A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
The Peotone Mill known as the Rathje Mill, is located in the village of Peotone, in Will County, United States. The mill was donated to the Village of Peotone in the early 1980s; the building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as well as the Will County Register of Historic Places. Henry A. Rathje is credited with building the windmill, but it was his father, Frederick Rathje, with Christoph Elling, who agreed to build the mill; the warranty deed from July 3, 1871 confirms this. An account of the Rathje family was contained in the 1900 Genealogical and Biographical Record of Will County. According to it, Rathje married Wilhelmina Luhmann in 1874, Luhmann was an immigrant from Hanover, Germany. After marrying, Rathje entered the milling business during which time he acquired the windmill at Peotone and operated it for twelve years. Henry Rathje is listed as the proprietor on a mill invoice; the structure was designed by Dutch millwrights. The design, which included the mill's 60 foot tower, makes it the only "skyscraper" in Peotone.
The mill's integrity has, for the most part, been maintained throughout its existence and it is a familiar visual landmark in Peotone and Will County. The windmill at Peotone provided a variety of grain products. Fine wheat and buckwheat flours, as well as cornmeal were common products the grist mill offered; the local livestock industry depended upon the mill as its primary source for feed. Thus, the mill's busiest time of year was during the autumn when livestock farmers would stock up for the winter with the mill's freshly ground grain products; the mill's surplus product was stored in a building, once attached to west side of the windmill. Income for Rathje came from a "toll"; the toll was a fraction of the finished product, these tolls were governed by state laws. In 1885 the wind powered grist mill was switched over to steam power. Tales handed down through the Rathje family speak of the windmill's sails rotting and cite this as the reason for the change over to steam power; the exact date the mill ceased.
It is suspected that the mill ended operations sometime around 1889. It is known, from the Genealogical Record of 1900 that by that date the mill had been rendered unprofitable by modern mill methods and Rathje had abandoned it; the mill, continued to operate in some capacity until World War I when it closed in 1917. For nearly 100 years the windmill in Peotone stood empty. Rathje's son, Paul W. Rathje, performed routine maintenance on the mill during this time. Paul had two children and Helen, the mill was passed on to Paul C. Rathje, the grandson of Henry, he realized the historic importance of the mill structure and donated it to the Village of Peotone in 1982. That same year, the mill was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Peotone Historical Society undertook the task of restoring the mill to its original, working condition. They continue maintenance and restoration. In 2004 the Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois did grant the Peotone Historical Society $5,000 to conduct a structural assessment of the mill.
History and Photos of Peotone Mill
Rod Blagojevich is an American former politician who served as the 40th Governor of Illinois from 2003 until his impeachment and removal from office in 2009. A Democrat, Blagojevich was a state representative before being elected to the United States House of Representatives representing parts of Chicago, he was elected governor in 2002, the first Democrat to win the office since Dan Walker's victory 30 years earlier. Blagojevich was impeached and removed from office for corruption. S. Senate seat after Obama was elected president in 2008. Blagojevich was convicted and sentenced to 14 years in federal prison. Blagojevich was born in Chicago, the second of two children, his father, was an immigrant steel plant laborer from a village near Kragujevac, Serbia. His mother, Mila Govedarica, is a Bosnian Serb from Gacko and Herzegovina, his parents moved to Chicago in 1947. Blagojevich has a brother, who worked as a fund-raiser for Blagojevich in his political career. Blagojevich spent much of his childhood working odd jobs to help the family pay its bills.
He was a shoeshiner and pizza delivery boy before working at a meat packing plant. In order to afford university costs, Blagojevich worked for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System as a dishwasher. Blagojevich does not have a middle name, but uses the initial "R" in honor of his deceased father, his nickname in the family was "Milorad," which some have mistakenly thought to be his name at birth. Blagojevich graduated from Chicago's Foreman High School after transferring from Lane Technical High School, he played basketball in high school and participated in two fights after training as a Golden Gloves boxer. After graduation, he enrolled at the University of Tampa. After two years, he transferred to Northwestern University in suburban Evanston, where he graduated in 1979 with a B. A. in history. He earned his J. D. from the Pepperdine University School of Law in 1983. He said of the experience: "I went to law school at a place called Pepperdine in Malibu, overlooking the Pacific Ocean — a lot of surfing and movie stars and all the rest.
I knew where that law library was." Blagojevich is married to Patricia Mell, the daughter of former Chicago alderman Richard Mell. Blagojevich voted for Ronald Reagan in 1980 and voted for his re-election in 1984. Blagojevich had an amateur boxing career which spanned 13 months and included Golden Gloves competition, he trained under Jerry Marzillo in Chicago's Park District, he fought most of his matches at the St. Andrews Gym in Chicago's Northside. Fighting as a 160-pound middleweight, Blagojevich began fighting in non-tournament "smokers" in January 1974. After defeating Patrick McAlinden, Leonard Bassuk, Ronald Dimino over a year's time, Blagojevich felt he had enough experience to enter the local Golden Gloves Boxing Tournament. On February 24, 1975 at St. Andrews Gym, Blagojevich won his opening night match in the middleweight division by decisioning Thomas Muhme in 3 rounds; this win enabled Blagojevich to advance to the next round of the tournament. The next night, Blagojevich lost to Patrick Porter by 3rd-round technical knockout.
Porter's aggressive punching attack had Blagojevich covering up his face with his boxing gloves. Because Blagojevich did not return punches, the referee stopped the match, awarded it to Porter. Following his loss in the Golden Gloves, Blagojevich retired from amateur boxing, his record was 6 wins, 2 by knockout, 1 defeat. Blagojevich clerked for Chicago Alderman Edward Vrdolyak. Blagojevich took a job as Cook County Assistant State's Attorney under State's Attorney Richard M. Daley, specializing in domestic abuse and felony weapons cases. In 1992, with the backing of his influential father-in-law, Blagojevich toppled 14-year incumbent Myron Kulas in the Democratic primary for the 33rd state house district, in the Illinois House of Representatives, which includes part of Chicago's North Side; as is the case in most elections in the Chicago area, this assured him of election in November. He drew on his experiences as a prosecutor to draft bills that he argued would strengthen the state's judicial system and reduce crime.
In 1996, Blagojevich surrendered his seat in the state house to campaign in Illinois's 5th congressional district, based on the North Side. The district had long been represented by Dan Rostenkowski, who served as chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee. Rostenkowski was defeated for re-election in 1994 after pleading guilty to mail fraud and had been succeeded by Republican Michael Patrick Flanagan. However, Flanagan was a conservative Republican representing a Democratic district, was regarded as a heavy underdog. Blagojevich soundly defeated Flanagan by a nearly 2-to-1 margin, with support from his father-in-law, he was elected two more times, taking 74% against a nominal Republican challenger in 1998 and having only a Libertarian opponent in 2000. Blagojevich was not known as a active congressman. In the late 1990s he traveled with Jesse Jackson to Belgrade in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to negotiate with President Slobodan Milošević for the release of American prisoners of war.
On October 10, 2002, Blagojevich was one of 81 House Democrats, one of only two from Illinois, who voted in favor of authorizing the invasion of Iraq. During 2002, Blagojevich campaigned for his party's nomination to become governor. Blagojevich won a close primary campaign against former Illinois Attorney General Roland Burris and Chicago Public Schools Superintendent Paul Vallas, who ran well in the suburban collar counti
Jesse Jackson Jr.
Jesse Louis Jackson Jr. is a former American politician who served as a Democratic Congressman representing Illinois's 2nd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1995 until his resignation in 2012. He is the son of activist and former presidential candidate Jesse Jackson and, prior to his career in elected office, worked for his father in both the elder Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign and his social justice, civil rights and political activism organization, Operation PUSH. Jackson's wife, Sandi Jackson, served on the Chicago City Council, he served as a national co-chairman of the 2008 Barack Obama presidential campaign. Jackson established a consistent liberal record on both social and fiscal issues, he has co-authored books on civil rights and personal finance. In October 2012, Jackson was investigated for financial improprieties including misuse of campaign funds. Jackson resigned from Congress on November 21, 2012, citing mental and physical health problems, including bipolar disorder and gastrointestinal problems.
On February 8, 2013, Jackson admitted to violating federal campaign law by using campaign funds to make personal purchases. Jackson pleaded guilty on February 2013, to one count of wire and mail fraud. On August 14, 2013, he was sentenced to 30 months in federal prison. Jackson was released from prison on March 26, 2015. Jackson was born in Greenville, South Carolina, raised in the Jackson Park Highlands District of the South Shore community area on the South Side of Chicago, one of five children of Jesse and Jacqueline Jackson, he attended nursery school at the University of Chicago and attended John J. Pershing Elementary School. At age five, Jackson mimicked his father in a speech atop a milk crate at the Operation PUSH headquarters, his father sought media attention to shed light on important issues according to some accounts and as a result of his father's travels, his time with his father occurred in the time between meetings. He and his brother Jonathan were sent to Le Mans Military Academy in Rolling Prairie, after Jackson was diagnosed as hyperactive.
He was paddled at times as a young cadet for disciplinary reasons. During his tenure at LeMans Academy he earned the rank of Company Commander. Jackson was suspended from school twice. Jackson graduated from St. Albans School, he was an all-state running back on his football team in high school and was featured in the February 1984 issue of Sports Illustrated as part of their Faces in the Crowd section, which noted him for his 15 touchdowns, 889 rushing yards, 7.2 yards per carry in six games. Jackson enrolled in North Carolina A&T University, his father's alma mater, earning his Bachelor of Science degree magna cum laude in 1987, he decided to follow his father's advice to receive a seminary education at the Chicago Theological Seminary, where he earned his master's degree a year early but opted not to become ordained. Jackson proceeded to law school at the University of Illinois and convinced his future wife to transfer there from the Georgetown University Law Center, he earned a Juris Doctor from the University of Illinois College of Law in 1993.
Jackson never sat for the bar exam despite finishing his coursework a semester early. As a teenager and his brother Jonathan assisted in their father's civil rights activities. During the 1984 Democratic primaries, the three Jackson brothers sometimes appeared at events together in support of their father's presidential campaign. While in college, Jackson held a voter registration drive that registered 3,500 voters on a campus with 4,500 students, his first job after graduation was as an executive director for the Rainbow Coalition. Jackson was again involved in his father's campaigning during the 1988 Democratic primaries. In 1988, in the dealings between his father and Michael Dukakis at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, Jackson's father obtained for him a position as an at-large member of the Democratic National Committee by a nomination from Democratic Party chairman Paul Kirk. Jackson Jr. was the last of the five children to speak and introduced his father with the words "a man who fights against the odds, who lives against the odds, our dad, Jesse Jackson."
At the time, in Time magazine, Margaret Carlson depicted the younger Jackson as a well-spoken and compelling personality who would carry any of his father's political aspirations that his father was unable to achieve himself. His experience with the DNC gave him the opportunity to work on numerous congressional election races. After the convention he became a vice president of Operation PUSH. Jackson was arrested on his twenty-first birthday in Washington, D. C. following his participation in demonstrations against apartheid at the South African Embassy. He had been arrested with his brother the year before in a similar activity, his protest against apartheid extended to weekly demonstrations in front of the South African Consulate in Chicago. Jackson shared the stage with Nelson Mandela when Mandela made his historic speech following his release from a 27-year imprisonment in Cape Town in February 1990. Before entering the House, he became secretary of the Democratic National Committee's Black Caucus, the national field director of the National Rainbow Coalition and a member of the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition.
Jackson served as the national field director of the Rainbow Coalition from 1993 to 1995. Under Jackson's leadership, the Rainbow Coalition attempted to stimulate equitable hiring in the National Basketball Association because while 78% of the league's players were African American, 92% of the front-office executive positions, 88% of the administrative jobs, 85% of the support positions were held by whites. Wh
Manteno is a village in Kankakee County, United States. The population was 9,204 at the 2010 census, up from 6,414 at the 2000 census, it is part of the Kankakee-Bourbonnais-Bradley Metropolitan Statistical Area. Manteno was named after Manteno Bourbonnais, a daughter of Francois Bourbonnais, Jr. and his Potawatomi wife. A Potawatomi name, it is a possible anglicization of manito or manitou, a Potawatomi word for "spirit". Oliver W. Barnard, an early settler in this area, spelled her name "Mantenau" in one of his books. Other 19th century books spell it "Mawteno" and "Manteno"; because she was a Métis, Manteno was given a section of land, now part of northeastern Kankakee County, by the treaty of Treaty of Tippecanoe on December 20, 1832. Both Kankakee and Iroquois counties were part of Will County, before the State Legislature granted a plea of Kankakee's citizens and permitted them to incorporate in 1853; the present township of Manteno was the east half of the township of Rockville. On March 12, 1855, the town's petition that the area become the township of Manteno was granted by the county's board of supervisors.
The village was incorporated on July 8, 1878. Manteno is located in northern Kankakee County at 41°15′0″N 87°50′18″W, it is bordered to the south by the village of Bourbonnais. The average elevation is 675 ft. Interstate 57 passes through the west side of the village, with access from Exit 322. I-57 leads south 10 miles to Kankakee, the county seat, north 47 miles to Chicago. Illinois Route 50 passes through the center of Manteno as Locust Street and leads north 6 miles to Peotone and south 8 miles to Bradley. According to the 2010 census, Manteno has a total area of 5.014 square miles, of which 4.98 square miles are land and 0.034 square miles are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,414 people, 2,578 households, 1,789 families residing in the village; the population density was 2,143.0 people per square mile. There were 2,750 housing units at an average density of 918.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.79% White, 0.27% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.82% of the population. There were 2,578 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $48,599, the median income for a family was $56,077. Males had a median income of $46,359 versus $25,675 for females; the per capita income for the village was $22,826. About 3.9% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over.
Manteno is located 50 miles south of Chicago's loop. There is a combination of agricultural employers in town. Farmers Elevator Company of Manteno stands as the tallest site in town, with the ability to house 2 million bushels of corn or soybeans at any one time. Manteno is home to Sears and K-Mart distribution centers, both of which contain 1.5 million square feet of warehouse area. The Diversatech Industrial Park is on the east side of town, it contains warehousing complexes. Manteno State Hospital, one of the largest psychiatric hospitals in the country when it opened in 1928, was located 2 miles southeast of the village, it received its first patients in 1930 and closed in 1985. That closure and the 1983 closure of Hilman Hospital, a general medical hospital, brought economic stagnation to the town; the north half of the original campus of the state hospital has been turned into a veterans' home. Some buildings have been torn down and housing has been put up. A lot of the buildings have been renovated, few buildings on the south side of the campus are left in original condition, but are still abandoned.
Although the village once had direct access to Chicago via a commuter line, that railroad hasn't operated since the 1920s. The Metra Electric station in University Park, 16 miles north of Manteno, is the closest rail access. Manteno Public Schools are part of the Manteno Community Unit School District 5; the district has middle school and high school. Students attend Manteno High School; the schools together have about 2,200 students. Adam Kinzinger, U. S. Representative for Illinois's 16th congressional district.
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf