cholera; the industry declined in the early 20th century due to foreign competition, now only the ruined pump houses that dot the landscape remain. Calstock had much mining activity, such as. Calstock Quay and Danescombe Quay were once important for transporting minerals from the various mines in the area. In the Victorian era when steamers brought tourists to the village, Calstock was visited by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1846; the river has it own unique design of The Tamar barge. The importance of the river as a transport route declined with the construction of the 14 miles Tamar Valley railway at the start of the 20th century; the village is still dominated by the railway's viaduct. Calstock had two main boat builders, Goss's Yard, which built the Tamar sailing barge, now moored at Morwellham Quay, May's Yard, in the Danescombe Valley.
There are four sets of another at Cotehele Quay. The burning of lime was a major industry in the area in the 19th century; the limestone was delivered to the kilns by boat but the resulting lime shipped out to the various farms by horse and cart. It was used as a mortar for bricklaying; the church is said to have been consecrated about 1290. Nothing obvious remains of this period, but the pillars and arches to the north of the centre aisle of the present building are early 14th century. About 1420 the south aisle was added, the whole church re-roofed. There were several restorations, but in 1861 an architectural survey of the diocese of Exeter noted that the whole church is in a sad state, chocked with pews of all heights... encumbered with hideous gallery and collection of rubbish within. This resulted in the thorough restoration of 1867, carried out at a cost of £600, under the direction of Mr James Piers St Aubyn. St. Aubyn, a relative of the well-known family residents of St Michael’s Mount, had an architectural practise in London and Devonport, was responsible for the restoration of many West Country churches.
Here at Calstock the floor levels were altered, the existing tiles laid, the chancel given its present roof, the buildings furnished with its plain pitched-pine benches. However, severe though the restorations was, many of interesting features of the church were preserved; the land was bought on 29 January 1879. The total cost of the building was £2,400 of which the Duke of Bedford gave £500 and the Church building society gave £200; the foundations stone of the church were laid by the Dowager Countess of Mount Edgcumbe, at 3pm on Tuesday, 30 September 1879. The building was designed by Mr J Piers St Aubyn and was consecrated by Edward Benson, the Bishop of Truro in 1880, it was dedicated to St. Anne because of an ancient local Holy Well, close by the site of the church. Th
Penair School is a secondary academy school in Truro, England, for children aged 11 to 16. It is named after Penair House, a mansion built in the late 18th century by Rear-Admiral Robert Carthew Reynolds, it is graded as a school, good by government inspectors Ofsted. The school is situated at the top of St Clement's Hill, has several playing fields as well as other facilities such as a fitness suite and an AstroTurf pitch. James Davidson became Penair's Headteacher in September 2015 with Robert Sharpe and Mrs Eastburn-Cutts both being Deputy Heads. In 2004, the school was Specialist Schools Status as a Science College and converted to become an Academy in 2011. Penair School is a member of the Truro and Roseland Learning Community and is the sponsor for Tregolls School, a primary academy in Truro. Martin Gritton, a Scottish football player. Staff Sergeant Olaf Schmid, George Cross holder Tom Voyce, rugby union player, for London Welsh and England
Academy (English school)
Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are set out in individual Academy Funding Agreements. Most academies are secondary schools; however more than 25% of primary schools, as well as some of the remaining first and secondary schools, are academies. Academies are self-governing non-profit charitable trusts and may receive additional support from personal or corporate sponsors, either financially or in kind, they do not have to follow the National Curriculum, but do have to ensure that their curriculum is broad and balanced, that it includes the core subjects of mathematics and English. They are subject to inspection by Ofsted; the following are all types of academy: Sponsored academy: A maintained school, transformed to academy status as part of a government intervention strategy. They are run by a Government-approved sponsor, they are sometimes referred to as traditional academies.
Converter academy: A maintained school that has voluntarily converted to academy status. It is not necessary for a converter academy to have a sponsor. Free school: Free schools are new academies established since 2011 via the Free School Programme. From May 2015, usage of the term was extended to new academies set up via a Local Authority competition; the majority of free schools are similar in shape to other types of academy. However, the following are distinctive sub-types of free school:Studio school: A small free school with around 300 pupils, using project-based learning University Technical College: A free school for the 14-18 age group, specialising in practical, employment focused subjects, sponsored by a university, employer or further education college. Faith academy:An academy with an official faith designation. Co-operative academy: An academy that uses an alternative co-operative academy agreement. An academy trust that operates more than one academy is known as an Academy Chain, although sometimes the terms Academy Group or Academy Federation are used instead.
An Academy Chain is a group of schools working together under a shared academy structure, either an Umbrella Trust or a Multi-Academy Trust. An academy is governed by the Academy Agreement it makes with the Department for Education, at that point it severs connections with the local education authority; the current advisory text is the Academy and free school: master funding agreement dated March 2018. The governors of the academy are obliged to publish an annual report and accounts, that are open to scrutiny. All academies are expected to follow a broad and balanced curriculum but many have a particular focus on, or formal specialism in, one or more areas such as science. Although academies are required to follow the National Curriculum in the core subjects of maths and science, they are otherwise free to innovate. Like other state-funded schools, academies are required to adhere to the National Admissions Code, although newly established academies with a faith designation are subject to the 50% Rule requiring them to allocate at least half of their places without reference to faith.
In terms of their governance, academies are established as companies limited by guarantee with a Board of Directors that acts as a Trust. The Academy Trust has exempt charity status, regulated by the Department for Education; the trustees are but not financially, accountable for the operation of the academy. The Trust serves as the legal entity; the trustees oversee the running of the school, sometimes delegating responsibility to a local governing body which they appoint. The day-to-day management of the school is, as in most schools, conducted by the Head Teacher and their senior management team. In Sponsored Academies, the sponsor is able to influence the process of establishing the school, including its curriculum, ethos and building; the sponsor has the power to appoint governors to the academy's governing body. The Labour Government under Tony Blair established academies through the Learning and Skills Act 2000, which amended the section of the Education Act 1996 relating to City Technology Colleges.
They were first announced in a speech by David Blunkett Secretary of State for Education and Skills, in 2000. He said that their aim was "to improve pupil performance and break the cycle of low expectations." As of 2018 many academies are running deficits. The chief architect of the policy was Andrew Adonis in his capacity as education advisor to the Prime Minister in the late 1990s. Academies were known as City Academies for the first few years, but the term was changed to Academies by an amendment in the Education Act 2002; the term Sponsored Academies was applied retrospectively to this type of academy, to distinguish it from other types of academy that were enabled later. Sponsored Academies needed a private sponsor who could be an individual, organisations such as the United Learning Trust, mission-driven businesses such as The Co-operative Group or outsourcing for-profit businesses such as Amey plc); these sponsors were expected to bring "the best o