Pentito is used colloquially to designate people in Italian criminal procedure terminology who were part of criminal organizations and deciding to collaborate with a public prosecutor. The judicial category of pentiti was created in 1970s to combat violence and terrorism during the period of left- and right-wing terrorism known as the Years of Lead. During the 1986–87 Maxi Trial, after the testimony of Tommaso Buscetta, the term was applied to former members of organized crime who had abandoned their organization and started helping investigators. In exchange for the information they deliver, pentiti receive shorter sentences for their crimes, in some cases freedom. In the Italian judicial system, pentiti can obtain personal protection, a new name, some money to start a new life in another place abroad; this practice is common in other countries as well. In the United States, criminals testifying against their former associates can enter the Witness Protection Program, be given new identities with supporting paperwork.

The Italian Mafia bosses Buscetta and Francesco Marino Mannoia were allowed to live in the U. S. under new identities in the Witness Protection Program when Italy did not yet have such a program. Among the most famous Mafia pentiti is Tommaso Buscetta, the first important pentito, he was helpful to judge Giovanni Falcone in describing the Sicilian Mafia Commission or Cupola, the leadership of the Sicilian Mafia in the 1980s, identifying the main operational channels that the Mafia used for its business. In Italy, important successes were achieved with the cooperation of pentiti in the fight against terrorism, by Carabinieri general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa. In the period until the 1990s, there were few, albeit significant, pentiti such as Tommaso Buscetta, Salvatore Contorno, Antonino Calderone, etc. However, this changed during the early 1990s. From 1992, over a thousand mafiosi have agreed to collaborate with Italian justice. In some cases, pentiti have invented stories to obtain reductions in jail time.

A famous case regarded the popular TV anchorman Enzo Tortora, falsely accused of cocaine trafficking and Camorra membership by a pentito named Giovanni Melluso. Tortora was detained for years before being cleared. For further information, see Category:PentitiLeonardo Vitale was the first to become a pentito in 1973, although his confessions were not taken seriously. Tommaso Buscetta was the first high-profile pentito against the Sicilian Mafia, he started to collaborate with anti-Mafia prosecutor Giovanni Falcone in 1984. His testimony was of crucial importance in the landmark Maxi Trial of 1986–87. Salvatore Contorno started to collaborate in October 1984, following the example of Buscetta. Leonardo Messina, member of the San Cataldo clan, who became an informant in 1992, he was the greater accuser of Giulio Andreotti. Antonino Giuffrè, boss of Caccamo and member of Corleonesi, turned informant in 2002, after his arrest. Antonino Calderone started to collaborate in April 1987. Francesco Marino Mannoia started to collaborate in October 1989.

He was the first pentito. Giovanni Brusca, murderer of anti-Mafia prosecutor Falcone, began to collaborate in 1996. Santino Di Matteo, became informant in 1993 after his arrest. Salvatore Cancemi, another of Falcone's assassins, turned himself to the Carabinieri in July 1993 and began collaborating. Gaspare Mutolo, started to collaborate in prison in May 1992, was the first mafioso who spoke about the connections between the Cosa Nostra and Italian politicians. Pasquale Barra, the first pentito and high-ranking member of Raffaele Cutolo's Nuova Camorra Organizzata. Pasquale Galasso, former high-ranking member of the Nuova Famiglia faction of the Camorra. Carmine Alfieri, former Boss of Bosses of the Nuova Famiglia. Carmine Schiavone, former high-ranking member of the Casalesi clan. Maurizio Abbatino, former boss of the Banda della Magliana. Felice Maniero, former boss of the Mala del Brenta. In some southern Italian communities, the Mafia is a significant presence, in these areas becoming a pentito is tantamount to a death sentence.

Indeed, the Mafia family of Totò Riina based in the town of Corleone habitually extended this sentence to cover relatives of the pentito. For example, all of Tommaso Buscetta's family was killed in a long series of murders spanning many years. Since the pentito himself is physically protected by the police, retribution on his family is common. For example, when Vincenzo Sinagra began collaborating with the authorities his entire family disowned him, it is pointed out that the correct term should be collaboratori di giustizia, or "those who collaborate with justice". The word pentito implies a moral judgement, considered inappropriate for the courts of justice to make. In Italy, pentiti have come under criticism because of the favours they receive and because: they would invent stories to receive benefits.


CDex is a free software package for Digital Audio Extraction from Audio CD and audio format conversion for Microsoft Windows. It converts CDDA tracks from a CD such as WAV, MP3, or Ogg Vorbis. CDex was released as free software under the terms of the GNU General Public License, it was written by Albert L. Faber, is developed and maintained by Georgy Berdyshev. Recent versions of the software may be a security threat. CDex is able to convert CD audio into several formats including WAV, Vorbis, MP3, VQF, Musepack, APE, many others; as of version 1.70b2 FLAC encoding is native, but for version 1.51 FLAC and other codecs can be used by using an external encoder. It supports CD-Text to allow ripped tracks, with reduced user effort, to have the names of songs and albums, it can automatically identify inserted audio CDs and look up the metadata by means of an online database for automatic tagging and sorting of ripped files. It includes cdparanoia for robust CD reading. CDex is considered to be configurable and easy to use.

In 2000, at the start of the beta phase for version 1.30, CDex was turned into a free software project and hosted on In January 2006, the CDex homepage requested a new project manager and developer, implying that Albert L. Faber had abandoned development of CDex. On 5 June 2006, CDex 1.70 Beta 1 was released via the website. It was the first official update to the program in three years, with CDex 1.70 Beta 2 following soon after on 23 June 2006. In 2008 Berdyshev was joined by Ariane Gomes as project developers. On 18 November 2009 CDex 1.70 Beta 4 was released. CDex 1.70 Final was released on 29 June 2014 featuring a Multibyte version. On 30 June 2007, just one day after the release of the GPLv3, the license of CDex was updated. However, the last version for which source code was made available is 1.70 Beta 2, the SourceForge project appears to have been shut down in July 2015, shortly after the release of version 1.79. From version 1.76 the installer includes the adware OpenCandy.

In November 2017 version 1.96 was released. It is not clear, the current code maintainer, no contact details are provided. Four further versions were released by March 2018; the recent reincarnation of CDex has seen a number of sponsored programs being automatically selected during installation with little information about their nature. Scan results suggest there may be a substantial risk to any system these are installed on along with the source code no longer being publicly accessible, preventing independent code review; this project should not be trusted. This project should not be installed on your machine; as the new maintainer has taken over new releases have been pushed out showing activity, the support links are broken, the ticketing system does not exist and is a broken link, there are no contact details or method to interact with the developer and the installer is installing adware without any notifications. The new maintainer has exploited the strong reputation and work of the project and turned it into mechanism to profit.

Updates are being made to the application, including the installer with hidden software being installed. Versions also add artifacts to ends of certain tracks that are ripped by the program. Rolling back to an earlier version of the program eliminates this issue. Official website

Tulka, South Australia

Tulka is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located on the southern tip of Eyre Peninsula overlooking the western end of the body of water known as Port Lincoln and, located 259 kilometres west of the state capital of Adelaide and about 10 kilometres west of the city of Port Lincoln. The boundaries of the locality were created on October 2003 for the “long established name.” The boundary with the locality of Sleaford was altered in both 2006 and 2011. Land use within Tulka includes both agriculture and conservation with the latter being represented by the Lincoln Conservation Park. Land use is subject to statutory control in order to manage the aquifer system existing within Tulka and adjoining localities; the 2016 Australian census, conducted in August 2016 reports that Duck Ponds had a population of 126 people. Tulka is located within the federal Division of Grey, the state electoral district of Flinders and the local government area of the District Council of Lower Eyre Peninsula