Chairman of the Central Military Commission
The Chairman of the Central Military Commission is the head of the Central Military Commission of China and thereby the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army. The officeholder is General Secretary of the Communist Party of China or Chairman of the Communist Party of China. According to Chapter 3, Section 4 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, "The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country; the Central Military Commission is composed of the following: The Chairman. The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the same as that of the National People's Congress. Two people serve as Vice-Chairmen; the CMC Chairman is the supreme commander of the world's largest military forces, People's Liberation Army, People's Armed Police and People's Liberation Army militia. Furthermore, the officeholder is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals. According to the principle of "Party Commands the Gun", the officeholder of this post would assume the responsibility of the state counterpart.
The following have held the position of Chair of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China: Zhang Guotao, December 1925 – September 1926 Zhou Enlai, September 1926 – October 1928 Yang Yin, October 1928 – September 1929 Zhou Enlai, September 1929 – March 1930 Guan Xiangying, March 1930 – August 1930 Zhou Enlai, August 1930 – June 1931 Li Fuchun, June 1931 – January 1932 Xiang Ying, January 1931 – October 1931 Zhu De, October 1931 – December 1936 Mao Zedong, December 1936 – October 1949 Abolished, October 1949 – September 1954 Mao Zedong, September 1954 – September 1976 Hua Guofeng, October 1976 – June 1981 Deng Xiaoping, June 1981 – November 1989 Jiang Zemin, November 1989 – September 2004 Hu Jintao, 19 September 2004 – 15 November 2012 Xi Jinping, 15 November 2012 – Present The following have held the position of Chair of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China: Mao Zedong, October 1949 – September 1954 Mao Zedong, September 1954 – April 1959 Liu Shaoqi, April 1959 – October 1968 Vacant, October 1968 – January 1975 Abolished, January 1975 – December 1982 Deng Xiaoping, June 1983 – April 1990 Jiang Zemin, April 1990 – March 2005 Hu Jintao, March 2005 – 14 March 2013 Xi Jinping, 14 March 2013 – Present List of leaders of the People's Republic of China Supreme Military Command of the People's Republic of China Paramount leader
People's Liberation Army Navy Marine Corps
The People's Liberation Army Navy Marine Corps known as the People's Liberation Army Marine Corps, is the marine force of the People's Republic of China and one of five major branches of the PLA Navy. It consists of two 6,000-man brigades, with a third brigade being organized from the transfer of the PLA Ground Force’s 77th Motorized Infantry Brigade; the PLAN Marine Corps was established in April 1953 during the Chinese Civil War by Communist Chinese troops to conduct amphibious operations against islands held by the Nationalists. By the end of the Korean War, the PLAN Marine Corps numbered 110,000 people organized in eight divisions. However, the organization was disbanded in October 1957 when the leadership of China abandoned any plans to seize the island of Taiwan. Following the disbanding of the Marine Corps, the People's Liberation Army Navy did maintain a naval infantry force, which consisted of several infantry and amphibious tank regiments. In 1979 the Central Military Commission of China re-established the Marine Corps and organized it under the PLAN.
On 5 May 1980, the 1st Marine Brigade was activated on Hainan. In view of the growing tension between Mainland China and the Republic of China during the 1990s, the number of PLAN Marine Corps units was again increased. 1st Marine Brigade China rearmed. In July 1998, the 164th Motorized Infantry Division of the PLA Ground Force’s 41st Group Army had been transferred to the PLAN South Sea Fleet and became the 164th Marine Brigade, with its homebase in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province. In February 2017, it was reported that the 77th Motorized Infantry Brigade of the 26th Group Army was transferred to the PLAN; the PLAN Marine Corps is subordinate to the PLA Navy Headquarters, the Joint Staff Department and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. 12,000 marines are based in the South China Sea. It is believed in time of war, up to 28,000 marines can be mobilized; these two brigades possess combined arms units, including armor, missile, air defense, logistics. The two brigades are the 1st Marine 164th Marine Brigade -- both based in Zhanjiang.
Each Brigade comprises all or most of the following: 1 x Armoured Regiment 2 x Marines Bns 1 x Howitzer Bns with PLZ-07 SP Howitzer Missile Battalion A mixed Engineer and Chemical Battalion Communications and Guard Battalion Field Maintenance Battalion Personnel EquipmentType 95 Assault Rifle Type 95B Carbine QBB-95 Squad Automatic Weapon QBU-88 Designated Marksman Rifle QCW-05 Submachine Gun QSZ-92 Pistol DZJ-08 Anti-tank launcherArmourType 11 Amphibious Assault Gun Type 08 Amphibious IFV ZTD-05 Amphibious Tank ZBD-05 Amphibious IFV Type 59 Main Battle Tank Type 63 Light Amphibious Tank Type 63A Light Amphibious Tank Type 63 APC Type 77 Amphibious APC Type 85/89 APC Type 86 Infantry Fighting Vehicle WZ551 Wheeled APCAircraftZ-9WA attack helicopter Z-9C utility helicopter Z-18 transport helicopterArtillery and AmmunitionPLZ-07B Type 89 Self Propelled 122mm gun system HJ-8 Anti-tank missile HJ-73 Anti-tank missileThe modern day Chinese marine possesses the Type 95 bullpup assault rifle as standard infantry armament.
The marine wears a blue/littoral camouflage uniform as standard dress. The effectiveness of this camouflage is unknown, is thought to be ineffective once the marines penetrate deeper into urban and forested terrain; the marines make use of GPS and night vision systems to enhance their fighting capabilities. The PLAN marines are equipped with armored personnel carriers; the Type 63A is the newest light tank in Chinese service. It is based on the hull of the older Type 63; the Type 63A features a number of improvements, in particular the new welded turret which features much greater armour protection and the 105mm main gun. The marines are believed to have continued operating the Type 63 and the non-amphibious Type 62 light tanks as secondary units; the Type 77 amphibious. However, new designs have been adapted from the army to complement these aging transports; these include specially modified versions of the Type 89 and Type 63 APCs, with enhanced swimming capabilities. The Type 86 IFV is in service with the marines.
Based on the Soviet BMP-1, it is armed with a single 73mm main gun and mounts an HJ73 ATGM. For air defense, Chinese marines employ a mix of automatic and manually operated anti-aircraft artillery systems, as well as short range surface-to-air missiles; the marines have been seen operating the new Type 95 self-propelled air defense platform on an amphibious hull similar to the Type 77 APC. This platform is armed with four 25mm cannon with a short ranged SAM combination to achieve effective killing capabilities against low flying targets at short ranges; the Type 89 self-propelled 122mm gun is the first SP artillery system in service with the marines since 1999. This adds additional accurate firepower to the PLAMC. Sinodefense.com Republic of China Marine Corps People's Liberation Army Airborne Corps People's Liberation Army Navy Coastal Defense Force People's Liberation Army special operations forces
The Dongfeng series abbreviated as "DF missiles", are a family of short, intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles operated by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Rocket Force. After the signing of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance in 1950, the Soviet Union assisted China's military R&D with training, technical documentation, manufacturing equipment and licensed production of Soviet weapons. In the area of ballistic missiles, the Soviets transferred R-2 and R-11F technology to China; the first Chinese ballistic missiles were based on Soviet designs. Since China has made many advances in its ballistic missile and rocket technology. For instance, the space launch; the first of the Dongfeng missiles, the DF-1, was a licensed copy of the Soviet R-2 short-range ballistic missile. The DF-1 had a single RD-101 rocket engine, used alcohol for fuel with liquid oxygen as an oxidizer; the missile had maximum range of a 500 kg payload. Limited numbers of DF-1 were produced in the 1960s, have since been retired.
The DF-2 is China's first medium-range ballistic missile, with a 1,250 km range and a 15-20 kt nuclear warhead. It received the western designation of CSS-1, it was long noted by the western observers that the DF-2 could be a copy of the Soviet R-5 Pobeda, as they have identical look, range and payload. Now it is known that the whole documentation for R-5 had been delivered from Soviet Union to China in the late 1950s, but some western authors still attribute the entire design to Chinese specialists Xie Guangxuan, Liang Sili, Liu Chuanru, Liu Yuanwei, Lin Shuangwei, Ren Xinmin. The first DF-2 failed in its launch test in 1962, leading to the improved DF-2A; the DF-2A was used to carry out China's test of a live warhead on a rocket in 1966, was in operational service since late 1960s. All DF-2 were retired from active duty in the 1980s; the DF-3 is considered China's first "domestic" intermediate-range ballistic missile. The common ICBM design was influenced by soviet R-14 Chusovaya missile and the first stage engine itself was a direct copy of С.2.1100/С.2.1150 La-350 booster engine developed by Isayev OKB-2.
The responsibility for the development guidance has been attributed to both Tu Shou'e and Sun Jiadong, the missile as produced at Factory 211 (Capital Astronautics Co. known as Capital Machine Shop. The 2,500 km DF-3 was designed with 2,000 kg payload to carry an atomic payload. A further improved DF-3A with 3,000 km range was developed in 1981, exported to Saudi Arabia with conventional high-explosive warhead, their range of 2,810 km means they fall just short of being able to target Guam, although the 2012 DOD report on China's military power states that they have a range of 3,300 km, which would be enough to target Guam. The 2013 Pentagon report on China's military power confirms the DF-3's 3,300 km range, its maps show Guam being within the DF-3's range. All DF-3/DF-3A's were retired by the mid-2010s and replaced by the DF-21; the DF-4 "Chingyu" is China's first two-stage ballistic missile, with 5,550-7,000 km range and 2,200 kg payload. It was developed in late 1960s to provide strike capability against Guam.
The DF-4 missile served as basis for China's first space launch vehicle, Chang Zheng 1. Approx. 20 DF-4's remain in service, are scheduled to be replaced by DF-31 by 2010-2015. The DF-5 is an intercontinental ballistic missile, designed to carry a 3 megaton nuclear warhead to distance up to 12,000 km; the DF-5 is a silo-based, two-stage missile, its rocket served as the basis for the space-launch vehicle Fengbao-Tempest used to launch satellites. The missile was developed in the 1960s, but did not enter service until 1981. An improved variant, the DF-5A, was produced in the mid 1990s with improved range. An estimated 24-36 DF-5A's are in service as China's primary ICBM force.if the df-5a is launched from as far as the eastern part of the province of qinghai reaches cities like los angeles and san francisco and if launched from the most eastern parts of manchuria and capable of reaching the whole territory of the united states. The DF-11, is a road-mobile SRBM designed by Wang Zhenhua at the Sanjiang Missile Corporation in the late 1970s.
Unlike previous Chinese ballistic missiles, the DF-11 use solid fuel, which reduces launch preparation time to around 15–30 minutes, while liquid-fuelled missiles such as the DF-5 require up to 2 hours of pre-launch preparation. The DF-11 has a range of an 800 kg payload. An improved DF-11A version has increased range of >825 km. The range of the M-11 does not violate the limits set by the Missile Technology Control Regime. Estimates on the number of DF-11s in service vary between 500 and 600; the DF-12 is an SRBM known as the M20. The change in designation signalled a shift in fielding to the Second Artillery Corps, making it possible the missile could be armed with a tactical nuclear warhead. Images of it bear a resemblance to the Russian 9K720 Iskander missile whic
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
South Sea Fleet
The Southern Theater Command Navy, or the South Sea Fleet is one of the three fleets of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy, operating in the South China Sea under the Southern Theater Command. It is headquartered in Guangdong Province; the flagship of the SSF is the AOR/AK Nanchang. The fleet's strength consisted of former Kuomintang ships and personnel, which either defected or were captured by the People's Liberation Army. One of three fleets of the People's Liberation Army Navy, the SSF's duties were to protect the city of Guangzhou and the Pearl River regions, support the PLA in capturing islands that were still in the hands of the Kuomintang forces; the fleet's development has been slow, because most of China's shipbuilding industry is located on the northern or eastern coasts. In the 1970s the fleet underwent a major buildup, due to conflict in the Paracel Islands and other reefs in the South China Sea. In 1974, the SSF took the Paracel Islands from South Vietnam, which resulted in the sinking of one South Vietnamese frigate while damaging another.
The latest incident was in 1988, when a Chinese naval task force engaged Vietnamese naval forces, sinking one Vietnamese warship and damaging another. Most of the fleet's surface ships are located at Zhanjiang naval base, while all of the fleet's submarines are at Yulin Naval Base, on Hainan Island; the SSF has many other bases included Guangzhou, Shantou and Beihai, while naval air force bases are at Lingshui, Sanya and Guiping. The fleet's area of operations is divided into six zones; the fleet headquarters was, at first, at Guangzhou, but was relocated to Zhanjiang. Yulin Naval Base, Hainan Island Guangzhou Haikou Shantou Mawei Beihai Stonecutters Island, Hong Kong - People's Liberation Army Hong Kong GarrisonNaval air force bases: Lingshui Haikou Sanya Zhanjiang Guiping Aircraft carrier 1 Kuznetsov-class: Liaoning Destroyers: 4 Type 052D/Kunming/Luyang III-class: Kunming Changsha Hefei Yinchuan 2 Type 052C/Lanzhou/Luyang II-class: Lanzhou Haikou 2 Type 052B/Guangzhou/Luyang-class: Guangzhou Wuhan 1 Type 051B/Luhai-class: Shenzhen 2 Type 051/Luda-class: Zhanjiang Zhuhai Frigates: 8 Jiangkai-class II: Huangshan Chaohu Yuncheng Yulin Hengshui Liuzhou Sanya Yueyang 3 Jiangwei II-class: Yichang Huaihua Xiangyang 6 Jianghu V-class: Beihai Kangding Dongguan Shantou Jiangmen Foshan Corvettes: 12 Jiangdao-class: Meizhou Baise Jieyang Qingyuan Luzhou Zhuzhou Chaozhou Suqian Jingmen Tongren Qujing Liupanshui Diesel-Electric submarines: 8 Ming-classLanding ships: 3 Yuzhao-class LPD: Kunlun Shan Jinggang Shan Changbai Shan 6 Yuting III-class LST: Huading Shan Luoxiao Shan Daiyun Shan Wanyang Shan Laotie Shan Lühua Shan 1 Yuting II-class LST: Emei Shan 3 Yuting-class LST: Dongting Shan Helan Shan Liupan Shan 4 Yudao-Class LSMsReplenishment ships: 1 Fusu-class Qinghaihu 3 Fuchi-class Weishanhu Honghu Luomahu 5 Dayun-class Jingpohu Dongtinghu Fuxianhu Junshanhu Luguhu Auxiliary ships: 6 Qiongsha-class troop transport ships: NY830 NY831 NY832 NY833 NY834 NY835 1 hospital ship People's Liberation Army Navy North Sea Fleet East Sea Fleet Nanyang Fleet, Fujian Fleet and Guangdong Fleet were the predecessor fleets of the Qing navy http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/south-sea.htm
People's Liberation Army Special Operations Forces
The People's Liberation Army special operations forces are the special forces of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. Although the size of the Special Operations Forces is classified, it is estimated to number between 7,000 and 14,000 troops; the forces intended combat role is as rapid-response units in the event of a limited regional war under high-tech conditions. They carry out commando, counter-terrorism, intelligence gathering operations; the building up of China's special forces represents a shift in the country's operational thinking, from an army-dominated force structure to emphasizing integrated joint operations, with a flexible elite force. The PLA's interest in modern special warfare was first noted in the mid-1980s when it was shifting its military stance from a "people's war" to "fighting a local war under hi-tech conditions." The PLA planners believed that the next war would be a short, fast-paced conflict on the periphery rather than a total war on Chinese territory, that conventional infantry-orientated ground forces would no longer meet their requirements.
Additionally, the PLA's combat experience from the 1979 and 1980s border conflicts with Vietnam, where Vietnamese special forces caused substantial trouble to the Chinese forces, demonstrated the value of special units. On 23 December 2008, their first publicly known mission was to accompany three Chinese warships in protecting and escorting commercial ships against Somali pirates, in cooperation with other nations as part of a UN mandate. Beijing Military Region – "Oriental Sword". All 3,000 soldiers in this unit complete all types of operations and are regarded as the elitearm of the country. Beijing Military Region Special Forces Unit – "Arrow". Established in the early 1990s, this unit is equipped with high-tech equipment including unmanned aerial reconnaissance vehicles, individual blast devices and handheld laser dazzling weapons; every soldier from this unit must be able to run five kilometers bearing heavy equipment in under 25 minutes, complete a 400-meter obstacle course in under one minute and 45 seconds, perform 100 push-ups in a minute, throw grenades more than 50 metres.
Guangzhou Military Region Special Forces Unit – "South Blade" or "South China Sword". This unit was established in 1988 as the PLA's first special reconnaissance group, it was expanded in 2000 to become the first PLA special operations unit to be capable of air-, sea-, land-operations, similar to U. S. Navy SEALs. Basic training for this unit includes cross-country running, climbing and shooting; the soldiers must be familiar with operating 15 advanced technologies including GPS navigation, night vision, photo reconnaissance. Chengdu Military Region Special Forces Unit – Falcon. Established in 1992, this unit is specialized in target locating and indicating, airborne insertion and offensive strikes, emergency evacuation; the unit was used by Chengdu Military Region to experiment with new advanced concept equipment and tactics, including the digitized army soldier system and high-mobility land weapon platforms. Shenyang Military Region Special Forces Unit – Siberian Tiger" This unit is trained to complete missions on the ground and in the air and water, as well as surviving in the wilderness alone or in small groups.
The unit is said to place special focus on survival skills. Soldiers in the squad are trained on multiple transport vehicles for roads, waterways, in the air. Individual members of the unit have completed parachute landings more than 5,000 times and logged scuba diving training of more than 1,000 hours. Nanjing Military Region Special Forces Unit – Flying Dragon; this is the special land force of east China's Nanjing Military Region. Nanjing Military Region Special Forces Unit – Oscar. Lanzhou Military Region Special Forces Unit – Night Tiger; this unit has a long history, with its origins dating back to World War II. It is home of China's first counter-terrorism unit, established in 2000. Jinan Military Region Special Forces Unit – Eagle. Soldiers from this unit are said to focus on training to enhance cardiovascular endurance, including being able to run at least 3,300 meters in under 12 minutes, they reportedly engage in hand-to-hand combat training and the traditional Chinese health and martial arts practice of Qigong.
Soldiers of the Eagle special force can complete sea-air-land operations, in a similar way to the U. S. Navy SEALs. Leishen Commando Airborne Force is trained for reconnaissance operations for the PLA's airborne units, it is capable of performing strategic deterrence, combat assault, task operations under IT-based conditions. Members of this unit attended the Golden Owl-2015 International Competition of Special Forces held in Kazakhstan, won first place. Representatives attended the Russia International Army Games in 2015 where they took first place in the Airborne Platoon competition. Ten teams, from Kazakhstan, China, Russia and Singapore, attended the competition. PLA. Navy commando team Sea Dragon. Members of this force are equipped with black uniforms, its first publicly known mission was to accompany three Chinese warships in protecting and escorting commercial ships against Somali pirates in December 2008, in cooperation with other nations as part of a UN mandate. Since the unit has participated in anti-piracy missions in the Gulf of Aden for over 300 days.
Sea Dragon's Jiaolong A
People's Liberation Army
The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China and its founding and ruling political party, the Communist Party of China. The PLA consists of five professional service branches: the Ground Force, Air Force, Rocket Force, the Strategic Support Force. Units around the country are assigned to one of five theater commands by geographical location; the PLA is the world's largest military force and constitutes the second largest defence budget in the world. It is one of the fastest modernising military powers in the world and has been termed as a potential military superpower, with significant regional defense and rising global power projection capabilities. China is the third largest arms exporter in the world; the PLA is under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CPC. It is obliged to follow the principle of civilian control of the military, although in practical terms this principle has been implemented in such a way as to ensure the PLA is under the absolute control of the Communist Party.
Its commander in chief is the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council, does not exercise any authority over the PLA and is far less powerful than the CMC. Military service is compulsory by law. In times of national emergency, the People's Armed Police and the People's Liberation Army militia act as a reserve and support element for the PLAGF. Former CMC chairman Hu Jintao had defined the missions of the PLA as: To consolidate the ruling status of the Communist Party To ensure China's sovereignty, territorial integrity, domestic security to continue national development To safeguard China's national interests To help maintain world peace The People's Liberation Army was founded on 1 August 1927 during the Nanchang uprising when troops of the Kuomintang rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De, He Long, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai after the massacre of the Communists by Chiang Kai-shek, they were known as the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, or the Red Army.
Between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, the Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China forming two main units known as the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army. During this time, these two military groups employed guerrilla tactics avoiding large-scale battles with the Japanese with some exceptions while at the same time consolidating their ground by absorbing nationalist troops and paramilitary forces behind Japanese lines into their forces. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the Communist Party merged the Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army, renaming the new million-strong force the "People's Liberation Army", they won the Chinese Civil War, establishing the People's Republic of China in 1949. The PLA saw a huge reorganisation with the establishment of the Air Force leadership structure in November 1949 followed by the Navy leadership the following April.
In 1950, the leadership structures of the artillery, armoured troops, air defence troops, public security forces, worker–soldier militias were established. The chemical warfare defence forces, the railroad forces, the communications forces, the strategic forces, as well as other separate forces, were established on, all these depended on the leadership of the Communist Party and the National People's Congress via the Central Military Commission. During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet assistance began to transform itself from a peasant army into a modern one. Part of this process was the reorganisation that created thirteen military regions in 1955; the PLA contained many former National Revolutionary Army units and generals who had defected to the PLA. Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing were the only two Muslim generals who led a Muslim unit, the 81st corps, to serve in the PLA. Han Youwen, a Salar Muslim general defected to the PLA. In November 1950, some units of the PLA under the name of the People's Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River.
Under the weight of this offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthur's forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul, but were subsequently pushed back south of Pyongyang north of the 38th Parallel. The war served as a catalyst for the rapid modernization of the PLAAF. In 1962, the PLA ground force fought India in the Sino-Indian War, achieving all objectives. Prior to the Cultural Revolution, military region commanders tended to remain in their posts for long periods of time; as the PLA took a stronger role in politics, this began to be seen as somewhat of a threat to the party's control of the military. The longest-serving military region commanders were Xu Shiyou in the Nanjing Military Region, Yang Dezhi in the Jinan Military Region, Chen Xilian in the Shenyang Military Region, Han Xianchu in the Fuzhou Military Region; the establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the Four Modernizations announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping.
In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the PLA has demobilized millions o