The People's Liberation Army Navy known as the PLA Navy or PLAN, is the naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed wing of the Communist Party of China and, by default, the national armed forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLAN can trace its lineage to naval units fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was established in September 1950. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, the Soviet Union provided assistance to the PLAN in the form of naval advisers and export of equipment and technology; until the late 1980s, the PLAN was a riverine and littoral force. However, by the 1990s, following the fall of the Soviet Union and a shift towards a more forward-oriented foreign and security policy, the leaders of the Chinese military were freed from worrying over land border disputes, instead turned their attention towards the seas; this led to the development of the People's Liberation Army Navy into a green-water navy by 2009. Before the 1990s the PLAN had traditionally played a subordinate role to the People's Liberation Army Ground Force.
In 2008, General Qian Lihua confirmed that China plans to operate a small fleet of aircraft carriers in the near future, but for the purpose of regional defence as opposed to "global reach". As of 2013 PLA officials have outlined plans to operate in the first and second island chains. Chinese strategists term the development of the PLAN from a green-water navy into "a regional blue-water defensive and offensive navy."The People's Liberation Army Navy is composed of five branches. With a personnel strength of 255,000 servicemen and women, including 10,000 marines and 26,000 naval air force personnel, it is the second largest navy in the world in terms of tonnage, only behind the United States Navy, has the largest number of major combatants of any navy; the PLAN traces its lineage to units of the Republic of China Navy who defected to the People's Liberation Army towards the end of the Chinese Civil War. In 1949, Mao Zedong asserted that "to oppose imperialist aggression, we must build a powerful navy".
During the Landing Operation on Hainan Island, the communists used wooden junks fitted with mountain guns as both transport and warships against the ROCN. The Naval Academy was set up at Dalian on 22 November 1949 with Soviet instructors; the navy was established in September 1950 by consolidating regional naval forces under Joint Staff Department command in Jiangyan. It consisted of a motley collection of ships and boats acquired from the Kuomintang forces; the Naval Air Force was added two years later. By 1954 an estimated 2,500 Soviet naval advisers were in China—possibly one adviser to every thirty Chinese naval personnel—and the Soviet Union began providing modern ships. With Soviet assistance, the navy reorganized in 1954 and 1955 into the North Sea Fleet, East Sea Fleet, South Sea Fleet, a corps of admirals and other naval officers was established from the ranks of the ground forces. In shipbuilding the Soviets first assisted the Chinese the Chinese copied Soviet designs without assistance, the Chinese produced vessels of their own design.
Soviet assistance progressed to the point that a joint Sino-Soviet Pacific Ocean fleet was under discussion. Through the upheavals of the late 1950s and 1960s the Navy remained undisturbed. Under the leadership of Minister of National Defense Lin Biao, large investments were made in naval construction during the frugal years after the Great Leap Forward. During the Cultural Revolution, a number of top naval commissars and commanders were purged, naval forces were used to suppress a revolt in Wuhan in July 1967, but the service avoided the turmoil affecting the country. Although it paid lip service to Mao and assigned political commissars aboard ships, the Navy continued to train and maintain the fleets as well the coastal defense and aviation arms, as well as in the performance of its mission. In the 1970s, when 20 percent of the defence budget was allocated to naval forces, the Navy grew dramatically; the conventional submarine force increased from 35 to 100 boats, the number of missile-carrying ships grew from 20 to 200, the production of larger surface ships, including support ships for oceangoing operations, increased.
The Navy began development of nuclear attack submarines and nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. In the 1980s, under the leadership of Chief Naval Commander Liu Huaqing, the navy developed into a regional naval power, though naval construction continued at a level somewhat below the 1970s rate. Liu Huaqing was an Army Officer who spent most of his career in administrative positions involving science and technology, it was not until 1988. Liu was very close to Deng Xiaoping as his modernization efforts were much in keeping with Deng's national policies. While under his leadership Naval construction yards produced fewer ships than the 1970s, greater emphasis was placed on technology and qualitative improvement. Modernization efforts encompassed higher educational and technical standards for personnel. Examples of the expansion of China's capabilities were the 1980 recovery of an intercontinental ballistic missile in the Western Pacific by a twenty-ship fleet, extended naval operations in
Giorgio Nardone is the Director of the Post Graduate School of Brief Strategic Psychotherapy, located in Arezzo, Italy and of the School of Managerial Training in Communication and Strategic Problem Solving, located in Arezzo and in Florence, Italy. He is the co-founder, along with Paul Watzlawick, of the Centro di Terapia Strategica where he conducts work as a psychotherapist and researcher, he has authored and co-authored close to 27 publications, including many of his books which have translated from Italian into English, French and Japanese. Nardone G. Watzlawick, 1993 - The Art of Change: Strategic Therapy and Hypnotherapy Without Trance Jossey - Bass, San Francisco, USA Nardone G. 1996 - Brief Strategic Solution - Oriented Therapy of Phobic and Obsessive Disorders Nardone G. Watzlawick, P. 2005, Brief Strategic Therapy, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc, MD, USA Nardone G. Portelli C. 2005 - Knowing Through Changing,The Evolution of Brief Strategic Therapy, Crown House Publishing, Carmarthen UK Nardone G. Portelli C. 2007 - Being Illogical to be More Logical in Journal of Brief and Systemic Therapies, volume 1, issue 1, April 2007 Nardone G. Giannotti E. Rocchi R. 2008 - The Evolution of Family patterns and Indirect Therapy with Adolescents, Karnac Publishing, London Official website styluspub.com centroditerapiastrategica.com
The Hungarian Scout Association in Romania is the Scouting organization of the Hungarians in Romania. There are 134 Scout groups, of which 107 are active; the first Scout troops in Transylvania were founded shortly after the first troops in Budapest were formed. They were part of the Hungarian Scout Association, because this region was a part of the Kingdom of Hungary until the end of World War I; the first Transylvanian Scout group was formed in the Reformed Church College of Székelyudvarhely in 1911, under the leadership of PE teacher Z. Sebess József. Three years 84 Scouts took part in the activity of the group. In the meantime, new groups were formed in the Technical Highschool of Székelyudvarhely, in the Reformed Church College of Marosvásárhely, in the Reformed Church College of Kolozsvár, in the Roman Catholic Grammar School in Gyulafehérvár. World War I disintegrated these initiatives. After the Treaty of Trianon, Transylvania became a part of Romania, so Hungarian Scout troops lost their membership within Hungarian Scout Association and had to join the National Scout Organisation of Romania..
The Hungarian Scouting in Transylvania was restarted in 1922-23, the organizational operation was in the frame-work of the Romanian Scout movement. In 1929, the first post-World War I Scout congress was held in Romania, the second country-wide Jamboree in Bucharest. In 1938, King Charles II of Romania, earlier a Scout himself, put the Constitution out of effect, banned democratic parties and organizations, among them the "pro-English" Scouting; as from the re-attachment of Northern Transylvania to Hungary in 1940 until the end of World War II, Scouting could operate without difficulties as a part of the Hungarian Scout Association and National Association of Hungarian Girl Guides. After 1945, Northern Transylvania was returned to Romania, in the period 1945-1948 all Hungarian activities were suppressed. In 1948, the communist authorities banned Scouting in Romania. After the fall of the communist dictatorship in Romania, the Hungarian Scout Association in Romania was formed in 1990; the revival of Scouting in Romania took place by the formation of separate Hungarian and Romanian groups.
First Hungarian Scout groups were formed during a camp in August, 1990 and the Hungarian Scout Association in Romania (Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Cserkészszövetség was founded in that year. The Cercetaşii României was formed together with the Romanian Scouts and this organization gained recognition by the World Bureau of the WOSM in 1993; the relationship between the Hungarian and Romanian Scouting organization has been problematic. In the 1990s legal proceedings were brought against the Hungarian Scout Association in Romania. In practice and Romanian Scouting in Romania work separately, this is de facto accepted by the WOSM, however, on the formal side, it recognizes only one Scout organisation in the country. Therefore, a tacit understanding on co-existence was worked out in 1995 which seems to be a viable modus vivendi; the Hungarian Scout Association in Romania is a member of the'International Forum of Hungarian Scouting' and has strong ties to the Hungarian Scout Association. Official website of the Hungarian Scout Association in Romania / A Romániai Magyar Cserkészszövetség hivatalos honlapja