Builth Wells is a town and community in the county of Powys, within the historic boundaries of Brecknockshire, mid Wales, lying at the confluence of the River Wye and the River Irfon, in the Welsh section of the Wye Valley. It has a population of 2,568. Builth is an anglicization of Buallt, it derives from the Welsh words bu, meaning "ox", gellt, meaning "pasture", rendering "cow pasture". The town added "Wells" to the name in the 19th century when its springs were promoted as a visitor attraction; the Welsh name Llanfair-ym-Muallt means "St Mary's Church in Buallt". Builth first emerged in post-Roman times on the other side of the Irfon river from its present site at Dol Eglwys where a ruined early medieval church is thought to have stood. Vortigern, the British ruler alleged to have invited the Saxons to Britain, is sometimes said to have owned land in nearby Builth Road on the Radnorshire side of the River Wye. Early Post-Roman Builth was an independent kingdom; the most famous ruler was Elystan Glodrydd from.
As an important component of Rhwng Gwy a Hafren, a political entity referred to in the poems of Taliesin, Builth was at war with the Kingdom of Powys. Glodrydd lived at Llanafan Fawr rather than the modern site of Builth Wells; until the foundation of the Norman town Llanfair ym Muallt the main settlement was Llanafan. Stories about Philip de Braose centre on Llanafan not modern Builth. Ecclesiastically, the Deanery of Builth had always been part of St Davids and Swansea and Brecon, rather than St Asaph; the site of the town controlled an important ford across the Wye, the crossing point of the main north-south route in Wales and an important south-west-east route. It was militarily and economically significant for centuries; the Welsh name for the town "Llanfair ym Muallt" refers to the foundation of a Norman church dedicated to St Mary. The churchyard is however, a truncated oval, suggestive of an original Celtic foundation; the town was laid out as two streets connecting a castle and a church and was protected by a hedge rather than a wall.
This type of town is sometimes called a kind of medieval market settlement. In exchange for rights to live and trade in the market of the new town skilled townspeople paid the lord various dues. In many parts of Wales the skilled workers were of English origin. However, Builth may have had important significance in Welsh language culture as The Mabinogion was long thought to have been recorded in its final form by medieval monks here and recent historical opinion has shifted to a view that it was written down by a lawyer in Builth. Despite repeated destructive fires, at one time involving a charitable collection in London, Builth Wells grew as a traditional Welsh market town, it received major boosts from the development of toll roads. The railway allowed it to develop as a spa, is well known nationally as the location of the Royal Welsh Showground, home to the Royal Welsh Show; the only remains of the castle are huge earthworks. Builth Castle was built under the construction taking nearly five years in the 1270s.
It replaced several earlier castles built by the Marcher Lord Baron Philip De Braose who claimed the area as a Marcher Lordship. There may have been an earlier castle at Caerberis on the north side of the River Irfon near the original settlement. Owain Glyndŵr's forces attacked Builth Castle when it was in the charge of John Oldcastle during the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr and it was repaired in 1409, the bill being £400. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, came south from Gwynedd to the vicinity of Builth Castle in December 1282. There is evidence of treachery from the occupants of the castle and, while Llywelyn was separated from the main body of his forces,he was surprised by the Norman French and mortally wounded. A monument to Llywelyn at nearby Cilmeri, near to where he was killed, receives many visitors on the anniversary of his death. In the centre of the town is a large mural depicting the final days of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd; the mural shows Llywelyn and his men in a scene depicting the fighting and a representation of Builth Castle, from which Llywelyn was turned away when trying to flee from the English.
Builth Wells is in the Brecon and Radnorshire constituency for elections to the UK parliament and a constituency of the same name for elections to the Welsh Assembly. For elections to Powys County Council the town's boundaries are coterminous with the Builth electoral ward, which sends one county councillor to sit on the council. Since 1995 the ward had been represented by Independent councillors. At the May 2017 elections the seat was won by former international rugby player, Jeremy Pugh, after the previous councillor Avril York has resigned in December 2016 to move to Hong Kong. Twelve town councillors are elected every four years to serve on Builth Wells Town Council and represent the interests of the town's residents; the White Bull of Builth may be a reference to a herd of White Park Cattle that lived in the area from Post-Roman times. Two herds survived in Wales to modern times; the laws of the time suggest that the medieval and economy of the Welsh borders was dependent on cattle. The Hereford cattle breed, named after Hereford market where it was most pro
A village hall is a public building in a village used for various things such as: In the United Kingdom, a village hall is a building which contains at least one large room and toilets, is owned by a local government council or independent trustees, run for the benefit of the local community. It is estimated; such a hall is used for a variety of public and private functions, such as: Parish council meetings Polling station for local and national elections Sports club functions Local drama productions Dances Jumble sales Private parties such as birthdays or wedding receptionsVillage halls are run by a committee, if this is not part of a local government body, such as a parish council they can apply for charitable status. They may have other names such as a Village Memorial Hall. In some localities a church hall or community centre provides similar functions; the word neuadd is used to refer to village halls in Welsh-speaking parts of Wales, as in Neuadd Dyfi, the village hall in Aberdyfi. In the United States, a village hall is the seat of government for villages.
It functions much as a town city hall. Church hall Community centre Function hall Local community Meeting house Moot hall Village Hall Action for village halls in England
Caersws is a village and community on the River Severn, in the Welsh county of Powys 5 miles west of Newtown, halfway between Aberystwyth and Shrewsbury. It has a station on the Cambrian Line from Aberystwyth to Shrewsbury. At the 2001 census it had a population of 1,526, increasing to 1,586 at the 2011 Census. In modern Welsh, Caersws means "Fort Kiss", although sŵs certainly derives from some other source, it has been argued that the site may retain a Roman-era dedication to Zeus or preserve the name of a conjectured British queen Swswen. Caersws was the location of two Roman forts of Roman Wales. Although the Mediolanum of the Antonine Itinerary has since been identified as Whitchurch in Shropshire, Caersws is sometimes identified as the Mediolanum among the Ordovices described in Ptolemy's Geography, although others argue for Llanfyllin or Meifod. Further, this second Mediolanum may be identical or distinct from the "Mediomanum" mentioned by the Ravenna Cosmography. An electoral ward in the same name exists.
This ward includes the community of Carno and at the 2011 Census had a population of 2,316. Llanwnnog Church in the community of Caersws is a single-chambered structure, variously considered to date from the 13th or 15th century and restored in 1863, it contains the best example of a 15th or 16th century rood screen and loft in Montgomeryshire, a medieval font bowl and one 17th century memorial. Maesmawr Hall was built in the early 19th century. Downhill Mountain Biking has flourished in forestry at Henblas farm, to the north of the village, with a number of national races being held there; the current series - The Caersws Cup - began in March 2009. Cymru Alliance club Caersws F. C. are based in the village, play their home matches at the Recreation Ground. Caersws is home to current and past champions of a number of sporting disciplines, leading some to christen it the "Sporting Capital of Wales". Walter Watkins, former Welsh international footballer was born here. Phil Woosnam, former NASL commissioner and capped Welsh footballer.
Welsh romantic poet John Ceiriog Hughes was stationmaster and manager of the Van Railway from 1868 until his death in 1887. He is buried in the churchyard at Llanwnnog. Welsh Marches Stephenson D; the Medieval Borough of Caersws: Origins and Decline, The Montgomeryshire Collections, Vol. 102, 103-109. 6 pages of artifacts and documents associated with Caersws and held on Gathering the Jewels the website of Welsh cultural history www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Caersws and surrounding area
The coaching inn was a vital part of Europe's inland transport infrastructure until the development of the railway, providing a resting point for people and horses. The inn served the needs of travellers, for food and rest; the attached stables, staffed by hostlers, cared for the horses, including changing a tired team for a fresh one. Coaching inns were used by private travellers in their coaches, the public riding stagecoaches between one town and another, the mail coach. Just as with roadhouses in other countries, although many survive, some still offer overnight accommodation, in general coaching inns have lost their original function and now operate as ordinary pubs. Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart but this depended much on the terrain; some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenue for food and drink supplied to the passengers.
Barnet, Hertfordshire still has an unusually high number of historic pubs along its high street due to its former position on the Great North Road from London to the North of England. There were many coaching inns in; the only remaining one with the galleries to the bedrooms above is The George Inn, owned by the National Trust and still run as a pub. Many have been demolished and plaques mark their location; the Nomura building close to the Museum of London on London Wall commemorates the "Bull and Mouth" Inn. Historic inns in Oxford include The Bear the Lamb & Flag; those in Wales include the Groes Inn. The Black Lion in Cardigan is the oldest Welsh coaching inn. A pair of coaching inns alongside the former A5 road or the old Roman road Watling Street in Stony Stratford, named respectively'The Cock' and'The Bull', are said to have given rise to the term "cock and bull stories." Coaches or the Mail coach would stop in the town on their way from London to the North and many a traveller's tall tale would be further embellished as it passed between the two hostelries, fuelled by ale and an interested audience.
Hence any suspiciously elaborate tale would become a bull story. This is a bull story in itself, however; the phrase, first recorded in 1621, may instead be an allusion to Aesop's fables, with their incredible talking animals. As this predates coaching inns, the names of the two inns could have been a reference to "Cock and Bull stories" as to encourage the passing of such anecdotes within their doors. Coaching Era, The: Stage and Mail Coach Travel in and Around Bath and Somerset, Roy Gallop, Fiducia, ISBN 1-85026-019-2 Coaching inns. By Anne Woodley. Stagecoaches and Coaching Inns. Cottontown. Photos of examples of what may be considered coaching inns in geograph.org.uk
Rhayader is a market town and electoral ward in Radnorshire, central Wales. The town is one of the principal centres of population in the Anglicised historic county of Radnorshire and has a population of 2,088. 55% of the community have some form of Welsh identity according to the 2011 census. It is the first town on the banks of the River Wye, 20 miles from its source on the Plynlimon range of the Cambrian Mountains, it is situated midway between North and south Wales on the A470, 13 miles north of Builth Wells and 30 miles east of Aberystwyth on the A44 - two of Wales' most important trunk roads. The name "Rhayader" is a partly-Anglicised form of its Welsh name "Y Rhaeadr", or more "Rhaeadr Gwy". Speaking, according to place-name spelling conventions in Welsh, the name of the town would be'Rhaeadr-gwy', the waterfall itself'Rhaeadr Gwy', but it seems that this distinction is ignored. In the Welsh of the area the name is, as one would expect on the pattern of similar words, Rheiad pronounced.
Little remains of the waterfall itself, it having been destroyed in 1780 to make way for the bridge linking the town to Cwmdauddwr and the Elan Valley - the Lakeland of Wales. The abundance of cairns and standing stones bears witness that man inhabited the area several thousand years BCE. An important hoard of gold jewellery dating from 1st-2nd centuries AD was found in 1899 in the vicinity of the town. Known as the Rhayader Hoard, it is now in the Roman-British collection of the British Museum. Rhayader has always been a natural stopping point for travellers - the Romans had a stop-over camp in the Elan Valley, Monks travelled between the Abbeys of Strata Florida and Abbeycwmhir and drovers headed to the lucrative markets with their livestock, it wasn't until the 12th Century that a documented history of the town began with the building of Rhayader Castle in 1177. Little remains today, with the exception of a dry moat. One of the oldest buildings in Rhayader is the Old Swan, which stands on the corner of West and South Streets Rhayader.
The original building was mentioned in 1676 as being one of the two inns in Rhayader at that date. Some changes were made in 1683, including the rebuilding of the three chimney stacks, this date is carved into the old timbers inside the building. In the 19th Century, turnpike roads were only passable on payment of extortionate tolls, imposing additional burdens on poor communities; this led to the Rebecca Riots across South and Mid Wales from 1839–1842, with no less than six of Rhayader's tollgates being demolished with impunity by local farmers dressed as women. The actions of these'Rebeccaites' led to a Commission of Inquiry being set up, most of Rebecca's grievances were righted two years later. In the 1890s the expanding city of Birmingham, 70 miles east, viewed the nearby Elan Valley as the ideal source of clean, safe water; this was to change the face of Rhayader forever, bringing thousands of workers involved in building this massive complex of dams and reservoirs to the area. A new railway was built connecting this huge area with the main network in Rhayader, the construction of a new village to house the workers was built on the banks of the River Elan.
Work started in 1894 and the scheme was opened in 1904 by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. Rhayader is an electoral ward to Powys County Council. Rhayader Town Council represents the town at the local level, with fourteen town councillors elected from the Rhayader and Cwmdauddwr community wards; the station on the Mid Wales Railway line that served the town was closed on 31 December 1962. The nearest station is now at Crossgates on the Heart of Wales Line, though connections are made at the more accessible Llandrindod railway station a similar distance away. An extensive bus service connects with outlying villages and neighbouring towns, with two-hourly daytime departures to Builth Wells, Llandrindod Wells and Newtown, with connections to Hereford, Shrewsbury and further afield. Due to the volume of traffic generated by the convergence of two of Wales's most important trunk roads, the construction of a bypass to relieve congestion at the town centre crossroads has been an ongoing debate for many years.
The town is a popular cycling centre and is on Route 8 of the United Kingdom National Cycle Network - Lôn Las Cymru. Tourism and agriculture are the most important industries locally. Walkers and cyclists are drawn to Rhayader for the abundance of trails and bridleways surrounding the town, the gateway to a massive complex of reservoirs and dams; this vast area is home to some of Britain's rarest wildlife and plants, including red kites, along with magnificent feats of engineering. There are a number of hotels and breakfasts and campsites to accommodate the large number of visitors that travel to the area all year round. Rhayader is home to a community founded art and heritage complex which includes a museum and gallery, a leisure centre, numerous parks and all the amenities expected of a larger town. Potter Phil Rogers has his studio in Rhayader. There are an abundance of shops,cash facilities, restaurants and supermarkets catering to both the local population and visitors to the area. Rhayader is renowned for being the town with the highest concentration of pubs and drinking establishments, per capita, in the UK, with one to each 173 people.
In nearby Nant-glas, across the river Wye from the village of Llanwrthwl, the Living Willow Theatre, an open-air theatre constructed of living willow trees, was opened in 2007. Rhayader Town F. C. despit
Pen-y-Bont railway station
Pen-y-Bont railway station is a railway station serving the village of Penybont, in mid Wales. It is situated on the Heart of Wales Line 48 1⁄2 miles south west of Shrewsbury; the station is located closer to the villages of Crossgates and Fron than it is to Penybont itself, is now the closest station to the town of Rhayader, about 9 miles to the west. The station is an unstaffed request stop with one active platform, it is provided with the same amenities as other Heart of Wales line stations, including CIS display, customer help point, timetable poster board and payphone. A small wooden waiting shelter is located next to the information screen, with a barrow crossing linking the platform to the car park and main entrance from the A44. All trains serving the station are operated by Transport for Wales. There are four trains a day in each direction from Monday to Saturday, two services on Sundays. Organ, John. Mitchell, Vic, ed. Craven Arms to Llandeilo. West Sussex: Middleton Press. Figs. 46-49.
ISBN 9781906008352. OCLC 648080889. Train times and station information for Pen-y-Bont railway station from National Rail
Knighton is a small market town and community in central Powys, Wales, on the Teme and the Wales-England border. A small part of the town including Knighton railway station is in England; this Anglo-Saxon settlement became a Norman fortified town. The Welsh name, Tref-y-clawdd, meaning "town on the dyke", was first recorded in 1262 and given to the town in 1971; the name Knighton derives from the Old English words cniht and tūn meaning "... a soldier, personal follower, young man, thane, freeman" and "... farm, homestead". This implies that the settlement was founded as the result of a grant of land to freemen. Knighton's earliest history is obscure but there are local clues: Caer Caradoc is 2 miles away and just off the road towards Clun. Watling Street, a Roman road, passes a few miles to the east at Leintwardine. Any settlements around the Knighton area would have been part of the Iron Age kingdom of Cornovii which consisted of the modern-day counties as Cheshire, North Staffordshire, North Herefordshire, parts of Powys and Worcestershire.
Knighton is known for a well-preserved section of Offa's Dyke. Intriguingly, Wat's Dyke runs parallel to Offa's Dyke and a few miles to the east. An earthwork that runs north-south along the English/Welsh border from Basingwerk near Holywell to Oswestry; the dykes aside, two Norman castles, constructed in the 12th century, are the oldest survivors in modern Knighton. The town became a borough in 1203, with a charter permitting annual fair; the castle was besieged by Owain Glyndŵr in 1402 and the castle and much of the town were destroyed. The major battle of the rebellion was fought at Pilleth 3 miles south of the town in the same year; the town's church dates from the 11th century. It is one of only two in Wales dedicated to St Edward; this dedication to an English saint is a symptom of the dual English/Welsh nature of the town, not resolved until 1535 when Knighton was confirmed as part of Wales by the Acts of Union. Knighton has a Baptist chapel and a small Catholic church. Knighton first prospered as a centre of the wool trade in the 15th century and was an important point on the two drover routes from Montgomery to Hereford, from London to Aberystwyth.
Otherwise, Knighton was remote from the centres of commerce. It seemed that the railway revolution would fail to reach the town; the construction of the railway was made economically viable – just – by an entrepreneurial drive to connect the Mumbles and Milford Haven with the cities and factories of the industrial Midlands. The Knighton Railway Company was formed by local landowners and businessmen to build a line from Craven Arms to the town. Work began in August 1858 and the line reached Knighton in March 1861; the station itself was built in 1865. To mark the accession of H. M. Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 the initials "ER" were planted out in deciduous trees within an evergreen forest on the hill to the north of the town. In August 1970, Knighton hosted a rock festival with bands such as The Move and the somewhat more obscure Pete Brown & Piblokto, Roger Bunn, Forever More, Clark-Hutchinson, James Litherland's Brotherhood and Killing Floor. Comperes were radio DJ Pete Drummond and local resident and bluesman Alexis Korner, who performed.
After the Acts of Union, Knighton was for nearly 450 years part of the traditional County of Radnorshire. In common with many ancient counties Radnorshire ceased to exist in 1974 and was subsumed in the county of Powys; the town council of 13 councillors elects a ceremonial mayor annually. Real municipal authority lies with Powys County Council; the Knighton electoral ward was represented by two county councillors on Powys County Council, until 1999 when its representation was reduced to one. Knighton has been represented by the Liberal Democrats. Since May 2017 it has been represented by Independent councillor Ange Williams. Above the county council, the National Assembly for Wales forms the next tier of government. Knighton falls within the Westminster constituency of Brecon and Radnorshire and the current MP is Christopher Davies – a Conservative. Wales forms one large Wales European Parliamentary constituency, it is part of the National Assembly for Wales constituency of Brecon and Radnorshire and represented by Kirsty Williams AM.
The town returns a single councillor to Powys County Council. The few roads and houses that lie across the border in England are part of the civil parish of Stowe, in the county of Shropshire; this is part of the Westminster constituency of Ludlow and the current MP is Philip Dunne – a Conservative. It lies in the European Parliamentary Constituency of West Midlands. Knighton has a fire station served by a part-time crew and part of the Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service. Knighton's police station is part-time. Knighton has a hospital on Ffrydd Road on the site of and using some of the former buildings of the workhouse, it has maternity facilities but no emergency capacity. Primary care is provided by a Boots pharmacy. Social housing is provided by two housing associations.