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People's Front for Democracy and Justice

The People's Front for Democracy and Justice is the founding and ruling political party of the State of Eritrea. The successor to the left-wing nationalist and Marxist–Leninist Eritrean People's Liberation Front, the PFDJ holds itself open to nationalists of any political affiliation; the leader of the PFDJ party and current President of Eritrea is Isaias Afewerki. It has been accused of totalitarianism; the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front People’s Front for Democracy and Justice, formed from the secessionist movement that fought for the creation of an independent Eritrean nation out of the northernmost province of Ethiopia in 1993. The historical region of Eritrea had joined Ethiopia as an autonomous unit in 1952; the Eritrean Liberation Movement was founded in 1958 and was succeeded by the Eritrean Liberation Front in 1961. The ELF grew in membership when the Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie abolished Eritrea’s autonomous status, annexing it as a province in 1962. In the 1960s and 1970s the ELF undertook a systematic campaign of guerrilla warfare against the Ethiopian government.

A faction of the ELF broke away in 1970 to form the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front. The EPLF managed to secure control of much of the Eritrean countryside and build effective administrations in the areas it controlled. Fighting that broke out between the EPLF, ELF, other Eritrean rebel groups in 1981 prevented further military gains, but the EPLF subsequently emerged as the principal Eritrean guerrilla group; as Soviet support of Ethiopia’s socialist government collapsed in the late 1980s, the EPLF formed an alliance with guerrilla groups in Tigray province and other parts of Ethiopia, when these groups overthrew the central government and captured the Ethiopian capital in May 1991, the EPLF formed a separate provisional government for Eritrea. After the holding of a United Nations-supervised referendum on independence there in April 1993, the EPLF declared the new nation of Eritrea the following month. At the third congress of the EPLF Front in February 1994, delegates voted to transform the 95,000‐person organization into a mass political movement, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice.

The congress gave the PFDJ a transitional mandate to draw the general population into the political process and to prepare the country for constitutional democracy. The leader of the PFDJ party and current President of Eritrea is Isaias Afewerki; because Eritrea formed itself from a participated referendum and because of EPLF’s provision of education and other public services to save women and peasants from poverty and oppression, both domestic and foreign media showed high hopes for Eritrea to develop a self-governed and democratic government. EPLF leaders, at the time, were perceived as a “new generation” of African leaders, they enjoyed high popularity rates among their constituents. They endorsed, at least theoretically, human rights, free markets, they had clear development policies based on their priorities. In 1994, the PFDJ established a transitional 150-member National Assembly to determine the pending constitutions and elections; the assembly chose the PFDJ's secretary-general and the former EPLF leader, Isaias Afwerki as Eritrea's president and formed a cabinet around him.

In 1997, the National Assembly adopted a constitution for a multi-party democratic system. It scheduled multi-party elections for 1997; the new government appeared practice separation of powers. However, the political institutions other than the executive office – the cabinet of ministers, a temporary parliament and a nominally independent judiciary – did not pose checks on the executive power; the cabinet did not provide a platform for debates. The military remained under the president's control. Isaias, at the same time, attempted to strengthen the president's power. Since the PFDJ has not held a meeting since 2002. Eritrean nationalism constitutes the core of PFDJ’s ideology, because it is perceived as a necessary process within the overall nation-building effort. To that end the PFDJ advocates unity and participation of all sections of the Eritrean society as the bases of all of its programs. Engagement as well as active contribution to the political, economic and cultural life of Eritrea is therefore perceived as a necessary precondition for social cohesion and development of the country.

To do so the PFDJ aims to establish a national government which ensures unity and equality for the people of Eritrea, rejects all divisive attitudes and activities, places national interest above everything else, enables participation of all sectors of Eritrean society in the PFDJ. Moreover, all political establishments must be built on a national basis, all sectarian political tendencies must be categorically rejected. All forms of discrimination and domination, including ethnic and regional, must be rejected; the diverse cultures of Eritrea should be a source of unity. The national system should be secular, separate from religion, but respectful of the equality of established traditional religions. In short, nationhood is the basis of all political policies; the National Charter of the PFDJ was adopted in 1994 and sets out the key objectives the PFDJ is striving to achieve. Those include: National Harmony – For the people of Eritrea to live in harmony and stability, with no distinction along regional, linguistic, gender or class lines.


George C. Thomas Jr.

George Clifford Thomas Jr. was an American golf course architect and author. He designed the original course at Whitemarsh Valley Country Club, outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thomas grew up in Philadelphia, attended Episcopal Academy, graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1894, his father was a partner in the investment bank Drexel & Company, where the son worked until 1907. As a teenager, he began designing a golf course on Bloomfield Farm, he sold the course in 1908 to a group of golfers who converted it into Whitemarsh Valley Country Club. He designed a 9-hole course in Marion, a course in Spring Lake Heights, New Jersey. In the 1910s, he was able to observe some of the pioneers of golf course design working near Philadelphia, he was a founding member of Sunnybrook Golf Club, witnessed Donald Ross's 1914-15 construction of its original course in Flourtown, Pennsylvania. He was friends with Hugh Wilson, who designed Merion Golf Club's original East Course in 1912, its original West Course in 1914.

Crump, Wilson, William Flynn, Thomas were masters of the "Philadelphia School" of golf course design, which encouraged high-risk/high-reward play. He served in the Army Air Service during World War I. "The Captain" remained his nickname for the rest of his life. He moved to California in 1919, where he designed the course at La Cumbre Country Club in Santa Barbara. William P. Bell supervised its construction, he and Bell collaborated on courses for Los Angeles Country Club, Ojai Country Club, Bel-Air Country Club, Fox Hills Golf Course, Red Hill Country Club, others. In 1926, he published a seminal book, Golf Course Architecture in America, in which he stated the goal behind his work: “When you play a course and remember each hole, it has individuality and change. If your mind cannot recall the exact sequence of the holes, that course lacks the great assets of originality and diversity.”He considered the course at Riviera Country Club to be his masterpiece. It is the only one of his courses, he raised English setters, was one of the founders of the English Setter Club of America.

In 1912, he began breeding roses on Bloomfield Farm, trying to create a variety that would thrive in Philadelphia's Mid-Atlantic climate. His botanical work continued in California, where he cultivated some 1,200 varieties, including his own "Bloomfield" hybrids, he wrote two books on roses. He married Edna H. Ridge in Philadelphia on July 6, 1901, they had two children: George Clifford III, born April 13, 1905. Thomas died of a heart attack at their home in Beverly Hills in 1932. Geoff Shackelford, a golf course architect and author, wrote a 1995 history of Riviera Country Club and a 1996 biography of Thomas. In 2008, Thomas was posthumously inducted into the Southern California Golf Association's Hall of Fame. In 2010, Gil Hanse restored the North Course at Los Angeles Country Club to Thomas's 1921 design. On Golf Digest's 2010 list of the 100 greatest golf courses in America, Riviera Country Club was ranked 31st, the restored North Course at Los Angeles Country Club was ranked 47th. In June 2012, the first George C. Thomas Jr. Invitational Tournament was held on the North Course at Los Angeles Country Club.

Whitemarsh Valley Country Club, Pennsylvania. Marion Golf Club, Massachusetts. Spring Lake Golf Club, Spring Lake Heights, New Jersey. La Cumbre Country Club, Santa Barbara, California. Red Hill Country Club, Rancho Cucamonga, California. North Course, Los Angeles Country Club, Los Angeles, California. Now restored to Thomas's 1921 design. Saticoy Country Club, California. Now Saticoy Regional Golf Course. Los Angeles Municipal Courses, Griffith Park, Los Angeles, California. Renamed the Woodrow Wilson and Warren G. Harding Memorial Golf Courses. Palos Verdes Golf Club, Palos Verdes Estates, California. Ojai Country Club, California. Now Ojai Valley Inn & Spa. Bel-Air Country Club, Bel Air, Los Angeles, California. Riviera Country Club, Pacific Palisades, California. Fox Hills Golf Course, Culver City, California. Now the site of Culver City Shopping Mall. Stanford University Golf Course, California. Geoffrey S. Cornish, Ronald E. Whitten: The Architects of Golf. HarperCollins, New York 1993. ISBN 0062700820 Geoff Shackelford: The Riviera Country Club.

Riviera Country Club 1995. Geoff Shackelford: The Captain: George C. Thomas Jr. and His Golf Architecture. Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea 1996. ISBN 1886947287 George C. Thomas Jr.: The Practical Book of Outdoor Rose-growing for the Home Garden. J. B. Lippincott Co. Philadelphia 1914. George C. Thomas Jr.: Golf Course Architecture in America: Its Strategy and Construction. John Wiley & Sons, New York 1926. Reprint: Clocktower Press, Ann Arbor 1997. ISBN 1886947147 George C. Thomas Jr.: Breeding Roses at Home. American Rose Society, 1929. New York Times obituary, February 29, 1

2011 Los Angeles Blues season

The 2011 Los Angeles Blues season is the inaugural season of the club. For the 2011 season, the Blues will be playing in the USL Pro, the third tier of the United States soccer pyramid; this season marks the first time in the modern era of American soccer that three professional soccer clubs play in the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area. Lists of matches, featuring result and scorers, grouped by competition. Do not include friendly matches; as of May 22, 2011Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: indicates a player on loan to the PDL Los Angeles Blues 23 side Charlie Naimo - Head Coach Shayon Jalayer - Assistant Coach Agustin Rodriguez - Assistant Coach Salvador Moran - Assistant Coach Ahmad Reza Abedzadeh - Goalkeeper Coach Alyse LaHue - General Manager Alli D'Amico - Director of Operations List of squad players, including number of appearances by competition

Chapman State Park (Maryland)

Chapman State Park is a public recreation and historic preservation area bordering the Potomac River in Charles County, Maryland. The state park preservies the mansion and grounds of Mount Aventine, the historic home of the Chapman family, who had significant ties to many of the Founding Fathers; the park's diverse wooded biosphere is home to many rare and disjunct plant and animal species. Several of the park's trees have been nominated for state and national big tree champion status. Recreational features include fishing and several miles of hiking trails. Chapman State Park Maryland Department of Natural Resources Chapman State Park Map Maryland Department of Natural Resources Friends of Chapman State Park

Motorcycle hooliganism

Motorcycle hooliganism includes street racing, street stunting, games of tag on public roads, or cruising in large numbers, against local ordinances. Historian Jeremy Packer wrote that the newest motorcycle "gangs" are unlike the outlaw motorcycle clubs reported in the media since the late 1940s, they now ride sport bikes customized in the streetfighter style, rather than cruisers, passing through both rural and urban areas, playing "elaborate games of tag and follow the leader, continually pushing each other to ride harder." Besides being younger and favoring high-performance motorcycles, these groups are "loosely affiliated and come together to ride." Traditional outlaw motorcycle clubs are known for having detailed charters and membership lists, prescribing codes of behavior, dress and brand of motorcycle members may ride, vigorously enforcing procedures for admitting new members, banishing members who break club rules, protecting the club's territory and name from anyone falsely pretending to be a member.

Packer wrote in 2008 that media attention, such as the popular A&E television documentary The Wild Ride of the Outlaw Bikers and the Guggenheim show The Art of the Motorcycle, erroneously only covered the baby boomer Harley-Davidson rider culture, failing to note a shift in demographics and behavior. Packer said this promotes the Harley-Davidson brand and promotes "a type of motorcycle affiliation, palatable, family friendly, marketable" as part of a narrative that outlaw bikers, "though once a dangerous element, are now a useful and valuable part of society." The StarPhoenix of Saskatoon wrote that the new marketing push to "transform motorcycling into an acceptable, mainstream pastime" has led to young riders rebelling. In Los Angeles and New York City, some affluent urban motorcycle owners are self-described hooligans, or display motorcycles described as "hooligan chic" and an "object of fetish consumerism." Hooligans engage in many types of unlawful behavior. In Southeast Asia, thieves use motorcyclists in the act of purse snatching.

Racing has been implicated in a number of deaths, is targeted by law enforcement in North America and Europe. The fact that many stunters perform their stunts on public roads draws the ire of other motorcyclists and lawmakers, they intentionally draw a lot of attention to their reckless behavior, other motorcyclists sportbike riders, feel that stunters give all riders a reputation for being irresponsible and dangerous to others. While clothing-optional bicycling is allowed in many places, similar behavior by motorcyclists is seen as reckless and has led to accidents when the rider was stung by an insect. Nude rider complaints are recorded in Coventry, where 21 riders proceeded naked through the town. In some jurisdictions, the act of cruising is unlawful. In Malaysia, over 100,000 outlaw motorcyclists called Mat Rempit are reported to cruise and race on the streets every night. Riders, including under-age youth, without a valid driver's license, have been described as "dangerous and illegal" and "hooligans."Street stunt riders on unlicensed dirtbikes are reported to be a problem in Baltimore, Maryland.

Speeding is referred to as a "hooligan" activity due to inherent risk to the public. Some types of motorcycles or specific models associated with hooligan behavior are informally referred to as "hooligan" motorcycles. In Seattle in 2010, a Washington State Patrol highway police trooper rolled his patrol car while chasing speeding motorcyclists, who returned to jeer and taunt him; the motorcyclists said. The event attracted much media attention. In September 2013, public awareness of motorcycle hooliganism in America was increased when a video was uploaded to live leak showing a violent altercation between a family riding in an SUV and a group of motorcyclists in New York City; the bikers were participating in an annual unsanctioned rally called the "Hollywood Block Party". Over 1000 motorcycles and other vehicles participated in the 2012 rally a year prior, according to New York Police Commissioner Ray Kelly; the rally involved performing stunts and driving through Times Square, illegal since it was pedestrianized in 2009.

The incident began when a sport utility vehicle driven by motorist Alexian Lien was involved in light bumper contact with motorcyclist Christopher Cruz. Cruz sustained minor injuries. In the video, Cruz merges in front of Lien and slows apparently causing the collision. Following the incident, authorities familiar with such organized rides stated that Cruz was not attempting to cause a collision, but was attempting to slow traffic in order to clear a section of roadway to perform stunts on their motorcycles. Lien and many of the motorcyclists stopped their vehicles; the video shows many of the bikers gathering around the Range Rover driven by Lien. Police punctured a tire. Lien accelerated to escape driving over 3 motorcycles and a rider, named Edwin Mieses, who had dismounted and was in front of the Range Rover. Mieses was injured, including a fractured spine and punctured lung; the bikers chased after the SUV for several miles before pulling Lien from the vehicle and assaulting him. The video of the incident went viral and received widespread news coverage.

Other videos of packs of bikers driving recklessly and performing stunts surfaced following the heavy news coverage. One video in particular shows a group of bikers threatening the driver of a Prius. The

Sublimation sandwich method

The sublimation sandwich method is a kind of physical vapor deposition used for creating man-made crystals. Silicon carbide is the most common crystal grown this way, though others crystals may created with it. In this method, the environment around a single crystal or a polycrystaline plate is filled with vapor heated to between 1600°C and 2100°C-- changes to this environment can affect the gas phase stoichiometry; the source-to-crystal distance is kept between 0.02-0.03mm. Parameters that can affect crystal growth include source-to-substrate distance, temperature gradient, the presence of tantalum for gathering excess carbon. High growth rates are the result of small source-to-seed distances combined with a large heat flux onto a small amount of source material with no more than a moderate temperature difference between the substrate and the source; the growth of large boules, remains quite difficult using this method, it is better suited to the creation of epitaxial films with uniform polytype structures.

Samples with a thickness of up to 500µm can be produced using this method. Lely method Czochralski process Mokhov, E. et al.: “Growth of Silicon Carbide Bulk Crystals by the Sublimation Sandwich Method”, Elsevier Science S. A. 1997, pp. 317-323