Vermont State House
The Vermont State House, located in Montpelier, is the state capitol of the U. S. state of Vermont. It is the seat of the Vermont General Assembly; the current Greek Revival structure is the third building on the same site to be used as the State House. Designed by Thomas Silloway in 1857 and 1858, it was occupied in 1859. A careful restoration of the Vermont State House began in the early 1980s led by curator David Schütz and the Friends of the Vermont State House, a citizens' advisory committee; the general style of the building is Neoclassical and Greek Revival and is furnished in American Empire, Renaissance Revival, Rococo Revival styles. Some rooms have been restored to represent latter-19th-century styles including the "Aesthetic Movement" style. Since 1994, Buildings and General Services Architect, Tricia Harper has been responsible for design and construction for the restoration and renovation project of the building and its grounds; the Vermont State House is located on State Street on the western edge of downtown Montpelier, a block north of the Winooski River.
Set against a wooded hillside, the building and its distinctive gold leaf dome are visible while approaching Montpelier, the smallest city to serve as capital of a U. S. state. The current structure was designed by architect Thomas Silloway amplifying the design of an earlier structure designed by Ammi B. Young supervising architect of the U. S. Treasury; the first State House built in 1808 by Sylvanus Baldwin was replaced by the current Vermont Supreme Court Building completed in 1918. The prior edifice, known as the "Second State House", was constructed on the same site between 1833 and 1838. Young's structure was of a more reserved Greek Revival design based upon the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens. Gray Barre granite is used for the two-story cruciform design with a Doric portico and a low saucer dome echoing William Thornton's earliest design for the United States Capitol. Young's structure was entirely destroyed by a fire in January 1857. Silloway was able to salvage the Doric portico, as well as portions of the granite walls.
Silloway added an additional bay of windows on each side of the central portico and increased the height of the dome to its current level. This may have been done to imitate the increased height of the new Capitol dome in Washington designed by Thomas U. Walter, being constructed during the same time; the dome and roofs were painted a dark terracotta red to suggest Tuscan tile. The dome was not gilded until the early 20th century, when many states did so as a part of the Colonial Revival style; the dome is topped by a statue named Agriculture, a representation of Ceres, an ancient Roman goddess of agriculture. The original statue was carved by Vermont artist Larkin Goldsmith Mead, who carved the large bust of Lincoln in the Hall of Inscriptions on the State House's ground floor; the current statue is a replacement, something of a piece of folk art, based on Mead's original. It was carved in 1938 by 87-year-old Dwight Dwinell, Sergeant-at-Arms; the Doric portico, the main ceremonial entrance, houses a granite statue of Ethan Allen.
Ethan Allen was a founder of Vermont and commander of the Green Mountain Boys, an early Vermont military infantry active during the Vermont Republic. The statue was carved by Aristide Piccini in 1941, to replace the original marble version carved by Larkin Goldsmith Mead in 1858; the architect Stanford White considered Silloway's Vermont State House to be the finest example of the Greek Revival style in the United States. The State House contains two primary floors accessible by a pair of circular stairways opening into the ground-floor Cross Hall. An elevator is available; the Entrance Hall is of the Greek Ionic order and flanked by portraits of Presidents Calvin Coolidge and Chester A. Arthur, both native to Vermont; the tall double front doors were painted and coated with a metallic powder to appear as bronze in 1859. The Entrance Hall contains a portrait of Montpelier native Admiral George Dewey on the bridge of his flagship during the Battle of Manila Bay; the Vermont State House does not have a rotunda, the dome being located directly above the ceiling of Representatives Hall on the second floor.
The principal public room is the Hall of Inscriptions, a Doric pilastered corridor featuring eight monumental marble tablets incised with quotations about the distinct nature of Vermont's culture and heritage. The tablets quote the Vermont Constitution, Ethan Allen, Calvin Coolidge, George Aiken, Warren Austin, Dorothy Canfield Fisher among others; each tablet features fourteen gilded stars, representing Vermont's fourteen counties, the state's fourteen years as an independent republic, being the fourteenth state to join the federal Union. The four corners of each tablet feature a sheath of grain, a detail found in the Great Seal of Vermont, designed by Ira Allen; the ceremonial office of the Governor of Vermont, used during legislative sessions for meetings and bill-signings, is located in the second-floor west wing of the building. The Executive Chamber has been restored to its 1859 appearance with pediment hooded windows supported by Italianate-style brackets, gilded Rococo Revival drapery cornices.
A Wilton style carpet colored crimson, azure blue and gold was rewoven as part of the restoration. The Vermont Governor's working office and private apartments are located nearby at The Pavilion, built in Second Empire style and located just east of the Vermont Supreme Court. Portraits of Vermont governors (including Howard Dean, shown in an idiosy
Halkevleri is the name of a Turkish community civil rights project. Its history can be reviewed in three distinct eras; the Turkish Republic was proclaimed in 1923 after a series of costly wars involving the Ottoman Empire. The human loss was great among the intellectuals; the most profitable agricultural land had been lost and the country was economically bankrupt. After the republic was proclaimed, measures were taken to raise the low literacy rate and to improve the economy. However, the great depression was another blow to the new republic. A second problem of the new republic was the reaction of the conservatives against the reforms the secularist practices of the republic. Halkevleri was an enlightenment project aimed towards city dwellers to gain support for reforms, it was planned by the founder of the modern Turkey. On February 17, 1932, branches of Halkevleri were opened in 17 cities, but soon, the number increased to 478. Towards 1940, the villages were included in the project; the sub branches in villages were called Halkodaları Towards 1950, the total number of these subsections exceeded 4000.
The purpose of the project was to enlighten the people and to decrease the influence of the conservative circles. Free courses were offered on the topics of literature, music, fine arts and writing as well as handicrafts and tailoring. Folksay and folksongs were surveyed. Halkevleri had 761 libraries and reading rooms. Halkevleri operated as a state organization between from 1932 till 1951. During multiparty period Halkevleri were criticized on the ground that this project was a supporter of the governing Republican People’s Party; the opposing Democrat Party won the 1950 elections. On the Aug. 8, 1951 Halkevleri were closed. In 1963 Halkevleri was opened again, not by civil community; the second era was independent of the government between 1932–1951. In the second era Halkevleri acted as an umbrella organisation of leftist movements powerful before 1980 Turkish coup d'état; the most supported leftist revolutionary movement of Turkey "revolutionary path" Devrimci Yol was active in most Halkevleri branches.
This was one of main reasons for the closing of Halkevleri with the 1980 Turkish coup d'état. In 1987, Halkevleri was opened again by the civil community. Today Halkevleri acts as an umbrella organisation covering struggle for rights including the struggles for "right for free education", "right for free medical treatment", "right to housing" etc. Current leader is lawyer Oya Ersoy, known for human rights trials
People's Houses were leisure and cultural centres built with the intention of making art and cultural appreciation available to the working classes. The first establishment of this type appeared in Tomsk, Russian Empire in 1882. Soon people's Houses became popular in England, Scotland and other European states; the term "people's house" was used in continental Europe for working-class community centres, these were associated with labor unions and parties. The first People's House was built in Tomsk in 1882, several more were erected in the capital of Russia, St. Petersburg during that decade. By the beginning of the 20th century the capital supported about 20 People's Houses: these provided entertainment, educational clubs for middle-class intelligentsia, petty officials, students and workers etc. A People's House included a library, reading room, tea rooms, a bookshop, a lecture hall with stage where activities such as Sunday school, evening classes for adults and choral singing might be held.
Some included a museum with various types of visual aids used in lectures in the course of systematic training, which were used for travelling and permanent exhibitions. The biggest and most famous People's House opened in Russia was built in Alexandrovsky Park in 1899-1900, opened by Tsar Nicholas II, after whom it was named "Etablishment for People's Entertainment of Emperor Nicholas II", or, in short, "People's House of Emperor Nicholas II "; this housed a concert hall, a theater, a public library and a restaurant. There was a small nominal entrance charge, with the only extra being charged for a seat at the theater; the English publication Contemporary Review noted these facilities, enviously commenting:"it is what our People's palace was intended to be and is not". More such People's Houses were built in other places in Russia; as a rule, they were built in the working-class neighbourhoods. People's houses were subsidized by the Municipal Dumas, country councils and donations of private individuals.
After the Revolution of 1917 term "people's house" was of use. Most people's houses were renamed into the worker's Houses of Culture. In the late 19th century, People's Palaces started being built in grim urban districts; the concept was to raise morale and morality through inspiring buildings which offered cultural nourishment. Costly, taking years to build and lavishly decorated, they were designed to provide a focal point for civic pride, venues for meetings and public events. Notably these were built according to neo-Gothic style, as promoted by Augustus Pugin and John Ruskin: Pugin believed the harmonious style of the architecture could influence morality, while Ruskin in his book The Stones of Venice examined the architecture of the Italian Renaissance mercantile republics, believing it expressed the spirit of freedom. Architects adopted these ideas in their building of People's Palaces in the north of England and in Scotland, both to assert the cultural credentials of those regions and to provide an improving influence over the citizens of burgeoning industrial towns.
In 1899 Joseph Rowntree and Arthur Sherwell proposed that People's Houses should be built as part of a programme by the Temperance Party to provide "recreations of the simplest and least exacting kind, such as would specially appeal to those to whom the stress of their daily lives leaves little inclination for anything more than physical relaxation and cheerful intercourse": that is, a viable alternative to the public house. In Western Continental Europe, the "people's house" is a generic term used to refer to proletarian community centres located in all cities; when the labour movement and trade unions began to organize towards the end of the 19th century, the workers were in great need for premises of their own where they could hold meetings without interference. Opposition against the labour movement from the capitalists and landlords was strong and workers were not welcome to use existing premises. Landowners forbade open-air meetings; the workers in many Western European countries decided to buy their own land and build their own houses.
The idea spread all over the country. Construction was funded through co-operative ventures, various forms of contribution and not least voluntary work. Most Western European "people's houses" were built along a similar model as the "Maison du Peuple" established in Belgium in 1899. Antecedents to the modern folkets hus in Norway were established by Marcus Thrane's labour movement in the early 1850s. While the movement itself was short-lived and the branches were few, Thrane's attempt was succeeded by the first "workers' societies" by parish priest Honoratus Halling in 1850, which were less politically radical. In 1864, Eilert Sundt established the Christian Workers' Society. However, when Danish agitator Marcus Jantzen came to Norway in 1873 to establish a social democratic union, he and his acolytes were prohibited from discussing politics, so meetings organized by Jantzen were held in the open air in Tjuvholmen; the first modern people's house was established in Vikersund in 1890, the oldest still existing is the People's House in Spjærøy
Casa del pueblo
In Spain, a Casa del Pueblo refers to a typical local branch office of both the PSOE and the Unión General de Trabajadores. The term has been used to describe clearing houses of information for Spanish employees and workers. A large number of societies and labor organizations were housed in casas del pueblo; the first casa del pueblo was founded by Pablo Iglesias in 1908 in Madrid. Inside, Arturo Barea records offices, a hall for cinema and rallies, a library and the site of the first health insurance managed by the workers of Madrid, the Mutualidad, which protects the worker and his family at a time without Social Security and has a clinic that provides free medicine to the affiliate; the example of the Casa del Pueblo in Madrid was rife throughout Spain in the industrial areas of Asturias and the Basque Country. The workers are taught to read and write, but can get more advanced education befitting a people's university; the term has disappeared from most of the PSOE headquarters, except in the Basque country where it is preserved.
The name is used for some cultural sites managed by anarchists and the union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, although in these cases the general term was Ateneo libertario. The casa del pueblo in Alcoy is the cultural home of UCE. People's House
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Palace of the Parliament
The Palace of the Parliament is the seat of the Parliament of Romania. It is located on Dealul Arsenalului in the national capital city of central Bucharest; the Palace has a height of 84 metres, a floor area of 365,000 square metres and a volume of 2,550,000 cubic metres. The Palace of the Parliament is the heaviest building in the world, weighing about 4,098,500,000 kilograms. A colossal building and supervised by chief architect Anca Petrescu, with a team of 700 architects, constructed over a period of 13 years, it was built as a monument for a totalitarian kitsch style of architecture, in Totalitarian and modernist Neoclassical architectural forms and styles, with socialist realism in mind; the Palace was ordered by Nicolae Ceaușescu, the dictator of Communist Romania and the second of two longtime autocrats in power in the country since World War II, during a period in which the personality cult of political worship and adoration was in full force for him and his family. Known for its ornate interior composed of 23 sections, it houses the two houses of the Parliament of Romania: the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, along with three museums and an international conference center.
The several museums hosted inside the Palace are the National Museum of Contemporary Art, the Museum of Communist Totalitarianism and the Museum of the Palace. Though named the House of the Republic when under its long period of construction, after the Romanian Revolution in December 1989 it became known as The People's House. Due to its impressive endowments, events organized by state institutions and international bodies such as conferences and others take place there, but so about 70% of the building four decades still remains empty. In 1990, Australian business and media magnate Rupert Murdoch wanted to buy the building for US $1 billion, but his bid was rejected; as of 2008, the Palace of the Parliament is valued at €3 billion euros, making it the most expensive administrative building in the world. The cost of heating and electric use and lighting alone exceeds $6 million per year, as much as the total cost for powering a medium-sized city; the building of the Palace is located in the central part of Bucharest, in a location that today is known as Dealul Arsenalului.
It is situated at the west end of the 3,5 kilometre Unirii Boulevard, constructed with the Palace, is framed by Izvor Street to the west and northwest, United Nations Avenue to the north, Liberty Avenue to the east and Calea 13 Septembrie to the south. The building of the Palace of the Parliament was the most extreme expression of the systematization program imposed by Nicolae Ceaușescu upon Romania; the systematization was a program of urban planning carried out by Ceaușescu, impressed by the societal organization and mass adulation in North Korea's Juche ideology during his East Asia visit in 1971, decided to implement similar policies in Romania, with the stated goal of turning Romania into a "multilaterally developed socialist society". The Vrancea earthquake of 4 March 1977 gave Ceaușescu a pretext to demolish parts of old Bucharest, he wanted a civic center more in line with the country political stance, started a reconstruction plan of Bucharest based on socialist realism style. The House of the Republic was the center of this project.
Named Project Bucharest, it was an ambitious project of Ceaușescu's begun in 1978 as an intended replica of Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea. A systematization project existed since the 1930s for the Unirii–Dealul Arsenalului area, its construction was organized as a contest and won by Anca Petrescu, appointed chief architect of the project when she was just age 28. In total, the team that coordinated the work was made up of 10 assisting architects, which supervised a further lower 700. Construction of the Palace began on June 25, 1984, the inauguration of the work was attended by Ceaușescu and inspected personally; the building was erected on the site of some monasteries that were demolished and on the site of Uranus Hill, leveled. In this area were located the National Archives, Văcărești Monastery, Brâncovenesc Hospital, as well as about 37 old factories and workshops. Demolition in the Uranus area began in 1982. 7 square kilometres of the old city center was demolished, with 40,000 people being relocated from this area.
The works were carried out with forced labor of soldiers and so the cost was minimized. Between 20,000 and 100,000 people worked on the site and project, operating in three shifts of 5,000 soldiers of the Romanian Army and huge numbers of "volunteers". Thousands of workers died in connection with the construction of the House of the Republic / People's House, some sources mention a figure of 3,000 people lost. In 1989, the building costs were estimated at $1.75 billion, in 2006 at €3 billion euros. Since 1994, the building hosts the Chamber of Deputies, after the initial headquarters of the institution, the Palace of the Chamber of Deputies, was donated by the State to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Since 2004 the Romanian Senate has been headquartered in the Parliamentary Palace and was housed in the former building of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party. Six years after the Palace's completion, between 2003 and 2004, a glass annex was built alongside the external e
Florida Governor's Mansion
The Florida Governor's Mansion is a historic U. S. residence in Tallahassee, Florida. On July 20, 2006, it was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the mansion, designed to resemble Andrew Jackson's Hermitage, was designed by Marion Sims Wyeth, who designed numerous Palm Beach mansions including Mar-a-Lago. The building has 15,000 square feet of living space on 1.5 acres of land. The mansion's furnishings are managed by the eight-member Governor's Mansion Commission, established by the Florida Department of Management Services; the commission is responsible for cataloging and maintaining a descriptive, photographic inventory of the antique furnishings and articles of furniture and decorative objects used or displayed in the state rooms of the Governor's Mansion. Half-hour, public tours of the Florida Governor's Mansion are available year-round; the guided tours, led by trained volunteers of the Governor's Mansion Docent Program welcome school groups. The Governor's Mansion curator coordinates all tour requests.
The focal point of the park directly across the street from the mansion is the bronze sculpture, Florida's Finest, unveiled in April 1998 by Governor and Mrs. Lawton Chiles and was dedicated to the children of Florida; the sculpture features five life-size children and a dog playing a game of "Follow the Leader" atop three logs of a nearby fallen tree. From 1845 to the beginning of the 20th century, governors of the state lived in hotels or boardinghouses. In 1905, the state legislature appropriated $25,000 to construct an official residence for the governor, the home was finished in 1907, George Saxon, a banker from Tallahassee, donated four lots on which to build the residence. Henry John Klutho designed the home, with a 14-room Georgian interior; the 1907 mansion attracted at least one candidate for governor. In the fall of 1915, West Florida Baptists held their annual convention in Tallahassee. Local Baptists agreed to have as guests in their homes the delegates, or messengers as they were called, to the convention.
A messenger named Sidney J. Catts, from DeFuniak Springs, was assigned by the convention committee to be the guest of Governor and Mrs. Trammell. Reverend Catts, during dinner the first night there, asked many questions about the mansion and inspected the entire premises, including the attic and stables. At the last meal before leaving, the Reverend Catts asked Governor Trammel, "Governor, how much rent does this place cost you?" Governor Trammel replied, "Reverend, it is provided rent-free by the taxpayers of Florida." A few weeks the Reverend Catts announced his candidacy for governor and was elected in 1916. Reverend Catts brought a pig, milk cow, chickens to the mansion during his tenure as governor; the house served fifteen governors and their families until 1955, when it was determined that a new mansion would need to be built due to a lack of enough space in the house and various structural issues. Governor Fuller Warren, who served from 1949 to 1953, referred to it as the "State Shack."
The sum of $250,000 was appropriated by the Florida State Legislature in 1953 for a new mansion, the Cabinet approved the plan in 1955. Many items in the first mansion were auctioned in 1955 to aid in furnishing the new mansion, raising $7,500. Noted Palm Beach architect Marion Sims Wyeth was unanimously chosen by both the Cabinet and the Governor's Mansion Advisory Committee to design the new home. Wyeth was told to use Andrew Jackson's home in Tennessee, The Hermitage, as a model for the exterior. However, due to a shortfall in the state's budget, the completed home had fewer rooms than planned. Including furnishings, the new mansion cost $350,000 and was completed a year in 1956; the first governor to live in the new mansion was LeRoy Collins, in the spring of 1957. Collins and his wife were involved in the new house's construction, in 1957, they suggested to the state a Governor's Mansion Commission. In 1979, First Lady Adele Graham, the wife of Bob Graham, began organizing tours for the mansion.
The next year, she founded the Florida Governor's Mansion Foundation. The contributions of this foundation helped to make possible the first addition to the Governor's Mansion since 1957, the Florida Sun Room; the foundation was created to solicit private funding for the restoration of the mansion, its furnishings, its grounds. In 2006, the second addition to the Mansion was completed, a new 550-square-foot library for the Governor Jeb Bush and his wife, Columba Bush; the Cabinet approved the $500,000 expansion in August 2005. The building celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2005, as well as being added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 2007, Governor Charlie Crist announced the addition of a solar-powered swimming pool and a hydrogen fuel cell at the mansion; the mansion now includes a greenhouse and the Manatee Sculpture Garden, is next to a private park. Florida Governor's Mansion