Kyrgyzstan the Kyrgyz Republic, known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since independence, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.
Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the Türksoy community and the United Nations. Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country's 6 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Kyrgyz is related to other Turkic languages, although Russian remains spoken and is an official language, a legacy of a century of Russification; the majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims. In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian and Russian influence. "Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs. Kyrgyz means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghurs dominated much of Central Asia and parts of Russia and China.
The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown, called tunduk, of a yurt—a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. In terms of naming conventions, the country's official name is "Kyrgyz Republic" whenever it is used in some international arenas and foreign relations. However, in the English-speaking world, the spelling Kyrgyzstan is used while its former name Kirghizia is used as such. According to David C. King, Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan; the Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 A. D. From the 10th century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south.
The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in 1207. The descent of the Kyrgyz from the indigenous Siberian population, on the other hand, is confirmed by recent genetic studies; because of the processes of migration, conquest and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they now speak related languages. Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for traders and other travelers from the Far East to Europe. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the mid-18th century by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty, in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan the Issyk-Kul Region, was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China through the Treaty of Tarbagatai; the territory known in Russian as "Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the Empire in 1876.
The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts, many of the Kyrgyz opted to relocate to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan. In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to China. Since many ethnic groups in the region were split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better. Soviet power was established in the region in 1919, the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR. On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a constituent Union Republic of the Soviet Union. During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed in cultural and social life. Literacy was improved, a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development was notable. Many aspects of the Ky
Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev is a politician who served as the second President of Kyrgyzstan, from 2005 to 2010. Large opposition protests in April 2010 led to the takeover of government offices, forcing Bakiyev to flee the country. Bakiyev was the leader of the People's Movement of Kyrgyzstan before his ascendance to the presidency, he received most of his popular support from the south of the country. The Legislative Assembly of Kyrgyzstan of the Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan appointed him acting President on 25 March 2005, following the ousting, during the Tulip Revolution, of President Askar Akayev. In October 2007, Bakiyev initiated the creation of Ak Jol party, but could not lead it due to his presidency, he was born on 1 August 1949 in the village of Masadan in the Jalal-Abad region of the Kirghiz SSR. His father, Sali Bakiyev, was the chairman of a collective farm. In 1978, he graduated from the Kuibyshev Polytechnic Institute. In 1974, Bakiyev served in the ranks of the Soviet Army. In 1979, he moved to Jalal-Abad.
Between 1990-91 he worked as the first secretary of the Kok-Yangak City Committee of the Communist Party of Kirghizia. Starting in 1995, he was the Governor of the Jalal-Abad Region, Governor of the Chui Region. In December 2000, Bakiyev was appointed prime minister of Kyrgyzstan. Apart from Kyrgyz, he speaks Uzbek. Following the events of the 2005 Tulip Revolution, Bakiyev won the 10 July ballot for the Presidential election with 89% of the vote with a 53% turnout. Despite initial hopes, Bakiyev's term in office was marred by the murder of several prominent politicians, prison riots, economic ills and battles for control of lucrative businesses. In 2006, Bakiyev faced a political crisis as thousands of people participated in a series of protests in Bishkek, he was accused of not following through with his promises to limit presidential power, give more authority to parliament and the prime minister, eradicate corruption and crime. Bakiyev claimed. In April 2007, the opposition held protests demanding Bakiyev's resignation, with a large protest beginning on 11 April in Bishkek.
Bakiyev signed constitutional amendments to reduce his own power on 10 April but the protest went ahead, with protesters saying that they would remain until he resigned. Clashes broke out between police on 19 April, after which the protests ended. Over the years, the relationship between China and Kyrgyzstan has grown; the number of Chinese students in Kyrgyzstan has risen. In February 2009, while in Moscow, Bakiyev announced the eviction of the US Air Base from Kyrgyzstan, following a meeting with Russian President Dmitri Medvedev, during which Russia promised a $2 billion investment. Bakiyev was re-elected in the 2009 presidential election. After his re-election, he was presumed to deal with economic reform; the Eurasia Daily Monitor wrote on 10 September 2009 that his style resembled other leaders such as Vladimir Putin and Nursultan Nazarbayev. Kyrgyz people were anxious about the risk of renewed power shortages and blackouts like in the winter 2008–2009. During the winter of 2010, the country suffered from rolling blackouts and cutoffs occurring while energy prices have risen.
In January 2010, Kyrgyzstan sent a delegation to China to discuss improved economic relations. Kyrgyzstan's national electric company, Natsionalnaya electricheskaya syet, the Chinese Tebian Electric signed a $342 million contract to build the Datka-Kemin 500 kv power transmission lines; this would have reduced Kyrgyzstan's dependence on the Central Asian power system. The delegation was led by Bakiyev's son. In February 2010 Kyrgyzstan had to raise energy tariffs. Heating costs were going to rise 400 percent and electricity by 170 percent. Russia backed his government until March 2010; the Eurasian Daily Monitor reported on 1 April that, for two weeks, the Kremlin had used the Russian mass media to run a negative campaign against Bakiyev. Russia controls much of the media in Kyrgyzstan; the sudden campaign coincided with Bakiyev's failure to carry out Russia's various demands related to things such as military bases. On 1 April 2010, Russia imposed duties on energy exports to Kyrgyzstan, it influenced fuel and transport prices and led to a massive protest in Talas on 6 April.
In April 2010, after bloody riots in the capital overturned the government, Bakiyev fled to the southern city of Osh. The head of the new provisional government, Roza Otunbayeva, declared that Bakiyev had not resigned and was trying to rally support. On 13 April 2010, Bakiyev stated he would be willing to resign the presidency if his security was guaranteed. On 15 April 2010, at 19:00, Bakiyev left Kyrgyzstan for Kazakhstan, having signed a resignation letter. Otunbayeva said. On 20 April, the Belarusian president, Alexander Lukashenko told his parliament that "Bakiyev and his family, four people in all, have been in Minsk since Monday evening, as guests... Today they are here under the protection of our state, of the president."On 21 April, Bakiyev held a press conference in Minsk and stated "I, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, am the elected president of Kyrgyzstan and recognised by the international community. I do not recognise my resignation. Nine months ago the people of Kyrgyzstan elected me their president and there is no power that can stop me.
Only death can stop me", called Otunbayeva's administration an "illegitimate gang". In February 2012, it was being reported that Bakiyev was granted Belarusian citizenship in 2010