Peter Ayodele Fayose, is a Nigerian politician and the former Governor of Ekiti State. Fayose grew up in Oyo State where he attended Olivet Baptist High School, Oyo In 1985, Fayose was admitted for a Higher National Diploma programme in Biological Sciences/Applied Medical/Biology by The Polytechnic and graduated in 1987. While doing his National Youth Service Corps program at Pepsi Nigeria Limited, Ibadan, he was engaged in installation and servicing of medical and laboratory equipment. After the youth service, Fayose traveled out of the country during which he was exposed to a broad spectrum of business that guided his life later, he is married to Feyisetan. He conducted one of the most sought after medical outreach programmes during his political campaign in 2001. Fayose became the second governor of Ekiti on 29th Of May, 2003, after defeating the incumbent Governor Niyi Adebayo in the gubernatorial elections. Fayose could not complete his tenure as a result of an impeachment on 16th Of October, 2006.
During the 2014 Governorship election in Ekiti State, Peter Ayodele Fayose was again the PDP nominee. He won the election and was declared by the Independent National Electoral Commission as the new Governor of Ekiti State. Fayose is now the only Nigerian to defeat an incumbent two times. Fayose has publicly declared his intentions to run for president in Nigerian general election, 2019. Though his party, The Peoples Democratic Party, PDP, has admonished the Governor, against his ambition to be the party’s presidential candidate in 2019 but has withdrawn his quest. An army intelligence officer Captain Sagir Koli of the Nigerian Army 32nd Artillery Brigade, secretly recorded a vote-rigging plan on June 20th, 2014 when he was asked to accompany his commanding Officer, Brigadier General Aliyu Momoh, to a meeting at Spotless Hotel in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State; the 37-minute audio recording was attended by the eventual “winner” of the election, Governor Ayodele Fayose of Ekiti State. For exposing the vote-rigging of the Ekiti State governor election of Fayose, Captain Sagir Koli was praised by the military for his “non-partisanship and professional conduct during the election period.”
The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission froze four Zenith Bank accounts used by Fayose to launder money for his Ekiti governorship election in 2014 in a lawsuit no. FHC/CS?871/2016 titled “Federal Republic of Nigeria Vs Zenith bank PLC account numbers 1003126654, 9013074033, 1010170969 and 1013835889.” The judge Justice Mohammed Idris had granted the EFCC on June 24th, 2016 an order to freeze all the funds in the said accounts in Zenith Bank. Two accounts belong to Governor Ayo Fayose while the third belongs to his hotel Spotless Hotel in Ado Ekiti; the fourth account was operated by one of Fayose’s aides, Abiodun Agbele, under EFCC custody. The EFCC had alleged that those accounts possessed funds, said to be about N4.7 billion stolen from the office of the National Security Adviser, with most of the money secretly retained by Fayose for his personal use after the election. On June 22nd, 2016, Fayose had claimed that Aisha Buhari, the wife of the Nigerian president Muhammadu Buhari was the same person indicted by a US Court for transferring $170,000 to indicted US Congressman, Williams Jefferson, in the William J. Jefferson corruption case involving Halliburton and that she was avoiding arrest by US authorities by failing to accompany her husband on his three presidential visits to the United States.
However, when Aisha Buhari travelled to Washington DC in August 4th, 2016, Fayose subsequently claimed that her US visit did not invalidate the Haliburton judgement against her, saying "Has traveling to the US invalidated the judgment that said Aisha Buhari transferred $170,000 to Jefferson’s account? “Has traveling to the US erased the fact that Aisha Buhari transferred $170,000 to Williams Jefferson? Temitope Aluko
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations. It includes a spectrum of different economic policies, such as freedom of movement, but its basis is on strong support for a market economy and private property in the means of production. Although economic liberals can be supportive of government regulation to a certain degree, they tend to oppose government intervention in the free market when it inhibits free trade and open competition. Economic liberalism is associated with private ownership of capital assets. Economic liberalism arose in response to mercantilism and feudalism. Today, economic liberalism is considered opposed to non-capitalist economic orders, such as socialism and planned economies, it contrasts with protectionism because of its support for free trade and open markets. An economy, managed according to these precepts may be described as a liberal economy.
Arguments in favor of economic liberalism were advanced during the Enlightenment, opposing mercantilism and feudalism. It was first analyzed by Adam Smith in An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, which advocated minimal interference of government in a market economy, though it did not oppose the state's provision of basic public goods with what constitutes public goods being seen as limited in scope. Smith claimed that if everyone is left to his own economic devices instead of being controlled by the state the result would be a harmonious and more equal society of ever-increasing prosperity; this underpinned the move towards a capitalist economic system in the late 18th century and the subsequent demise of the mercantilist system. Private property and individual contracts form the basis of economic liberalism; the early theory was based on the assumption that the economic actions of individuals are based on self-interest and that allowing them to act without any restrictions will produce the best results for everyone, provided that at least minimum standards of public information and justice exist, e.g. no one should be allowed to coerce, steal, or commit fraud and there is freedom of speech and press.
The economic liberals had to contend with the supporters of feudal privileges for the wealthy, aristocratic traditions and the rights of kings to run national economies in their own personal interests. By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, these were defeated. Economic liberalism opposes government intervention on the grounds that the state serves dominant business interests, distorting the market to their favor and thus leading to inefficient outcomes. Ordoliberalism and various schools of social liberalism based on classical liberalism include a broader role for the state, but do not seek to replace private enterprise and the free market with public enterprise and economic planning. For example, a social market economy is a free market economy based on a free price system and private property, but is supportive of government activity to promote competitive markets and social welfare programs to address social inequalities that result from free market outcomes. Adams, Ian.
Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-719-06020-5. Balaam, David N. Introduction to International Political Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-34730-9. Turner, Rachel S.. Neo-Liberal Ideology: History and Policies. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-748-68868-5. Quotations related to Economic liberalism at Wikiquote
Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan is a Nigerian politician who served as the President of Nigeria from 2010 to 2015. Prior to that he served as Vice-President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010 and as Governor of Bayelsa State from 2005 to 2007, he lost the 2015 presidential election to Muhammadu Buhari, becoming the first sitting Nigerian president to concede electoral defeat. Jonathan was born in, he holds a B. Sc. degree in Zoology, an M. Sc. degree in Hydrobiology and Fisheries biology and a PhD degree in Zoology from the University of Port Harcourt. Before he entered politics in 1998, he worked as an education inspector and environmental-protection officer. Jonathan and his wife, Dame Patience Jonathan have two children, he is a Christian from the Ijaw ethnic group. In 2007, Jonathan declared his assets worth a total of ₦295,304,420. On 29 May 1999, Jonathan was sworn in as Deputy Governor of Bayelsa alongside Diepreye Alamieyeseigha who came in as the governor of the state on the platform of PDP. Jonathan served as Deputy Governor until December 2005.
On 9 December 2005, Deputy Governor at the time, was sworn in as Governor of Bayelsa State upon the impeachment of the current Governor Diepreye Alamieyeseigha by the Bayelsa State Assembly after being charged with money laundering in the United Kingdom. In September 2006, reports released by Wikileaks claimed that Jonathan's wife was indicted for money-laundering by Nigeria’s anti-crime agency, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission; the report proved to be false. The head of the EFCC stated that "Mrs Patience Jonathan was not in any way involved in any case of money laundering investigated by the EFCC"; as Vice-President, Jonathan took a low profile. While recognising the constitutional limits of the Vice-President's office, he participated in cabinet meetings and, by statute, was a member of the National Security Council, the National Defence Council, the Federal Executive Council, was the Chairman of National Economic Council. Vice-President Jonathan was instrumental in negotiating an agreement with many of the major militant groups in the Niger Delta, to lay down their weapons and stop fighting as part of a government amnesty.
On 9 February 2010, a motion from the Nigerian Senate invested Goodluck Jonathan as acting President of the Federation because President Yar'Adua was on a trip to Saudi Arabia in November 2009 for medical treatment. On 10 February 2010, during his first day as acting president, Jonathan announced a minor cabinet reshuffle. Prince Adetokunbo Kayode, the Labour Minister, was named Minister of Justice, to replace Mr Mike Aondoakaa. Aondoakaa was named as the Minister of Special Duties, his counterpart Ibrahim Kazaure was named Minister of Labour. Acting President Jonathan promised to continue implementing the Seven-point agenda policy framework of President Umaru Musa Yar’adua. In accordance with the order of succession in the Nigerian constitution following President Umaru Yar'Adua's death on 5 May 2010, Vice-President Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as the Acting President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 6 May 2010, becoming Nigeria's 14th Head of State, he cited anti-corruption and electoral reforms as focuses of his administration.
He stated that he came to office under "very sad and unusual circumstances". On 18 May 2010, the National Assembly approved Jonathan's nomination of former Kaduna State governor, Namadi Sambo, for the position of Vice-President. On 15 September 2010, Jonathan announced on Facebook that he had decided to run for public office on his own for the first time, in the race for the presidency of Nigeria in 2011. In the contest for the Peoples Democratic Party nomination, Goodluck Jonathan was up against the former vice-president Atiku Abubakar and Mrs. Sarah Jubril. On 13 January 2011 the primary election results was announced in Abuja. Jonathan was declared winner with a victory in two-thirds of the states of the Federation counted. For the general election in 2011, Jonathan and Vice-President Sambo attended political events and travelled the country to campaign for the nation's highest office. Jonathan won the general election against General Muhammadu Buhari and his running mate Pastor Tunde Bakare with 59% of the votes.
On 18 April 2011, Jonathan was declared the winner of the election. On 2 August 2010, Jonathan launched his'Roadmap for Power Sector Reform‘, its primary goal was to achieve stable electricity supply in Nigeria. The Nigerian Power Sector has been plagued by blackouts. Economists estimate that power outages have cost Nigeria, Africa's biggest economy, billions of dollars in imported diesel for generators and lost output. In a study conducted by the World Bank, a lack of access to financing and electricity were cited as Nigeria's main obstacles to development, surpassing corruption. President Jonathan has overseen the privatisation of Nigeria's power sector with the end goal being the establishment of an efficient and reliable power supply infrastructure for the Nigerian population; the Power Holding Company of Nigeria, which acted as the nation's electricity provider, has been broken up into 15 firms, with Nigeria handing over control of state electricity assets to 15 private bidding companies.
The Nigerian government contracted for the services of CPCS Transcom Limited, a Canada-based consulting firm specialising in transportation and energy infrastructure projects, to act as the transaction adviser for the handover of state electricity assets. On 11 October 2011, President Jonathan launched the Youth Enterprise with Innovation in Nigeria Initiative which he stated would be an innovative business plan competition that harnesses th
2019 Nigerian general election
General elections were held in Nigeria on 23 February 2019 to elect the President, Vice President, House of Representatives and the Senate. The elections had been scheduled for 16 February, but the Election Commission postponed the vote by a week at 03:00 on the original polling day, citing logistical challenges in getting electoral materials to polling stations on time. In some places, the vote was delayed until 24 February due to electoral violence. Polling in some areas was subsequently delayed until 9 March, when voting was carried out alongside gubernatorial and state assembly elections; the elections were the most expensive held in Nigeria, costing ₦69 billion more than the 2015 elections. Incumbent president Muhammadu Buhari won his reelection bid, defeating his closest rival Atiku Abubakar by over 3 million votes, he has been issued a Certificate of Return, will be sworn in on 12 June 2019. The President of Nigeria is elected using a modified two round system, to be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive a majority of the vote and over 25% of the vote in at least 24 of the 36 states.
If no candidate passes this threshold, a second round is held. The 109 members of the Senate were elected from 109 single-seat constituencies by first-past-the-post voting; the 360 members of the House of Representatives were elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies۔ The People's Democratic Party held its presidential primaries on 5 October 2018, at the Adokiye Amiesimaka Stadium, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Thirteen aspirants contested with Atiku Abubakar emerging the winner. Incumbent President Muhammadu Buhari was selected as the sole candidate of the All Progressives Congress party primaries held on 29 September 2018. Other candidates included: Chike Ukaegbu, founder of Startup52, is the presidential candidate of AAP. Donald Duke, a former governor of Cross River State, is the presidential candidate of the SDP. Fela Durotoye, motivational speaker and presidential candidate of Alliance for New Nigeria. Oby Ezekwesili, former Minister of Education and leader of the Bring Back Our Girls campaign.
She ended her campaign on January 24, 2019 to combine support with other candidates to support a bid against APC and PDP. Tope Fasua and National Chairman of the Abundant Nigeria Renewal Party. Rabiu Kwankwaso, former governor of Kano State. Sule Lamido, a former governor of Jigawa State. Ahmed Makarfi, former chairman of the People's Democratic Party National Caretaker Committee. Obadiah Mailafia, former Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria and candidate of the African Democratic Congress. Kingsley Moghalu, former Deputy Governor of the CBN and Professor of Practice at Tufts University's Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Gbenga Olawepo-Hashim, oil business mogul and presidential candidate for the Peoples Trust. Remi Sonaiya, member of the KOWA Party and former university lecturer. Omoyele Sowore, human rights activist, pro-democracy campaigner and publisher of news website Sahara Reporters. Kabiru Tanimu Turaki, former Minister of Special Duties. A presidential and vice-presidential debate was organised by the Nigerian Elections Debate Group and the Broadcasting Organisations of Nigeria, with invitations extended to five of the 78 presidential candidates.
The Debate Group explained the exclusion of other candidates as a measure to ensure the effectiveness of the debate and not an endorsement of the candidates chosen. The vice presidential debate was held on 14 December 2018, at the Transcorp Hilton Hotels in Abuja. All invited vice presidential candidates were present, with candidates discussing their health, education and foreign affairs policies; the presidential debate occurred on 19 January 2019, took place at the same venue. The two leading presidential contestants were absent, with Atiku Abubakar leaving the venue upon discovering that Muhammadu Buhari was absent. Fela Durotoye, Oby Ezekwesili and Kingsley Moghalu continued the debate, while criticising the absence of the others. Mark Eddo moderated the debate. Following the elections there were claims of widespread fraud by the opposition; the claims included accusations of ballot box vote-trading and impersonation. There were claims that caches of explosives were found by police; the African Union said the elections were "largely peaceful and conducive for the conducting of credible elections."
The electoral commission described the elections as peaceful. The results of the presidential election were announced in the early hours of 27 February 2019. Senate President Bukola Saraki was defeated in Kwara Central by the APC candidate. 64 incumbent Senators will not be returning as members of the Ninth Senate, having been defeated during the elections. While the APC will have a simple majority of votes in the Senate, it will not have a supermajority, meaning it cannot push through major bills on its own. Three Senate seats have yet to be filled. On 2 March 2019, elections were held for governors of 29 of the 36 states of Nigeria. Elections were suspended in Rivers State
Peter Gregory Obi is a Nigerian businessman and politician, the vice presidential candidate in the 2019 Nigerian general election with Atiku Abubakar under the Peoples Democratic Party's. He is a former governor of Anambra State serving from 17 March 2006 to 2 November 2006, when he was impeached and from 9 February 2007 to 29 May 2007 after his impeachment was overturned. Although a fresh election was held on 29 April 2007, he was reappointed governor on 14 June 2007 after a court ruling that he should be allowed to complete a four-year term, he won a 6 February 2010 election for a second term as governor. Peter Obi was born on 19 July 1961 at Onitsha, he attended Christ the King College, where he completed his secondary school education. He was admitted to the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, in 1980, graduating with a B. A in philosophy in 1984, he is the chairman of Exchange Commission. Obi was chairman of Next International Nigeria Ltd chairman and director of Guardian Express Mortgage Bank Ltd, Guardian Express Bank Plc, Future View Securities Ltd, Paymaster Nigeria Ltd, Chams Nigeria Ltd, Data Corp Ltd and Card Centre Ltd.
He was the youngest chairman of Fidelity Bank PLC. He was appointed the chairman of the Security and Exchange Commission by former President Goodluck Jonathan after the 2015 general election. Peter Obi contested in the Anambra State governorship election as candidate for the All Progressives Grand Alliance party in 2003, but his opponent, Chris Ngige of the People's Democratic Party, was declared winner by the Independent National Electoral Commission. After nearly three years of litigation, Ngige's victory was overturned by the Court of Appeal on 15 March 2006. Obi took office for on 17 March 2006. On 2 November 2006, he was impeached by the state house of assembly after seven months in office and was replaced the next day by Virginia Etiaba, his deputy, making her the first-ever female governor in Nigeria's history. Obi challenged his impeachment and was re-instated as the governor on 9 February 2007 by the Court of Appeal sitting in Enugu. Etiaba handed power back to him after the court ruling.
Obi once again left office on 29 May 2007 following the general elections. Obi returned to the courts once more, this time contending that the four-year tenure he had won in the 2003 elections only started to run when he took office in March 2006. On 14 June 2007 the Supreme Court of Nigeria returned Obi to office; this brought to an abrupt end the tenure of Obi's successor, Andy Uba whose April 14, 2007 election the Supreme Court nullified on the grounds that Obi's four-year tenure should have remained undisturbed until March 2010. On 7 February 2010, the Independent National Electoral Commission declared Peter Obi the winner of the 6 February 2010 gubernatorial elections, where he defeated Professor Charles Soludo, former governor, CBN; this election victory gave Governor Obi an additional four years as the governor of Anambra State. On 17 March 2014 Peter Obi served out his second term and handed over the governorship to Willie Obiano. On October 12, 2018, Peter Obi was named as the running mate to Atiku Abubakar, the Peoples Democratic Party's Presidential Candidate in the Nigerian 2019 Presidential elections.
These are some of the notable awards of Peter Obi Sun Newspaper's Man of the Year Thisday Newspaper's Most Prudent Governor in Nigeria Champion Newspaper's Nigeria's Most Trustworthy Governor West Africa ICT Development Award for Governor of the Year Zik Leadership Prize Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Best Performing Governor on Immunization in South-East Nigeria Ezeife Leadership Foundation's Leadership and Good Governance Award Methodist Church of Nigeria's Golden Award on Prudence.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of 625–740 nanometres, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the CMYK color model, is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy; the red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. Iron oxide gives the red color to the planet Mars; the red colour of blood comes from protein hemoglobin, while ripe strawberries, red apples and reddish autumn leaves are colored by anthocyanins. Red pigment made from ochre was one of the first colors used in prehistoric art; the Ancient Egyptians and Mayans colored their faces red in ceremonies. It was an important color in China, where it was used to colour early pottery and the gates and walls of palaces.
In the Renaissance, the brilliant red costumes for the nobility and wealthy were dyed with kermes and cochineal. The 19th century brought the introduction of the first synthetic red dyes, which replaced the traditional dyes. Red became the color of revolution. Since red is the color of blood, it has been associated with sacrifice and courage. Modern surveys in Europe and the United States show red is the color most associated with heat, passion, anger and joy. In China and many other Asian countries it is the color of symbolizing happiness and good fortune. See below for shades of pink The human eye sees red when it looks at light with a wavelength between 625 and 740 nanometers, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the light just past this range is called infrared, or below red, cannot be seen by human eyes, although it can be sensed as heat. In the language of optics, red is the color evoked by light that stimulates neither the S or the M cone cells of the retina, combined with a fading stimulation of the L cone cells.
Primates can distinguish the full range of the colors of the spectrum visible to humans, but many kinds of mammals, such as dogs and cattle, have dichromacy, which means they can see blues and yellows, but cannot distinguish red and green. Bulls, for instance, cannot see the red color of the cape of a bullfighter, but they are agitated by its movement.. One theory for why primates developed sensitivity to red is that it allowed ripe fruit to be distinguished from unripe fruit and inedible vegetation; this may have driven further adaptations by species taking advantage of this new ability, such as the emergence of red faces. Red light is used to help adapt night vision in low-light or night time, as the rod cells in the human eye are not sensitive to red. Red illumination was used as a safelight while working in a darkroom as it does not expose most photographic paper and some films. Today modern darkrooms use an amber safelight. On the color wheel long used by painters, in traditional color theory, red is one of the three primary colors, along with blue and yellow.
Painters in the Renaissance mixed red and blue to make violet: Cennino Cennini, in his 15th-century manual on painting, wrote, "If you want to make a lovely violet colour, take fine lac, ultramarine blue with a binder" he noted that it could be made by mixing blue indigo and red hematite. In modern color theory known as the RGB color model, red and blue are additive primary colors. Red and blue light combined together makes white light, these three colors, combined in different mixtures, can produce nearly any other color; this is the principle, used to make all of the colors on your computer screen and your television. For example, magenta on a computer screen is made by a similar formula to that used by Cennino Cennini in the Renaissance to make violet, but using additive colors and light instead of pigment: it is created by combining red and blue light at equal intensity on a black screen. Violet is made on a computer screen in a similar way, but with a greater amount of blue light and less red light.
So that the maximum number of colors can be reproduced on your computer screen, each color has been given a code number, or sRGB, which tells your computer the intensity of the red and blue components of that color. The intensity of each component is measured on a scale of zero to 255, which means the complete list includes 16,777,216 distinct colors and shades; the sRGB number of pure red, for example, is 255, 00, 00, which means the red component is at its maximum intensity, there is no green or blue. The sRGB number for crimson is 220, 20, 60, which means that the red is less intense and therefore darker, there is some green, which leans it toward orange; as a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to the eye, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles due to Rayleigh scattering, changing the final color of the beam, seen. Colors with a shorter wavelength, such as blue and green, scatter more and are removed from the light that reaches the eye.
At sunrise and sunset, when the