Hill people is a general term for people who live in hills and mountains. There are a wide variety of hill people around the world, many of whom live by small scale pastoralism or on small farms. Musical instruments of hill people, such as various forms of horn, are notable for their ability to be heard at great distances. Political borders split hill peoples between countries, they are sometimes minorities in their countries with a tradition of resisting control by central government; the Drakensberg are the highest mountain range in Southern Africa, rising up to 3,482 metres in height. The people of these mountains are Bantu-speaking people who moved into the area from the north a thousand years ago, displacing the original Khoisan people, they include the Swazi and Zulu. Traditionally these people lived by cattle herding and small-scale farming, growing crops such as sorghum, corn, pumpkins and vegetables. At the time the Europeans reached this part of South Africa, the Zulu were temporarily in the ascendancy after a series of wars between the people of the region.
The region is divided between South Africa and Swaziland, but the people move freely between these states. Ethiopia has a high central plateau that varies from 1,800 to 3,000 m above sea level, with the highest mountain reaching 4,533 m. Near the equator but high up, the climate is temperate all year round; the heavy rains from June until mid-September feed the Blue Nile. The country's population is diverse. Most of its people speak Afro-Asiatic languages of the Semitic branches; the former includes Oromiffa, spoken by the Oromo people, Somali, spoken by the Somali people. Together, these four groups make up about three-quarters of Ethiopia's population. Other Afro-Asiatic languages with a significant number of speakers include the Cushitic Sidamo, Afar and Agaw languages, as well as the Semitic Gurage, Silt'e and Argobba tongues. Principal crops include coffee, oilseeds, potatoes and vegetables. Many of the people traditionally herded cattle, sheep; the Ethiopian state is ancient, dating back to at least the Aksumite Empire and its predecessor state, D`mt.
Despite two attempts at conquest by the Italians, the country has remained independent for all its history. The Coptic Christian church has a long history in Ethiopia, it was founded in 316 AD by a Christian philosopher from Tyre. The Atlas is a mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about 2,400 km through Morocco and Tunisia, or the Maghreb; the highest peak is Jbel Toubkal, with an elevation of 4,167 metres in southwestern Morocco. The second highest mountain is the M'Goun of 4,071 metres; the population of the Atlas Mountains are Berber tribes, speakers of an Afro-Asiatic language, including the Kabyle, Mozabite, Chleuh, Sous and Zenata. Although nominally subject at times to Carthage, the Roman Empire, the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt, the Ottoman Turks and more the French, for most of their history the tribes of the Atlas mountains have been independent. Most Berbers are farmers, living in mountains close to the Mediterranean coast, but the Tuareg and Zenaga of the southern Sahara are nomadic.
The Berbers are sometimes treated as minorities in their countries, which are dominated by their Arabic-speaking relatives nearer to the coast. The Pyrenees are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. Lower mountains extend to the west into Galicia; the inhabitants of the Pyrenees speak Spanish, French and the Basque language. A few speak the Occitan language, Aragonese. In the Cantabrian Mountains Basque and the Cantabrian dialect are spoken, apart from Spanish. In fact Cantabrians have traditionally been referred to as "montañeses" It is thought that Basque people are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe. Basque tribes were mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani and others, their language is quite distinct from the Indo-European languages spoken in most of Europe, is related to Northeast Caucasian languages. The Alps are one of the great mountain ranges of Europe, they stretch from Austria and Slovenia in the east, through Italy, Switzerland and Germany, to France in the west.
The highest mountain is Mont Blanc, at 4,808 metres, on the Italian–French border. The people of the Alps speak German, Italian and Romansh; the German spoken in the German speaking part of Switzerland is a range of Swiss dialects. Early Alpine tribes included the Alemanni; the Swiss Confederacy was an alliance among the valley communities of the central Alps founded by three cantons in 1291 expanding to form the nucleus of modern Switzerland. Disciplined Swiss mercenaries armed with pikes gained a formidable reputation during the perennial European wars of the Middle Ages. In the Swiss peasant war of 1653 the people rose up against the authorities. Although defeated, the revolt resulted in reforms that prevented the rise of absolutism as in other parts of Europe. The
József Bihari was a Hungarian actor. St. Peter's Umbrella Bors István Deadly Spring Duel for Nothing People of the Mountains Song of the Cornfields Különös házasság Under the City Egyiptomi történet Twenty Hours The Upthrown Stone Sons of Fire Magyarok Cserepek Simon, Andrew L. Made in Hungary: Hungarian Contributions to Universal Culture. Simon Publications, 1998. József Bihari on IMDb
Location shooting is the shooting of a film or television production in a real-world setting rather than a sound stage or backlot. The location may be exterior; the filming location may be the same in which the story is set, or it may stand in for a different locale. Most films feature a combination of studio shoots. Second unit photography is not considered a location shoot. Before filming, the locations are surveyed in pre-production, a process known as location scouting and recce. Location shooting has several advantages over filming on a studio set. First and foremost, the expense can be far lower than that of constructing sets in a studio; the illusion of reality can be stronger. Shooting outside of the home country is sometimes used to bypass union rules, labor regulations, or work stoppages, it can allow "frozen" currency to be used: the 1968 movie Kelly's Heroes was filmed in Yugoslavia using profits, made on movie exhibitions in that country but could not be exported. Conversely, there are a number of reasons.
Shooting on a set gives the crew a greater control over the environment: a room may be created to the exacting specifications of the story, for example, there is no need to shut down street traffic when shooting on a backlot. Additionally, a given location may have inconvenient restrictions; the convenience store where Clerks was shot was open during the day, so the crew could only shoot at night. Location shooting takes place close to the studio. Many location shoots, are far from the home studio, sometimes on the other side of the world. In these instances, location shooting can provide significant economic development benefits to the area in which they are shot. Cast and crew rely upon local facilities such as catering and accommodations. A film that becomes a blockbuster hit can introduce movie audiences around the world to a visually breathtaking location that they were unaware of, as the Lord of the Rings trilogy did for New Zealand; this can boost tourism for years or decades. Location shooting requires a location manager, locations are chosen by a location scout.
Many popular locations, such as New York City in the United States, Toronto in Canada, the Isle of Man in the United Kingdom, have dedicated film offices to encourage location shooting, to suggest appropriate locations to film-makers. In many cases a second unit is dispatched to film on location, with a second unit director and sometimes with stand-in actors; these shots can be edited into the final film or TV program alongside studio-shot sequences, to give an authentic flavor, without the expense or trouble of a full-scale location shoot. NYPD Blue, for example, was filmed in Los Angeles, but used second unit footage of New York City for color, as well as featuring a small number of episodes filmed on location with the cast. Filming location Location library Filmmaking
Italian neorealism known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location using non-professional actors. Italian neorealism films contend with the difficult economic and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, representing changes in the Italian psyche and conditions of everyday life, including poverty, oppression and desperation. Italian neorealism came about as World War II ended and Benito Mussolini's government fell, causing the Italian film industry to lose its centre. Neorealism was social progress in Italy, its films presented contemporary stories and ideas and were shot in streets as the Cinecittà film studios had been damaged during the war. The neorealist style was developed by a circle of film critics that revolved around the magazine Cinema, including Luchino Visconti, Gianni Puccini, Cesare Zavattini, Giuseppe De Santis and Pietro Ingrao. Prevented from writing about politics, the critics attacked the Telefoni Bianchi films that dominated the industry at the time.
As a counter to the popular mainstream films, some critics felt that Italian cinema should turn to the realist writers from the turn of the 20th century. Both Antonioni and Visconti had worked with Jean Renoir. In addition, many of the filmmakers involved in neorealism developed their skills working on Calligrafismo films. Elements of neorealism are found in the films of Alessandro Blasetti and the documentary-style films of Francesco De Robertis. Two of the most significant precursors of neorealism are Jean Renoir's Toni and Alessandro Blasetti's 1860. In the spring of 1945, Mussolini was executed and Italy was liberated from German occupation; this period, known as the "Italian Spring," was a break from old ways and an entrance to a more realistic approach when making films. Italian cinema went from utilizing elaborate studio sets to shooting on location in the countryside and city streets in the realist style. Although the true beginning of neorealism has been contested by theorists and filmmakers, the first neorealist film is thought to be Ossessione by Luchino Visconti.
Neorealism became famous globally in 1946 with Roberto Rossellini's Rome, Open City, when it won the Grand Prize at the Cannes Film Festival as the first major film produced in Italy after the war. Italian neorealism declined in the early 1950s. Liberal and socialist parties were having difficulties presenting their message; the vision of the existing poverty and despair, presented by neorealist cinema, was demoralizing a nation anxious for prosperity and change. Additionally, the first positive effects of the Italian economic miracle period – such as gradual rises in income levels – caused the themes of neorealism to lose their relevance; as a consequence, most Italians favored the optimism shown in many American movies of the time. The views of the post-war Italian government of the time were far from positive, the remark of Giulio Andreotti, a vice-minister in the De Gasperi cabinet, characterized the official view of the movement: Neorealism is "dirty laundry that shouldn't be washed and hung to dry in the open".
Italy's move from individual concern with neorealism to the tragic frailty of the human condition can be seen through Federico Fellini's films. His early works La Strada and Il bidone are transitional movies; the larger social concerns of humanity, treated by neorealists, gave way to the exploration of individuals. Their needs, their alienation from society and their tragic failure to communicate became the main focal point in the Italian films to follow in the 1960s. Antonioni's Red Desert and Blow-up take the neorealist trappings and internalise them in the suffering and search for knowledge brought out by Italy's post-war economic and political climate. Neorealist films were filmed with nonprofessional actors, although in a number of cases, well-known actors were cast in leading roles, playing against their normal character types in front of a background populated by local people rather than extras brought in for the film, they were shot exclusively on location in rundown cities as well as rural areas due to its forming during the post-war era.
Neorealist films explore the conditions of the poor and the lower working class. Characters oftentimes exist within simple social order. Performances are constructed from scenes of people performing mundane and quotidian activities, devoid of the self-consciousness that amateur acting entails. Neorealist films feature children in major roles, though their characters are more observational than participatory. Open City established several of the principles of neorealism, depicting the struggle of normal Italian people to live from day to day under the extraordinary difficulties of the German occupation of Rome, consciously doing what they can to resist the occupation; the children play a key role in this, their presence at the end of the film is indicative of their role in neorealism as a whole: as observers of the difficulties of today who hold the key to the future. Vittorio De Sica's 1948 film The Bicycle Thief is representative of the genre, with non-professional actors, a story that details the hardships of working-class life after the war.
In the period from 1944–1948, many neorealist filmmakers drifted away from pure neorealism. Some directors explored allegorica
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Jòzsef Nyírő was a Hungarian writer of popular short stories and novels. Nyírő was born July 18, 1889 in Jimbor village, in what was the Kingdom of Hungary's Udvarhely County and is now in Braşov County, Romania, he was ordained in 1912 and taught theology at Nagyszeben and became a priest in 1915. He married, operating a grist mill for a time, he found success publishing short stories in magazines and newspapers and worked as a journalist for 10 years. In 1931 he took it over. Nyirő's political career is controversial, he was a great admirer of Joseph Goebbels and was a member of the Fascist'Arrow-Cross parliament' of the Arrow Cross Party. Nyírő joined the "Europäische Schriftstellervereinigung", founded by Joseph Goebbels, he became the speaker of Hungarian section of the European Writers' League before that position went to Lőrinc Szabó. After the Second Vienna Award, Nyírő joined the Hungarian parliament as a member of the extreme right-wing, anti-Semitic Transylvanian Party. In a 1942 speech, he referred to Jews as "well-poisoners" who "destroy the Hungarian soul, who infect our spirit," and declared that "This concept of the rundown liberal Jewish tradition, this veiled propaganda, must disappear from Hungarian life."
In 1944, the Arrow Cross Party massacred over 10,000 Jews in Budapest. Throughout this period, Nyírő was editor of the right-wing publication Magyar Erő and remained in the Arrow Cross parliament. After the war, he was charged with war crimes by Romania and Hungary, fled to West Germany and died of cancer in Franco's Spain, where many fascists and Nazis found exile. Nyirő's fiction, popular in the 1930s and 1940s, describes the life of the Székely villagers living in the Carpathian Mountains, such as woodcutters and farmers; the protagonist of his novel Uz Bence is the archetypal Székely man: physically strong and shrewd, with instincts that allow him to survive in any situation. Nyírő's style was informed by expressionism and his stories show people in close harmony with nature, which he believed to be the true source of human happiness. After World War II, he was discarded from the communist canon and forgotten because of his political background. An attempt was made by the right-wing in the early 21st century to re-establish him in the curriculum as part of a revision of the national literary canon.
In 2012, an attempt was made to move Nyírő's remains from Madrid, where his ashes were buried in 1953, to Odorheiu Secuiesc in Transylvania. The reburial was planned for May 27. Prime Minister of Romania Victor Ponta said that Romania rejects paying tribute on its soil to people known for anti-Semitic, anti-Romanian and pro-fascist conduct. In place of the reburial a small ecumenical service for the writer took place; the ceremony was attended by the leadership of the Jobbik party, Hungary's State Secretary for Culture Géza Szőcs and speaker of the Hungarian Parliament László Kövér. Kövér complained that the Romanian government is "uncivilized," "paranoid," "hysterical," "barbaric," and that the people "who had a son whose ashes were feared" would be "victorious." He announced that they will bury Nyírő one way or the other and that they had smuggled his ashes into the country. Government authorities searched vehicles to ensure the urn was not buried at the ceremony but its purported whereabouts remained unaccounted for.
Nobel Prize laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel, in a letter to László Kövér, said he was furious that Kövér had participated in a ceremony honoring a writer, a loyal member of Hungary's World War II far-right parliament, an act he suggested reflected the authorities' willingness to gloss over the country's dark past. "I found it outrageous that the Speaker of the Hungarian National Assembly could participate in a ceremony honoring a Hungarian fascist ideologue," Wiesel wrote. In further protest, Wiesel rejected the Great Cross, a Hungarian government award that he received in 2004. Kövér in his answer letter to Wiesel stated, the American and Soviet generals in the Allied Control Commission determined the conclusion in 1945 and 1947, when they refused to extradite the exiled writer two times for the request of the contemporary Hungarian Communist Minister of the Interior, Nyirő was not a war criminal, nor fascist or anti-Semitic, he mentioned that Nicolae Ceauşescu's government treated Nyírő as a well-recognized writer and ensured pension for his widow in the 1970s.
Kövér cited a Hungarian Jewish scientific review and the newspaper stated that Nazi ideals or anti-Semitism can not be found in Nyírő's literary works. Nyírő, the Transylvanian-born Hungarian writer, deserves respect not because of his - although insignificant, but tragically misguided - political activities but his literary works according to Kövér. Kirchick, James Transylvanian Drama Over Fascist's Ashes The Forward
The Székelys, sometimes referred to as Szeklers, are a subgroup of the Hungarian people living in the Székely Land in Romania. A significant population descending from the Székelys of Bukovina lives in Tolna and Baranya counties in Hungary and in certain districts of Vojvodina, Serbia. In the Middle Ages, the Székelys, along with the Transylvanian Saxons, played a key role in the defense of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Ottomans in their posture as guards of the eastern border. With the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, Transylvania became part of Romania, the Székely population was a target of Romanianization efforts. In 1952, during the Socialist Republic of Romania, the former province of Mureș, was designated as the Hungarian Autonomous Region, it was superseded in 1960 by the Mureș-Hungarian Autonomous Region, itself divided in 1968 into three non-autonomous counties, Harghita and Mureș. In post-Cold War Romania, where the Székelys form half of the ethnic Hungarian population, members of the group have been among the most vocal of Hungarians seeking an autonomous Hungarian region in Transylvania.
They were estimated to number about 860,000 in the 1970s and are recognized as a distinct minority group by the Romanian government. Today's Székely Land corresponds to the Romanian counties of Harghita and central and eastern Mureș. Based on the official 2011 Romanian census, 1,227,623 ethnic Hungarians live in Romania in the region of Transylvania, making 19.6% of the population of this region. Of these, 609,033 live in the counties of Harghita and Mureș, which taken together have a Hungarian majority; the Hungarians in Székely Land therefore account for half of the Hungarians in Romania. When given the choice on the 2011 Romanian census between ethnically identifying as Székely or as Hungarian, the overwhelming majority of the Székelys chose the latter – only 532 persons declared themselves as ethnic Székely; the Székelys derive their name from a Hungarian expression meaning "frontier guards". The Székely territories came under the leadership of the Count of the Székelys a royal appointee from the non-Székely Hungarian nobility, de facto a margrave.
The Székelys were considered a distinct ethnic group and formed part of the Unio Trium Nationum, a coalition of three Transylvanian estates, the other two "nations" being the nobility and the Saxons burghers. These three groups ruled Transylvania from 1438 onward in harmony though sometimes in conflict with one another. During the Long Turkish War, the Székelys formed an alliance with Prince Michael the Brave of Wallachia against the army of Andrew Báthory appointed Prince of Transylvania; the origin of the Székelys has been much debated. It is now accepted that they are descendants of Hungarians transplanted to the eastern Carpathian Mountains to guard the frontier, their name meaning "frontier guards"; the Székelys have claimed descent from Attila's Huns and believed they played a special role in shaping Hungary. Ancient legends recount that a contingent of Huns remained in Transylvania allying with the main Hungarian army that conquered the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century; the thirteenth-century chronicler Simon of Kéza claimed that the Székely people descended from Huns who lived in mountainous lands prior to the Hungarian conquest.
After the theory of Hunnic descent lost scholarly currency in the 20th century two substantial ideas emerged about Székely ancestry: Some scholars suggested that the Székelys were Magyars, like other Hungarians, transplanted in the Middle Ages to guard the frontiers. Researches could not prove. In this case, their strong cultural differences from other Hungarians stem from centuries of relative isolation in the mountains. Others suggested Turkic origin as Kabar or Esegel-Bulgar ancestries; some historians have dated the Székely presence in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains as early as the fifth century, found historical evidence that the Székelys were part of the Avar confederation during the so-called Dark Ages, but this does not mean that they were ethnically Avar. Research indicates. Toponyms at the Székely settlement area give proof of their Hungarian mother tongue; the Székely dialect does not have more Bulgaro-Turkish loan-words derived from before the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin than standard Hungarian does.
If the Székelys had been a Turkic stock they had to have lost their original vernacular at a early date. An autosomal analysis, studying non-European admixture in Europeans, found 4.4% of admixture of non-European and non-Middle Eastern origin among Hungarians, the strongest among sampled populations. It was found at 3.6% in Belarusians, 2.5% in Romanians, 2.3% in Bulgarians and Lithuanians, 1.9% in Poles and 0% in Greeks. The authors stated "This signal might correspond to a small genetic legacy from invasions of peoples from the Asian steppes during the first millennium CE." Among 100 Hungarian men, the following haplogroups and frequencies are obtained: The 97 Székelys belong to the following haplogroups: It can be infer