The Wendish Crusade was a military campaign in 1147, one of the Northern Crusades and a part of the Second Crusade, led by the Kingdom of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs. The Wends are made up of the Slavic tribes of Abrotrites, Liutizians and Pomeranians who lived east of the River Elbe in present-day northeast Germany and Poland; the lands inhabited by the Wends were rich in resources, which played a factor in the motivations of those who participated in the crusade. The mild climate of the Baltic area allowed for the cultivation of livestock. Animals of this region were thickly furred, supporting the dependence on fur trading. Access to the coast line developed fishing and trade networks; the land was attractive for the resources it boasted, the crusade offered an opportunity for noble families to gain part of it. By the early 12th century, the German archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg sought the conversion to Christianity of neighboring pagan West Slavs through peaceful means.
During the preparation of the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, a papal bull was issued supporting a crusade against these Slavs. The Slavic leader Niklot preemptively invaded Wagria in June 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders that summer, they were repulsed from Demmin. Another crusading army marched on the Christian city of Szczecin, whereupon the crusaders dispersed upon arrival; the Christian army, composed of Saxons and Danes, forced tribute from the pagan Slavs and affirmed German control of Wagria and Polabia through colonization, but failed to convert the bulk of the population immediately. The Ottonian dynasty supported eastward expansion of the Holy Roman Empire towards Wendish lands during the 10th century; the campaigns of King Henry the Fowler and Emperor Otto the Great led to the introduction of burgwards to protect German conquests in the lands of the Sorbs. Otto's lieutenants, Margraves Gero and Hermann Billung, advanced eastward and northward to claim tribute from conquered Slavs.
Bishoprics were established at Meissen, Brandenburg and Oldenburg to administer the territory. A majority of Wendish tribes had been Christianized from the German conquests, but in 983 they returned to paganism when a great Slavic rebellion reversed the initial German gains. While the burgwards allowed the Saxons to retain control of Meissen, they lost Brandenburg and Havelberg; the Elbe River became the eastern limit of German-Roman control. By the early 12th century, the Archbishoprics of Bremen and Gniezno sought the conversion of the pagan Slavs to Christianity through peaceful means: notable missionaries included Vicelin, Norbert of Xanten, Otto of Bamberg. Lacking support from the Salian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, secular Saxon princes seeking Slavic territory found themselves in a military stalemate with their adversaries. Christians Saxons from Holstein, pagans raided each other across the Limes Saxonicus for tribute; the idea of a crusade against the Wends first originated in the Magdeburg Letter sent around 1107 to 1110, in which an anonymous author makes an appeal against the Wends.
The Magdeburg Letter makes the case that the Wends are pagans and that any fight against them is justified and the land that they inhabit is "our Jerusalem". In the letter no formal spiritual indulgence is offered apart from a general salvation of the soul, but an emphasis is put on acquiring land; the author says, "these gentiles are most wicked, but their land is the best, rich in meat, honey and birds. So say those who know it, and so, most renowned Saxon, French and Flemings and conquerors of the world, this is an occasion for you to save your souls and, if you wish it, acquire the best land in which to live." The references made to the wealth of resources in the Slavic lands would have been appealing to those who were motivated by material gain. The Magdeburg letter established the ideas of a northern crusade and land acquisition that would come to play defining roles of the Wendish Crusade. From 1140-43 Holsatian nobles advanced into Wagria to permanently settle in the lands of the pagan Wagri.
Count Adolf II of Holstein and Henry of Badewide took control of Polabian settlements which would become Lübeck and Ratzeburg. Adolf sought peace with the chief of the Obodrite confederacy and encouraged German colonization and missionary activity in Wagria; the fall of Edessa in Syria in 1144 shocked Christendom, causing Pope Eugenius III and St. Bernard of Clairvaux to preach a Second Crusade to reinforce Outremer. While many south Germans volunteered to crusade in the Middle East, the north German Saxons were reluctant, they told Bernard of their desire to campaign against the Slavs at a Reichstag meeting in Frankfurt on 13 March 1147. The Wends were seen as a threat to Christendom as they were apostates, meaning the crusade against them would be justified. Approving of the Saxons' plan, Pope Eugenius III issued a papal bull known as the Divina dispensatione on 11 April 1147; as part of the bull, Eugenius III fulfilled and validated a promise made by Bernard that the same indulgences would be offered to those who crusaded against the Wends as those who went to fight in the Middle East.
These indulgences offered a complete forgiveness of sin, meaning there was to be no difference between the spiritual rewards of the different cru
The Fifth Crusade was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt. Pope Innocent III and his successor Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, an attack against Jerusalem left the city in Muslim hands. In 1218, a German army led by Oliver of Cologne, a mixed army of Dutch and Frisian soldiers led by William I, Count of Holland joined the crusade. In order to attack Damietta in Egypt, they allied in Anatolia with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm which attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts. After occupying the port of Damietta, the Crusaders marched south towards Cairo in July 1221, but were turned back after their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses, in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed to an eight-year peace agreement with Europe.
Pope Innocent III had planned since 1208 a crusade to recapture Jerusalem. In April 1213 he issued the papal bull Quia maior; this was followed by another papal bull, the Ad Liberandam in 1215. The message of the crusade was preached in France by Robert of Courçon. In 1215 Pope Innocent III summoned the Fourth Lateran Council, along with the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Raoul of Merencourt, he discussed the recovery of the Holy Land, among other church business. Pope Innocent wanted it to be led by the papacy, as the First Crusade should have been, to avoid the mistakes of the Fourth Crusade, taken over by the Venetians. Pope Innocent planned for the crusaders to meet at Brindisi in 1216, prohibited trade with the Muslims, to ensure that the crusaders would have ships and weapons; every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who helped pay the expenses of a crusader, but did not go on crusade themselves. Oliver of Cologne had preached the crusade in Germany, Emperor Frederick II attempted to join in 1215.
Frederick was the last monarch. Innocent died in 1216 and was succeeded by Pope Honorius III, who barred Frederick from participating, but organized crusading armies led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Leopold VI, Duke of Austria. Andrew had the largest royal army in the history of the crusades. Pope Innocent had managed to secure Georgia's participation in the crusade. Georgia's isolationist policies had allowed it to accumulate a powerful army and a large concentration of knights. However, the reconnaissance force under the Mongols Jebe and Subutai destroyed the entire Georgian army in two successive battles, most notably the Battle of Caucasus Mountain. After the death of Georgian King George IV Lasha, his sister Queen Rusudan wrote to the Pope informing him that Georgia was unable to fulfill its promise to assist in the Crusade because its army had been destroyed by unknown savages, it has been speculated that the oddly passive behavior of the Crusaders in the years was due to them waiting for the Georgian army to join the fray.
Decades after this Crusade, Mongol ruler Hulegu Khan would take a census of the Kingdom of Georgia to ascertain how many troops it could muster. According to contemporary sources, the kingdom was judged to be able to field nine tumens. A tumen was nominally 10,000 men, but averaged 5,000 in reality. If Hulegu's census was accurate the kingdom of Georgia in the 13th century was capable of mustering 45,000 soldiers. Had a force this size joined the Fifth Crusade, it would have more than doubled the Crusaders' strength; the first to take up the cross in the Fifth Crusade was King Andrew II of Hungary. In July 1217, Andrew departed from Zagreb, accompanied by Leopold VI of Austria and Otto I, Duke of Merania. King Andrew's army was so large—at least 10,000 mounted soldiers and much more "uncountable" infantrymen—that most of it stayed behind when Andrew and his men embarked in Split two months later, they were transported by the Venetian fleet, the largest European fleet in the era. Andrew and his troops embarked on 23 August 1217, in Split.
They landed on 9 October on Cyprus from where they sailed to Acre and joined John of Brienne, ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Hugh I of Cyprus, Prince Bohemond IV of Antioch to fight against the Ayyubids in Syria. Until his return to Hungary, king Andrew remained the leader of Christian forces in the Fifth Crusade. In October 1217, the leaders of the crusaders - Masters of Hospitalers and Teutons with the leaders and dignitaries of the crusade - held a war council in Acre, over which King Andrew II presided. King Andrew's well-mounted army defeated sultan Al-Adil I at Bethsaida on the Jordan River on 10 November 1217. Muslim forces retreated in their towns. In Jerusalem, the walls and fortifications were demolished to prevent the Christians from being able to defend the city, if they did manage to reach it and take it. Muslims fled the city, afraid that there would be a repeat of the bloodbath of the First Crusade in 1099; the crusaders' catapults and trebuchets did not arrive in time, so they had fruitless assaults on the fortresses of the Lebanon and on Mount Tabor.
Afterwards, Andrew spent his time collecting alleged relics. At the beginning of 1218 Andrew, sick, decided to return to Hungary. Andrew and his army departed to
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey. It was known as Nicaea, from which its modern name derives; the town lies in a fertile basin at the eastern end of Lake İznik, bounded by ranges of hills to the north and south. As the crow flies, the town is only 90 kilometres southeast of Istanbul but by road it is 200 km around the Gulf of Izmit, it is 80 km by road from Bursa. The town is situated with its west wall rising from the lake itself, providing both protection from siege from that direction, as well as a source of supplies which would be difficult to cut off; the lake is large enough that it cannot be blockaded from the land and the city was large enough to make any attempt to reach the harbour from shore-based siege weapons difficult. The city was surrounded on all sides by 5 km of walls about 10 m high; these were in turn surrounded by a double ditch on the land portions, included over 100 towers in various locations. Large gates on the three landbound sides of the walls provided the only entrance to the city.
Today the walls are pierced in many places for roads, but much of the early work survives and as a result it is a tourist destination. The town has a population of about 15,000, it has been a district center of Bursa Province since 1930. It was in the district of Kocaeli between 1923 and 1927 and was a township of Yenişehir district between 1927 and 1930; the town was an important producer of decorated fritware vessels and tiles in the 16th and 17th centuries. For the history before the Ottoman conquest, see the article on Nicaea. In 1331, Orhan I captured the city from the Byzantines and for a short period the town became the capital of the expanding Ottoman emirate; the large church of Hagia Sophia in the centre of the town was converted into a mosque and became known as the Orhan Mosque. A madrasa and baths were built nearby. In 1334 Orhan built a mosque and an imaret just outside the Yenisehir gate on the south side of the town; the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta stayed in Iznik at the end of 1331 soon after the capture of the town by Orhan.
According to Ibn Battuta, the town was in ruins and only inhabited by a small number of people who were in the service of the sultan. Within the city walls were cultivated plots with each house surrounded by an orchard; the town produced fruit, walnuts and large sweet grapes. A census in 1520 recorded 379 Muslim and 23 Christian households while a census taken a century in 1624 recorded 351 Muslim and 10 Christian households. Assuming five members for each household, these figures suggest that the population was around 2,000. Various estimates in the 18th and 19th centuries give similar numbers; the town was poor and the population small when the ceramic production was at its peak during the second half of the 16th century. The Byzantine city is estimated to have had a population of 20,000–30,000 but in the Ottoman period the town was never prosperous and occupied only a small fraction of the walled area; the English clergyman John Covel visited Iznik in 1677 and found that only a third of the town was occupied.
In 1745 the English traveller Richard Pococke reported. A succession of visitors described the town in unflattering terms. After his visit in 1779, the Italian archaeologist Domenico Sestini wrote that Iznik was nothing but an abandoned town with no life, no noise and no movement. In 1797 James Dallaway described Iznik as "a wretched village of long lanes and mud walls...". The town was damaged in 1921 during the Greco-Turkish War; the town became more important with the development a pottery and tile making industry during the Ottoman period in the 16th century, known as the İznik Çini. Iznik ceramic tiles were used to decorate many of the mosques in Istanbul designed by Mimar Sinan. However, this industry declined in the 17th century and İznik became a agricultural minor town in the area when a major railway bypassed it in the 19th century. A number of monuments were erected by the Ottomans in the period between the conquest in 1331 and 1402 when the town was sacked by Timur. Among those that have survived are: Hacı Özbek Mosque.
This mosque was built only three years after the conquest. The portico on the west side of the building was demolished in 1940 to widen the road. Yeşil Mosque of Iznik Green Mosque; the mosque was built for Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha, the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. It is located near the Lefke Gate on the east side of the town, it was damaged in 1922 during the Greco-Turkish War and restored between 1956 and 1969. Hagia Sophia known as Aya Sofya is a Byzantine-era former church building, built by Justinian I in the middle of the city in the 6th century. Nilüfer Hatun Soup Kitchen; the building was restored in 1955 and is now a museum. Süleyman Pasa Madrasa; this is one of the two surviving madrasas in the town. It was restored in the 19th century and again in 1968. Mausoleum of Çandarli Hayreddin Pasa; the main room contains fifteen sarcophagi. A lower room contains three more sarcophagi including that of Hayreddin Pasha; the mausoleum is located in a cemetery outside the Lefke gate to the east of the town.
Several monuments were destroyed during the Greco-Turkish War. These include: Church of the Koimesis/Dormition (6th–8th century but rebuilt after the 1065 earthq
The Livonian Crusade was the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes. It ended with Duchy of Estonia; the lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea were the last corners of Europe to be Christianized. On 2 February 1207, in the territories conquered, an ecclesiastical state called Terra Mariana was established as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire, proclaimed by Pope Innocent III in 1215 as a subject of the Holy See. After the success of the crusade, the German- and Danish-occupied territory was divided into six feudal principalities by William of Modena. Christianity had come to Latvia with the settlement of Grobiņa by Swedes in the 7th century and the Danes in the 11th. By the time German traders began to arrive in the second half of the 12th century to trade along the ancient trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, some natives had been baptized.
Saint Meinhard of Segeberg arrived in Ikšķile in 1184 with the mission of converting the pagan Livonians, was consecrated as Bishop of Üxküll in 1186. In those days the riverside town was the center of the missionary activities in the Livonian area; the indigenous Livonians, paying tribute to the East Slavic Principality of Polotsk, were under attack by their southern neighbours the Semigallians, at first considered the Low Germans to be useful allies. The first prominent Livonian to be converted was their leader Caupo of Turaida, baptized around 1189. Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193; when peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, the impatient Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians forcibly, but was thwarted. He died in 1196, his appointed replacement, bishop Berthold of Hanover, a Cistercian abbot of Loccum arrived with a large contingent of crusaders in 1198. Shortly afterward, while riding ahead of his troops in battle, Berthold was surrounded and killed, his forces defeated by Livonians.
To avenge Berthold's defeat, Pope Innocent III issued a bull declaring a crusade against the Livonians. Albrecht von Buxthoeven, consecrated as bishop in 1199, arrived the following year with a large force, established Riga as the seat of his Bishopric of Riga in 1201. In 1202 he formed the Livonian Brothers of the Sword to aid in the conversion of the pagans to Christianity and, more to protect German trade and secure German control over commerce; as the German grip tightened, the Livonians and their christened chief rebelled against the crusaders. Caupo's forces were defeated at Turaida in 1206, the Livonians were declared to be converted. Caupo subsequently remained an ally of the crusaders until his death in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day in 1217. By 1208 the important Daugava trading posts of Salaspils, Koknese and Sēlpils Castle had been taken over as a result of Albert's energetic campaigning. In the same year, the rulers of the Latgalian counties Tālava and Autine established military alliances with the Order, construction began on both Cēsis Castle and a stone Koknese Castle, where the Daugava and Pērse rivers meet, replacing the wooden castle of Latgalians.
In 1209 Albert, leading the forces of the Order, captured the capital of the Latgalian Principality of Jersika, took the wife of the ruler Visvaldis captive. Visvaldis was forced to submit his kingdom to Albert as a grant to the Archbishopric of Riga, received back a portion of it as a fief. Tālava, weakened in wars with Estonians and Russians, became a vassal state of the Archbishopric of Riga in 1214, in 1224 was divided between the Archbishopric and the Order. By 1208 the Crusaders were strong enough to begin operations against the Estonians, who were at that time divided into eight major and seven smaller Counties, led by elders, with limited co-operation between them. With the help of the newly converted local tribes of Livs and Latgalians, the crusaders initiated raids into Sakala and Ugaunia in Southern Estonia; the Estonian tribes fiercely resisted the attacks from Riga and sacked territories controlled by the crusaders. In 1208–27, war parties of the different sides rampaged through Livonia and other Estonian counties, with the Livs and Russians of the Republic of Novgorod serving variously as allies of both crusaders and Estonians.
Hill forts, which were the key centers of Estonian counties, were besieged, re-captured a number of times. A truce between the war-weary sides was established for three years, it proved more favourable to the Germans, who consolidated their political position, while the Estonians were unable to develop their system of loose alliances into a centralised state. They were led by Lembitu of Lehola, the elder of Sackalia, who by 1211 had come to the attention of German chroniclers as the central figure of the Estonian resistance; the Livonian leader Caupo was killed in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day near Viljandi on September 21, 1217, but Lembitu was killed, the battle was a crushing defeat for the Estonians; the Christian kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden were eager for expansion on the eastern shores of the Baltic. In 1218 Albert asked King Valdemar II of Denmark for assistance, but Valdemar instead arranged a deal with the Order; the king was victorious in the Battle of Lindanise in Revelia in 1219, to which the origin of the Flag of Denmark is attributed.
He subsequently founded the fortress Castrum Danorum, unsuccessfully besieged by the Estonians in 1220 and 1223. King John I of Sweden tried to establish a Swedish pres
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade; the Ninth Crusade is sometimes counted as part of the Eighth. The crusade is considered a failure after Louis died shortly after arriving on the shores of Tunisia, with his disease-ridden army dispersing back to Europe shortly afterwards. Despite the failure of the Seventh Crusade, which ended in the capture of King Louis by the Mamluks, the King did not lose interest in crusading, he continued to send financial aid and military support to the settlements in Outremer from 1254 to 1266. While the "crusade" of the King's brother Charles of Anjou against the Hohenstaufen Kingdom of Sicily occupied Papal attention for some years, the advance of Baibars in Syria during the early 1260s became alarming to Christendom; the War of Saint Sabas between Genoa and Venice had drawn in the Crusader States and depleted their resources and manpower.
The exhausted settlements were systematically overrun by the methodical campaigns of Baibars. By 1265, he had raided Galilee and destroyed the cathedral of Nazareth, captured Caesarea and Arsuf and temporarily took Haifa. In late 1266, Louis informed Pope Clement IV. Louis formally took the cross on 24 March 1267 at an assembly of his nobles. A second ceremony took place on 5 June 1267 before a papal legate in Notre-Dame de Paris. Louis's son-in-law, King Theobald II of Navarre, who had taken the cross, was present; the response was less enthusiastic than to his calling of the Seventh Crusade in 1248, although its unpopularity may have been exaggerated by his chronicler Jean de Joinville, opposed to the venture. The crusade was set to sail from Aigues-Mortes in early summer 1270 in Genoese and Marseillois shipping. An Aragonese contingent under James I of Aragon sailed from Barcelona in September 1269, but was caught in a storm and badly damaged. Too weak to engage Baibars, they soon returned to Aragon as well.
Louis' initial plan was to descend on the coast of Outremer by way of Cyprus. However, a new plan was developed in 1269; this change has been attributed to the King's brother Charles of Anjou, whose newly-conquered Kingdom of Sicily would benefit from a renewal of its traditional influence on Tunis. However, the details of Charles' preparations suggest that he was not aware of the change of plans, which originated at the French court. Louis may have thought. Pope Clement ceded a tenth of the church's income in Navarre to King Theobald for the financing the crusade; the prior of Roncesvalles and the dean of Tudela were to oversee the collection of the tenth. The preaching of the crusade in Navarre was undertaken by the Franciscans and Dominicans of Pamplona. A large and well-organized fleet under Louis IX sailed from Aigues-Mortes about a month late, on 1 July 1270; the following day a second fleet under the King of Navarre sailed from Marseille. The two fleets joined up at Cagliari on the southern coast of Sardinia.
They landed on the Tunisian coast on 18 July. The crusaders built a fortified camp on the ruins of Carthage and awaited the arrival of the Sicilian contingent under Charles of Anjou; the North African summer bred pestilence, an epidemic of dysentery swept through the crusading ranks. Louis' Damietta-born son John Tristan died of the disease on 3 August. Soon Louis, fell sick, died, in penitence, on a bed of ashes on 25 August, his brother Charles arrived just after his death. Because of further diseases the siege of Tunis was abandoned on 30 October by an agreement with the sultan. In this agreement the Christians gained free trade with Tunis, residence for monks and priests in the city was guaranteed. After hearing of the death of Louis and the evacuation of the crusaders from Tunis, Sultan Baibars of Egypt cancelled his plan to send Egyptian troops to fight Louis in Tunis; the treaty was quite beneficial to Charles of Anjou, who received one-third of a war indemnity from the Tunisians, was promised that Hohenstaufen refugees in the sultanate would be expelled.
Prince Edward of England arrived with an English fleet the day. The English returned to Sicily with the rest of the crusaders. At the end of April 1271, the English continued to Acre to carry on the Ninth Crusade. Bertran d'Alamanon, a diplomat in the service of Charles of Anjou, Ricaut Bono criticised the de Papal policy of pursuing wars in Italy with money that should have gone overseas; the failure of the Eighth Crusade, like those of its predecessors, caused a response to be crafted in Occitan poetry by the troubadours. The death of Louis of France sparked their creative output, notable considering the hostility which the troubadours had shown towards the French monarchy during the Albigensian Crusade. Three planhs, songs of lament, were composed for the death of Louis IX. Guilhem d'Autpol composed Fortz tristors es e salvaj'a retraire for Louis. Raimon Gaucelm de Bezers composed Qui vol aver complida amistansa to celebrate the preparations of the Crusade in 1268, but in 1270 he had to compose Ab grans trebalhs et ab grans marrimens in commemoration of the French king.
Austorc de Segret composed No
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Western Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe; the concept of Central Europe is based on a common historical and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope and the Visegrád Four. While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index as highly developed. Elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Latin; however Eastern Europe, which remained Eastern Orthodox, was the area of Graeco-Byzantine cultural influence. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in close connection with Western European development, he explained that between the 11th and 15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics.
The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns and parliaments. In 1335, under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland and Hungary, they agreed to cooperate in the field of politics and commerce, inspiring their post-Cold War successors to launch a successful Central European initiative. In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world. In Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained rural and agricultural, its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom.
The concept of Central Europe was known at the beginning of the 19th century, but its real life began in the 20th century and became an object of intensive interest. However, the first concept mixed science and economy – it was connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa; the German term denoting Central Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from Rhine to Vistula, or Dnieper, from the Baltic Sea to the Balkans. An example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch's book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria–Hungary as its main aim. Another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political and cultural domination; the "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann's book Mitteleuropa in which he called for an economic federation to be established after the war.
Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire but would include all European nations outside the Anglo-French alliance, on one side, Russia, on the other. The concept failed after the German defeat in the dissolution of Austria -- Hungary; the revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era. According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included: Austria, Germany, Poland and Switzerland; the author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, but he doesn't care about the legal development, the social, economic, infrastructural developments in these countries. The interwar period brought new geopolitical system and economic and political problems, the concept of Central Europe took a different character; the centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia and Poland. Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political and national problems of "new" states, being a way to face German and Soviet pressures.
However, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe. Before World War I, it embraced German states, non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance. After the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the concept. At that time the scientists took an interest in the idea: the International Historical Congress in Brussels in 1923 was committed to Central Europe, the 1933 Congress continued the discussions. Hungarian scholar Magda Adam wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe: "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia and Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes (later Yu
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. His troops were defeated by the Egyptian army led by Fakhr-Al Din Ibn Sheikh Al Shioukh A, killed during the war supported by the Bahariyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz and Qalawun and Louis was captured. 800,000 bezants were paid in ransom for his return. In 1244, the Khwarezmians displaced by the advance of the Mongols, took Jerusalem on their way to ally with the Egyptian Mamluks; this returned Jerusalem to Muslim control, but the fall of Jerusalem was no longer a crucial event to European Christians, who had seen the city pass from Christian to Muslim control numerous times in the past two centuries. This time, despite calls from the Pope, there was no popular enthusiasm for a new crusade. There were many conflicts within Europe that kept its leaders from embarking on the Crusade. Pope Innocent IV and Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor continued the papal-imperial struggle. Frederick had captured and imprisoned clerics on their way to the First Council of Lyon, in 1245 he was formally deposed by Innocent IV.
Pope Gregory IX had earlier offered King Louis' brother, count Robert of Artois, the German throne, but Louis had refused. Thus, the Holy Roman Emperor was in no position to crusade. Béla IV of Hungary was rebuilding his kingdom from the ashes after the devastating Mongol invasion of 1241. Henry III of England was still struggling with other problems in England. Henry and Louis were not on the best of terms, being engaged in the Capetian-Plantagenet struggle, while Louis was away on crusade the English king signed a truce promising not to attack French lands. Louis IX had invited King Haakon IV of Norway to crusade, sending the English chronicler Matthew Paris as an ambassador, but again was unsuccessful; the only king interested in beginning another crusade therefore was Louis IX, who declared his intent to go east in 1245. A much smaller force of Englishmen, led by William Longespée took the cross. France was one of the strongest states in Europe at the time, as the Albigensian Crusade had brought Provence into Parisian control.
Poitou was ruled by Louis IX's brother Alphonse of Poitiers, who joined him on his crusade in 1245. Another brother, Charles I of Anjou joined Louis. For the next three years Louis collected an ecclesiastical tenth, in 1248 he and his 15,000-strong army that included 3,000 knights, 5,000 crossbowmen sailed on 36 ships from the ports of Aigues-Mortes, built to prepare for the crusade, Marseille. Louis IX's financial preparations for this expedition were comparatively well organized, he was able to raise 1,500,000 livres tournois. However, many nobles who joined Louis on the expedition had to borrow money from the royal treasury, the crusade turned out to be expensive, they sailed first to Cyprus and spent the winter on the island, negotiating with various other powers in the east. The Latin Empire, set up after the Fourth Crusade, asked for his help against the Byzantine, Empire of Nicaea, the Principality of Antioch, the Knights Templar wanted his help in Syria where the Muslims had captured Sidon.
Nonetheless, Egypt was the object of his crusade, he landed in 1249 at Damietta on the Nile. Egypt would, Louis thought, provide a base from which to attack Jerusalem, its wealth and supply of grain would keep the crusaders fed and equipped. On 6 June Damietta was taken with little resistance from the Egyptians, who withdrew further up the Nile; the flooding of the Nile had not been taken into account, it soon grounded Louis and his army at Damietta for six months, where the knights sat back and enjoyed the spoils of war. Louis ignored the agreement made during the Fifth Crusade that Damietta should be given to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, now a rump state in Acre, but he did set up an archbishopric there and used the city as a base to direct military operations against the Muslims of Syria; the fifteenth century Muslim historian al-Maqrizi recorded Louis IX as sending a letter to as-Salih Ayyub that said: As you know that I am the ruler of the Christian nation I do know you are the ruler of the Muhammadan nation.
The people of Al-Andalus give me money and gifts. We kill their men and we make their women widows. We take the boys and the girls as prisoners and we make houses empty. I have told you enough and I have advised you to the end, so now if you make the strongest oath to me and if you go to Christian priests and monks and if you carry kindles before my eyes as a sign of obeying the cross, all these will not persuade me from reaching you and killing you at your dearest spot on earth. If the land will be mine it is a gift to me. If the land will be yours and you defeat me you will have the upper hand. I have told you and I have warned you about my soldiers who obey me, they can fill their number like pebbles. They will be sent to you with swords of destruction. In November, Louis marched towards Cairo, at the same time, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, as-Salih Ayyub, died. A force led by Robert of Artois, alongside the Templars and the English contingent led by William Longespée, attacked the Egyptian camp at Gideila and advanced to Al Mansurah where they were defeated at the Battle of Al Mansurah.
Robert and William were killed, only a small handful survived. Meanwhile, Louis' main force was attacked by the Mameluk Baibars, the commander of the army and a future sultan himself. Louis was defeated as well, but he did not withdraw to Damietta for months, preferri