Ministry of Education (Soviet Union)
The Ministry of Education of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, formed on 3 August 1966, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union. It was known as the People's Commissariat for Education, or Narkompros, until 1946. Narkompros was a Soviet agency founded by the State Commission on Education and charged with the administration of public education and most of other issues related to culture, its first head was Anatoly Lunacharsky. However he described Nadezhda Krupskaya as the "soul of Narkompros". Mikhail Pokrovsky and Evgraf Litkens played important roles. Lunacharsky protected most of the avant-garde artists such as Vladimir Mayakovsky, Kazimir Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin and Vsevolod Meyerhold. Despite his efforts, the official policy after Joseph Stalin put him in disgrace. Narkompros had a number of sections, in addition to the main ones related to general education, e.g. Likbez, a section for liquidation of illiteracy, "Profobr", a section for professional education, Glavlit a section for literature and publishing, "Glavrepertkom", a commission for approval of performers' repertoires.
Department of the Mobilisation of Scientific Forces, to which the Russian Academy of Sciences reported to after 1918. A Theatre Department which published Vestnik Teatra Vneshkol'nyi Otdel, the adult Education Department run by KrupskayaSome of these evolved into separate entities, others discontinued; the Ministry's predecessor, the People's Commissariat for Education of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was established by a decree of the second convocation of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets on 8 November 1917 and was part of the Sovnarkom. The first Commissar was Anatoly Lunacharsky appointed in 1917; the Ministry of Education, at the all-Union level, was established on 3 August 1966. It was merged, on 5 March 1988, with the Ministry of Higher and Middle Special Education and the State Committee for Vocational and Technical Education to form the State Committee for People's Education of the Soviet Union headed by Gennady Yagodin from 11 March 1988 to 10 December 1991; the following persons headed the Commissariat/Ministry as commissars and ministers: The Ministry of Religious Affairs and Public Education of the Russian Empire, formed by combining: Ministry of National Education.
Education in the Soviet Union Ministries of the Soviet Union People's Commissariat for Education Ministry of Education and Science Bird, Alan. A History of Russian Painting. G. K. Hall Painting, Russian, 2007. Graham, Loren R. Science in Russia and the Soviet Union. Science—Soviet Union, 1993. Constantin, Nathan. A Study of Bolshevism. Free Press, 1953. Smele, Jon; the Russian Revolution and Civil War. Continuum International, 2003. Fitzpatrick, Sheila; the Commissariat of Enlightenment. Cambridge University, 1970. Education in Russia for foreign citizens; the history of the formation of education.Образование в России для иностранных граждан. История становления образования. Education in Russia for the foreign citizens: Russian Educational System Today The Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1917-1964
Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold was a Russian and Soviet theatre director and theatrical producer. His provocative experiments dealing with physical being and symbolism in an unconventional theatre setting made him one of the seminal forces in modern international theatre. During the Great Purge, Meyerhold was arrested and executed in February 1940. Vsevolod Meyerhold was born Karl Kasimir Theodor Meierhold in Penza on 28 January o.s. 1874 to Russian-German wine manufacturer Emil Fyodorovich Meierhold and his Russian-Dutch wife, Alvina Danilovna. He was the youngest of eight children. After completing school in 1895, Meierhold studied law at Moscow University but never completed his degree, he was torn between studying a career as a violinist. However, he failed his audition to become the second violinist in the University orchestra and in 1896 joined the Moscow Philharmonic Dramatic School. On his 21st birthday, he converted from Lutheranism to Orthodox Christianity and accepted "Vsevolod" as an Orthodox Christian name.
Meyerhold began acting in 1896 as a student of the Moscow Philharmonic Dramatic School under the guidance of Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, co-founder with Konstantin Stanislavsky of the Moscow Art Theatre. At the MAT, Meyerhold played 18 roles, such as Vasiliy Shuiskiy in Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich and Ivan the Terrible in The Death of Ivan the Terrible. In 1898, in the first successful production of Chekhov's first play, The Seagull, Meyerhold played the lead male role, opposite Chekhov's future wife, Olga Knipper. After leaving the MAT in 1902, wanting to break free of the naturalistic'missing fourth wall' productions of Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko, Meyerhold participated in a number of theatrical projects, as both a director and actor; each project was an arena for creation of new staging methods. Meyerhold was one of the most fervent advocates of Symbolism in theatre when he worked as the chief producer of the Vera Komissarzhevskaya theatre in 1906–1907, he was invited back to the MAT around this time to pursue his experimental ideas.
Meyerhold continued theatrical innovation during the decade 1907–1917, while working with the imperial theatres in St. Petersburg, he introduced classical plays in an innovative manner, staged works of controversial contemporary authors like Fyodor Sologub, Zinaida Gippius, Alexander Blok. In these plays, Meyerhold tried to return acting to the traditions of Commedia dell'arte, rethinking them for the contemporary theatrical reality, his theoretical concepts of the "conditional theatre" were elaborated in his book On Theatre in 1913. On the day when the Russian Revolution of 1917 broke out - on 25 February, under the old style calendar used in Russia - Meyerhold's production of Masquerade by Mikhail Lermontov had a dress rehearsal at the Alexandrinsky Theatre, in front of an audience that included the poet Anna Akhmatova; that evening has been described as "the last act of the tragedy of the old regime, when the Petersburg elite went to enjoy themselves at this splendidly luxurious production in the midst of the chaos and confusion.".
Sergei Eisenstein, a teenager but would be a world-renowned film director wanted to see the production, having heard that it featured clowns, but having made his way across the city, in the throes of a revolution was disappointed to discover that the Alexandrinsky was closed. Meyerhold was one of the first prominent Russian artists to welcome the Bolshevik Revolution - and one of only five out of 120 who accepted an invitation to meet the new People's Commissar for Enlightenment, Anatoly Luncharsky in November 1917, he joined the Bolshevik Party in 1918, narrowly escaping execution when he was caught on the wrong side of the battle lines during the civil war. He became an official of the Theatre Division of the Commissariat of Enlightenment. In 1918 -- 1919, Meyerhold formed an alliance with the head of the Division. Together, they tried to radicalize Russian theatres nationalizing them under Bolshevik control. Meyerhold had to leave for the south. In his absence, the head of the Commissariat, Anatoly Lunacharsky, secured Vladimir Lenin's permission to revise government policy in favor of more traditional theatres and dismissed Kameneva in June 1919.
After returning to Moscow, Meyerhold founded his own theatre in 1920, known from 1923 as the Meyerhold Theatre until 1938. Meyerhold confronted the principles of theatrical academism, claiming that they are incapable of finding a common language with the new reality. Meyerhold's methods of scenic constructivism and circus-style effects were used in his most successful works of the time; some of these works included Nikolai Erdman's The Mandate, Mayakovsky's Mystery-Bouffe, Fernand Crommelynck's Le Cocu magnifique and Aleksandr Sukhovo-Kobylin's Tarelkin's Death. Mayakovsky collaborated with Meyerhold several times, was said to have written The Bedbug for him; the actors participating in Meyerhold's productions acted according to the principle of biomechanics, the system of actor training, taught in a special school created by Meyerhold. Meyerhold's acting technique had fundamental principles at o
Mikhail Nikolayevich Pokrovsky was a Russian Marxist historian. One of the earliest professionally trained historians to join the Russian revolutionary movement, Pokrovsky is regarded as the most influential Soviet historian of the 1920s. Pokrovsky was neither a Bolshevik nor a Menshevik for nearly a decade prior to the October Revolution of 1917, instead living in European exile as an independent radical close to philosopher Alexander Bogdanov. Following the Bolshevik seizure of power, Pokrovsky rejoined the Bolshevik Party and moved to Moscow, where he became the deputy chief of the Soviet government's new department of education, the People's Commissariat of Enlightenment. Pokrovsky played a leading role in the early Soviet educational establishment, editing several of the major historical journals of the period, guiding the restructuring of the higher education system and its personnel as head of the Institute of Red Professors, he was the author of influential and pioneering works of Russian history, presenting semi-official reinterpretations of the Russian past presented through the lens of class struggle and the progress of history through concrete stages of development.
Pokrovsky was harshly critical of the nature of the multi-national Tsarist empire and deemphasized the personal role played by individuals such as the modernizing Tsar Peter the Great. After his death in 1932, Pokrovsky's writings came to be repudiated by the Soviet regime of Joseph Stalin for their supposed "vulgar sociologism" and insufficient appreciation of the role of great men in history, as well as for a lack of patriotic fervor. An official campaign of denunciation of Pokrovsky's alleged errors was initiated in January 1936. Mikhail Pokrovsky was born August 29, 1868 in Moscow into the family of a state official who had gained hereditary nobility from the Tsar, he was well educated as a boy, completing work at a classical gymnasium before enrolling in the History Department of Moscow University at the age of 19, where he studied under Vasily Klyuchevsky and Paul Vinogradov, two of the most renowned historians of the era. He would graduate from that institution in 1891, going on to pursue a Master's degree with Klyuchevsky.
Undeterred by his lack of an advanced academic degree, Pokrovsky began teaching in secondary schools and university extension programs, pursuing his ambition of becoming a professional historian. He did not gain a university teaching position, instead being forced to settle for teaching history courses in secondary schools, evening extension courses, non-university courses for women. A young man of progressive sympathies, Prokrovsky was prohibited from giving public lectures in 1902 owing to his radical views. Specifics of Pokrovsky's early political activity are sparse, with Pokrovsky himself acknowledging many years after the fact that he had participated in the Union of Liberation, a middle class organization seeking the establishment of a constitution for Russia, a forerunner of the Constitutional-Democratic Party. Pokrovsky became a Marxist during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Jackson was invited by party leader V. I. Ulianov to contribute to the party's official newspaper published in Proletarii.
Inside the Bolshevik organization, Pokrovsky was close to the radical faction surrounding Alexander Bogdanov, the Vpered group. Other key members of this faction included future Bolshevik education chief Anatoly Lunacharsky and prominent writer Maxim Gorky; the failure of the 1905 revolution caused Pokrovsky to emigrate, first to Finland before making his way to France in 1908. Pokrovsky would remain in French exile until the coming of the October Revolution in 1917, it was in French exile that Pokrovsky wrote his first major historiographic work, The History of Russia from Earliest Times, published in five volumes from 1910 to 1913. Bogdanov and the Vperedists established a Marxist party school on the Italian island of Capri early in 1909, with a view to educating and training ordinary working class Russians as future party leaders, intending the project to be open to adherents of the Bolshevik and Menshevik organizations alike. Pokrovsky was called upon as a party academic to lecture at the Capri school on the topic of Russian history.
After Bogdanov's expulsion from the Bolshevik Party in 1909, Pokrovsky followed him out of that organization. He would remain a non-Bolshevik radical until the revolutionary year of 1917, when he returned to Moscow and became a member of the Moscow Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies; the Vperedists in exile established a second Russian party school in Bologna, Italy from 1910 to 1911, again seeking participation from both Bolshevik and Menshevik wings of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. Pokrovsky again participated in this project as a history lecturer, being joined by Lunacharsky and others. Chief factional leaders Lenin and Georgy Plekhanov were hostile to the project and the Bologna school — and with it the Vpered group itself — subsequently disintegrated. Pokrovsky returned to Russia in August 1917, following the February Revolution which overthrew Tsar Nicholas Romanov II, he was formally readmitted to the Bolshevik Party the following month and was soon in a position of trust and authority, editing the daily newspaper of the Moscow Soviet, Izvestiia.
Following the October Revolution which brought the Bolshevik Party to power, Pokrovsky was named as Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the Moscow Soviet. He was chosen for the commission which drafted the first Constitution of Soviet Russia in 1918 and in March 1918 was elected Chairman of the Council of P
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was a Russian painter and art theorist. Kandinsky is credited as the pioneer of abstract art. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa, where he graduated at Grekov Odessa Art school, he enrolled at the University of Moscow. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship at the University of Dorpat—Kandinsky began painting studies at the age of 30. In 1896, Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbe's private school and at the Academy of Fine Arts, he returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Following the Russian Revolution, Kandinsky "became an insider in the cultural administration of Anatoly Lunacharsky" and helped establish the Museum of the Culture of Painting. However, by "his spiritual outlook... was foreign to the argumentative materialism of Soviet society", opportunities beckoned in Germany, to which he returned in 1920. There he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933.
He moved to France, where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in 1939 and producing some of his most prominent art. He died in Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944. Kandinsky's creation of abstract work followed a long period of development and maturation of intense thought based on his artistic experiences, he called this devotion to inner beauty, fervor of spirit, spiritual desire inner necessity. Kandinsky was born in Moscow, the son of Lidia Ticheeva and Vasily Silvestrovich Kandinsky, a tea merchant. One of his great grandmothers was a Princess Gantimurova explaining the "slight Mongolian trait in his features". Kandinsky learned from a variety of sources while in Moscow, he studied many fields while including law and economics. In life, he would recall being fascinated and stimulated by colour as a child, his fascination with colour symbolism and psychology continued. In 1889, he was part of an ethnographic research group which travelled to the Vologda region north of Moscow.
In Looks on the Past, he relates that the houses and churches were decorated with such shimmering colours that upon entering them, he felt that he was moving into a painting. This experience, his study of the region's folk art, was reflected in much of his early work. A few years he first likened painting to composing music in the manner for which he would become noted, writing, "Colour is the keyboard, the eyes are the hammers, the soul is the piano with many strings; the artist is the hand which plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul". Kandinsky was the uncle of Russian-French philosopher Alexandre Kojève. In 1896, at the age of 30, Kandinsky gave up a promising career teaching law and economics to enroll in the Munich Academy where his teachers would include Franz von Stuck, he was not granted admission, began learning art on his own. That same year, before leaving Moscow, he saw an exhibit of paintings by Monet, he was taken with the impressionistic style of Haystacks.
He would write about this experience: That it was a haystack the catalogue informed me. I could not recognise it; this non-recognition was painful to me. I considered. I dully felt, and I noticed with surprise and confusion that the picture not only gripped me, but impressed itself ineradicably on my memory. Painting took on splendour. Kandinsky was influenced during this period by Richard Wagner's Lohengrin which, he felt, pushed the limits of music and melody beyond standard lyricism, he was spiritually influenced by Madame Blavatsky, the best-known exponent of theosophy. Theosophical theory postulates that creation is a geometrical progression, beginning with a single point; the creative aspect of the form is expressed by a descending series of circles and squares. Kandinsky's book Concerning the Spiritual In Art and Point and Line to Plane echoed this theosophical tenet. Illustrations by John Varley in Thought Forms influenced him visually. In the summer of 1902, Kandinsky invited Gabriele Münter to join him at his summer painting classes just south of Munich in the Alps.
She accepted, their relationship became more personal than professional. Art school considered difficult, was easy for Kandinsky, it was during this time. The number of his existing paintings increased in the beginning of the 20th century. For the most part, Kandinsky's paintings did not feature any human figures. Riding Couple depicts a man on horseback, holding a woman with tenderness and care as they ride past a Russian town with luminous walls across a river; the horse is muted while the leaves in the trees, the town, the reflections in the river glisten with spots of colour and brightness. This work demonstrates the influence of pointillism in the way the depth of field is collapsed into a flat, luminescent s
Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky was a Soviet poet, playwright and actor. During his early, pre-Revolution period leading into 1917, Mayakovsky became renowned as a prominent figure of the Russian Futurist movement, being among the signers of the Futurist manifesto, A Slap in the Face of Public Taste, authoring poems such as A Cloud in Trousers and Backbone Flute. Mayakovsky produced a large and diverse body of work during the course of his career: he wrote poems and directed plays, appeared in films, edited the art journal LEF, created agitprop posters in support of the Communist Party during the Russian Civil War. Though Mayakovsky's work demonstrated ideological and patriotic support for the ideology of the Communist Party and a strong admiration of Vladimir Lenin, Mayakovsky's relationship with the Soviet state was always complex and tumultuous. Mayakovsky found himself engaged in confrontation with the increasing involvement of the Soviet State in cultural censorship and the development of the State doctrine of Socialist realism.
Works that contained criticism or satire of aspects of the Soviet system, such as the poem "Talking With the Taxman About Poetry", the plays The Bedbug and The Bathhouse, were met with scorn by the Soviet state and literary establishment. In 1930 Mayakovsky committed suicide. After death his relationship with the Soviet state remained unsteady. Though Mayakovsky had been harshly criticized by Soviet governmental bodies like the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers, Joseph Stalin posthumously declared Mayakovsky "the best and the most talented poet of our Soviet epoch." Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky was born in Baghdati, Kutais Governorate, Georgia part of the Russian Empire, to Vladimir Konstantinovich Mayakovsky, a local forester, who belonged to a noble family and was a distant relative of the writer Grigory Danilevsky. Vladimir Vladimirovich's mother Alexandra Alexeyevna, was a housewife, looking after the children, a son and two daughters and Lyudmila; the family was of Russian and Zaporozhian Cossack descent on their father's side and Ukrainian on their mother's.
At home the family spoke Russian. With his friends and at school Mayakovsky used Georgian. "I was born in the Caucasus, my father is a Cossack, my mother is Ukrainian. My mother tongue is Georgian, thus three cultures are united in me," he told the Prague newspaper Prager Presse in a 1927 interview. Georgia for Mayakovsky remained the eternal symbol of beauty. "I know, it's nonsense and Paradise, but since people sang about them // It must have been Georgia, the joyful land, that those poets were having in mind", he wrote later. In 1902 Mayakovsky joined the Kutais gymnasium where, as a 14-year-old he took part in socialist demonstrations at the town of Kutaisi, his mother, aware of his activities didn't mind. "People around warned us. But I saw him developing according to the new trends, sympathized with him and pandered to his aspirations," she remembered. After the sudden and premature death of his father in 1906 the family—Mayakovsky, his mother, his two sisters—moved to Moscow after selling all their movable property.
In July 1906 Mayakovsky joined the 4th form of the Moscow's 5th Classic gymnasium and soon developed a passion for Marxist literature. "Never cared for fiction. For me it was philosophy, natural sciences, but first and foremost, Marxism. There'd be no higher art for me than "The Foreword" by Marx," he recalled in the 1920s in his autobiography I, Myself. In 1907 Mayakovsky became a member of his gymnasium's underground Social Democrats' circle, taking part in numerous activities of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which he, given the nickname "Comrade Konstantin", joined the same year. In 1908, the boy was dismissed from the gymnasium because his mother was no longer able to afford the tuition fees. For two years he studied at the Stroganov School of Industrial Arts, where his sister Lyudmila had started her studies a few years earlier; as a young Bolshevik activist, Mayakovsky distributed propaganda leaflets, possessed a pistol without a license, in 1909 got involved in smuggling female political activists out of prison.
This resulted in a series of arrests and an 11-month imprisonment. It was in a solitary confinement of the Moscow Butyrka prison that Mayakovsky started writing verses for the first time. "Revolution and poetry got entangled in my head and became one," he wrote in I, Myself. As an underage person, Mayakovsky avoided a serious prison sentence and in January 1910 was released. A warden confiscated the young man's notebook, years Mayakovsky conceded, all for the better, yet he always cited 1909 as the year his literary career started. Upon his release from prison, Mayakovsky remained an ardent Socialist, but realized his own inadequacy as a serious revolutionary. Having left the Party, he concentrated on education. "I stopped my Party activities. Sat down and started to learn… Now my intention was to make the Socialist art," he remembered. In 1911 Mayakovsky enrolled in the Moscow Art School. In September 1911 a brief encounter with fellow student David Burlyuk led to lasting friendship and had historic consequences for the nascent Russian Futurist movement.
Mayakovsky became an active member for the group Hylaea, which sought to free the arts fr
Commissar is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary. In English, the transliteration "commissar" is used to refer to the political commissars of Soviet and Eastern Bloc armies, while administrative officers are called "commissary"; the word комисса́р is used in Russian for both administrative officials. The title has been used in the Soviet Russia since the time of Peter the Great. Commissaries were used during the Provisional Government for regional heads of administration, but the term commissar is associated with a number of Cheka and military functions in Bolshevik and Soviet government military forces during the Russian Civil War and with the terms People's Commissar for government ministers and political commissar in the military. A People's Commissar was a government official serving in a Council of People's Commissars; this title was first used by the Russian SFSR and copied among the many Soviet and Bolshevik-controlled states in the Russian Civil War.
The government departments headed by a People's Commissar were called People's Commissariat. People's Commissars and People's Commissariats were renamed Ministers and Ministries in 1946 by a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. A political commissar was a high-ranking functionary at a military headquarters who held coequal rank and authority with the military commander of the unit. Political commissars were established to control and improve morale of the military forces by the Communist party. From 1917 the Bolshevik administration, like the Provisional Government before it, relied on experienced army-officers whose loyalty it distrusted. Trotsky summarised the solution to the issue: "We took a military specialist and we put on his right hand and on his left a commissar " During the early stages of the usage of commissars, no military order might be issued which did not have the prior approval of both the commander and the commissar. Many lower-level political officers never received the same military training as commanding officers.
Prior to becoming a commissar an individual had to be registered as a communist for a minimum of three years and had to attend specific political institutions, many of which never had any military-oriented training. Following the problems encountered in 1941, with dual commanders in units and other political officers were removed from direct command-roles. Political officers were more directly tasked with morale- and regulation-based goals. A political officer's classification was changed to the form of a "Deputy for Political Matters"; the specific position of "Commissar" itself survived only at regimental and front levels, where the Commissars formed the Military Councils with their corresponding military commanders. The voenkom, translated as war commissar, is the head of a military commissariat — a regional office that drafts men for military service, executes plans for military mobilization and maintains records on military reserves; until the late 1930s, the People's Militsiya and Internal Troops of the NKVD had no personal ranks, used many various position-ranks instead.
In 1935, the Militsiya created a special system of personal ranks, a blend of standard military ranks and position-ranks. From 1943, the Militsiya switched to a new rank insignia introduced in the Soviet Army. Instead of General ranks, top officers used Commissar of Militsiya 3rd, 2nd, 1st rank though they used army-standard Major General, Lieutenant General and Colonel General shoulder boards; these Commissar ranks were replaced by corresponding General ranks in 1975. The GUGB switched to military-style ranks and insignia in 1945, although they replaced Commissar-style ranks with General officer ranks right away. Commissar is linked to titles in a variety of languages, such as commissary in English, commissaire in French and Kommissar in German; the term commissary was used by the British and U. S. military to denote an officer in charge of supplying an army with provisions and equipment. A similar term in French describes the equivalent of the rank of Major both in the army of the Ancien Régime and the French Revolution.
Such officials were not military officers but reported back to the political authorities: the king and the National Assembly, respectively. Various historical German states have used an equivalent title, for several administrators who held responsibility over a territory or area of government; the 26 Baku Commissars Imperial Commissars in the Warhammer 40,000 universe Commissar Order
Russian Academy of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia. Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia, it combines scientists employed by institutions. Near the central academy building there is a monument to Yuri Gagarin in the square bearing his name; as of November 2017, the Academy included other units. There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members, corresponding members, foreign members. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizens of the Russian Federation. However, some academicians and corresponding members were elected before the collapse of the USSR and are now citizens of other countries. Members of RAS are elected based on their scientific contributions – election to membership is considered prestigious. In the years 2005–2012, the academy had 500 full and 700 corresponding members, but in 2013, after the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences became incorporated into the RAS, a number of the RAS members accordingly increased.
The last elections to the renewed Russian Academy of Sciences were organized in October 2016. In the beginning of April 2019, the Academy had 460 foreign members. Since 2015, the Academy awards, on a competitive basis, the honorary scientific rank of a RAS Professor to the top-level researchers with Russian citizenship. Now there are 605 scientists with this rank. RAS professorship is not a membership type but its holders are considered as possible candidates for membership; the RAS consists of 13 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial branches and 15 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils and commissions, all organized for different purposes. Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Siberian Branch was established in 1957, with Mikhail Lavrentyev as founding chairman. Research centers are in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Yakutsk, Ulan-Ude, Kemerovo and Omsk; as of end-2017, the Branch employed over 12,500 scientific researchers, 211 of whom were members of the Academy.
Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Ural Branch was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centers are in Yekaterinburg, Cheliabinsk, Orenburg and Syktyvkar; as of 2016, 112 Ural scientists were members of the Academy. Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Far East Branch includes the Primorsky Scientific Center in Vladivostok, the Amur Scientific Center in Blagoveschensk, the Khabarovsk Scientific Center, the Sakhalin Scientific Center in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the Kamchatka Scientific Center in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the North-Eastern Scientific Center in Magadan, the Far East Regional Agriculture Center in Ussuriysk and several Medical institutions; as of 2017, there were 64 Academy members in the Branch. Kazan Scientific Center Pushchino Scientific Center Samara Scientific Center Saratov Scientific Center Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the RAS and the Government of the Republic Alania- Northern Ossetia Dagestan Scientific Center Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center Karelian Research Centre of RAS Kola Scientific Center Nizhny Novgorod Center Science Scientific of the RAS in Chernogolovka St. Petersburg Scientific Center Ufa Scientific Center Southern Scientific Center Troitsk Scientific Center The Russian Academy of Sciences comprises a large number of research institutions, including: Member institutions are linked via a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet.
Started with just three members, The RSSI now has 3,100 members, including 57 from the largest research institutions. Russian universities and technical institutes are not under the supervision of the RAS, but a number of leading universities, such as Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, Novosibirsk State University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, make use of the staff and facilities of many institutes of the RAS. From 1933 to 1992, the main scientific journal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was the Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences; the Academy is increasing its presence in the educational area. In 1990 the Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded, a specialized university intended to provide extensive opportunities for students to choose an academic path; the Academy gives out a number of different prizes and awards among which: The Emperor Peter the Great and advised by Gottfried Leibniz, founded the Academy in Saint Petersburg.
Called The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Russian