Pentobarbital known as pentobarbitone, is a short-acting barbiturate. In high doses, pentobarbital causes death by respiratory arrest. In the United States, the drug has been used for executions of convicted criminals. Lundbeck does not permit its sale to prisons or corrections departments to carry out the death penalty. Abbott Pharmaceuticals' brand of pentobarbital, available in 50 and 100 mg yellow capsules, was discontinued in 1999. Prescribed for insomnia, it has been replaced by the benzodiazepine family of drugs. Nembutal was abused and known on the streets as "yellow jackets" due to their yellow capsule. Pentobarbital in pill form is no longer available; the death of Marilyn Monroe in 1962 was ruled as probable suicide due to an overdose of Nembutal. Kenneth Halliwell's death is attributed to an overdose of Nembutal. Typical applications for pentobarbital are sedative, hypnotic for short term, preanesthetic and control of convulsions in emergencies. Abbott Pharmaceutical discontinued manufacture of their Nembutal brand of Pentobarbital capsules in 1999 replaced by the Benzodiazepine family of drugs.
Pentobarbital was widely abused, known on the streets as "yellow jackets". They were available in 50 and 100 mg. yellow capsules. Pentobarbital in pill form is no longer manufactured, it is used as a veterinary anesthetic agent. Pentobarbital has an application in reducing intracranial pressure in Reye's syndrome, traumatic brain injury and induction of coma in cerebral ischemia patients. Pentobarbital-induced coma has been advocated in patients with acute liver failure refractory to mannitol. Pentobarbital can cause death, it is used for euthanasia for humans as well as animals. It is used by itself, or in combination with complementary agents such as phenytoin, in commercial animal euthanasia injectable solutions. In the Netherlands, the standard protocol for physician-assisted suicide is to provide 9 grams of pentobarbital sodium along with sugar syrup in a 20% ethanol solution for self-administration by the patient; the oral dosage of pentobarbital indicated for physician-assisted death in the United States states of Oregon, Washington and California is 10 g in liquid form.
This is higher than the dose for the management of status epilepticus. Pentobarbital has been used or considered as a substitute for other drugs traditionally used for capital punishment in the United States when they are in short supply; such use however is illegal under Danish law, when this was discovered, after public outcry in Danish media, the owner of the drug, stopped selling it to US states that impose the death penalty. US distributors of the drug are forbidden by the owner to sell it to any customers, such as several state authorities, that practice or participate in executions of humans. Texas began using pentobarbital for executing death-row inmates by lethal injection on July 18, 2012; the use of pentobarbital has been considered by several states, including Ohio, Arizona and Washington. In October 2013, Missouri changed its protocols to allow for a compounded pentobarbital to be used in a lethal dose for executions and it was first used in November 2013. On July 25, 2019, US Attorney General William Barr directed the federal government to resume capital punishment after 16 years.
The drug of choice for these executions is pentobarbital. Pentobarbital undergoes first-pass metabolism in the liver and the intestines. Administration of ethanol, opioids, other sedative-hypnotics, other central nervous system depressants will cause possible additive effects. Pentobarbital is synthesized by methods analogous to that of amobarbital, the only difference being that the alkylation of α-ethylmalonic ester is carried out with 2-bromopentane in place of 1-bromo-3-methylbutane to give pentobarbital. Pentobarbital is the INN, AAN, BAN, USAN while pentobarbitone is a former AAN and BAN. One brand name for this drug is Nembutal, coined by John S. Lundy, who started using it in 1930, from the structural formula of the sodium salt—Na + ethyl + methyl + butyl + al. Nembutal is trademarked and manufactured by the Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck and is the only injectable form of pentobarbital approved for sale in the United States. Abbott discontinued their Nembutal brand of Pentobarbital capsules in 1999 replaced by the Benzodiazepine family of drugs.
Abbott's Nembutal brand of Pentobarbital capsules were abused and were known on the streets as "yellow jackets". They were available in 100 Mg.strength yellow capsules. Pentobarbital can occur as a free acid, but is formulated as the sodium salt, pentobarbital sodium; the free acid is only soluble in water and in ethanol. "Pentobarbital". Drug Information Portal. U. S. National Library of Medicine
The Scranton Times-Tribune is a morning newspaper serving the Scranton, Pennsylvania, U. S. area. It is the flagship title of Times-Shamrock Communications, has been run by three generations of the Lynett-Haggerty family. On Sundays the paper is published as The Sunday Times; the paper has an average circulation of 47,663. The Scranton Times-Tribune editorial policy is viewed as independent, but progressive; the Times-Tribune endorsed George W. Bush in 2000, but did not endorse anyone in 2004; the Times-Tribune endorsed Barack Obama in both 2008 and 2012. The current paper is the result of a 2005 merger between the afternoon Scranton Times and morning Scranton Tribune; the Times was founded in 1870. It struggled under six owners before E. J. Lynett bought the paper in 1895. Within 20 years, the Times was the dominant newspaper in northeastern Pennsylvania, the third-largest in the state. In January 1923, Lynett founded one of Scranton's first radio stations, WQAN; the Lynett family still owns the station today under the calls WEJL.
Lynett died in 1943, his three children took control of the paper with William R. Lynett, the oldest, as publisher, he died in 1946. Edward J. Lynett died in 1966, his four children took over. Shortly after they took over, the Times expanded to a full week with the appearance of The Sunday Times. In 1990, the Times bought the remains of the morning Scrantonian-Tribune; this paper had been founded in 1891 as the Scranton Tribune. In 1910, it merged with Scranton's first newspaper, The Morning Republican, changed its name to the Scranton Republican, it became the Scranton Tribune once again in 1936. In 1938, Richard Little, owner of Scranton's Sunday paper, The Scrantonian, teamed up with M. L. Goodman to buy the Tribune as well; the Goodman-Little family partnership continued for half a century, until Richard Little III sold his interest to the Goodmans in 1986. Only a year Media One Corporation bought out the Goodmans and merged the two papers into one seven-day morning paper, The Scrantonian-Tribune.
However, Media One was unable to turn the paper around. In 1990, it shuttered the paper; the Lynetts bought the Scrantonian-Tribune nameplate and some other assets, relaunched the paper as the Scranton Tribune, with much of the same content as the Times. By 2004, it was obvious that Scranton could no longer support a morning and afternoon paper, the Lynetts announced that their two papers would merge into one morning paper, The Times-Tribune; the new paper first rolled off the presses on July 27, 2005. However, its legal name is still The Scranton Times; the paper has appeared a number of times in The Office. The Scranton Times won the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service in 1946, while the Scranton Tribune and Scrantonian won the prize for Local Reporting in 1959; the Times-Tribune founded in 2005
The ivory-billed aracari, or ivory-billed araçari, is a species of bird in the family Ramphastidae. It was named after the naturalist Félix de Azara, it is found in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is tropical moist lowland forests; the ivory-billed aracari was classified in the genus Ramphastos. Alternate names include Yellow-billed Aracari. Two subspecies are recognized: Yellow-billed aracari - Fraser, 1841: Originally described as a separate species. Found in western Amazonia P. a. azara -: Found in north-western BrazilSome authorities consider the brown-mandibled aracari to be a subspecies of the ivory-billed aracari