Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate K. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra but, as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821, they are not optically isotropic, are therefore pseudo-cubic. Goniometric measurements made by Gerhard vom Rath in 1873 led him to refer the crystals to the tetragonal system. Optical investigations have since proved the crystals to be still more complex in character, to consist of several orthorhombic or monoclinic individuals, which are optically biaxial and twinned, giving rise to twin-lamellae and to striations on the faces; when the crystals are raised to a temperature of about 500 °C they become optically isotropic and the twin-lamellae and striations disappear, although they reappear when the crystals are cooled again. This pseudo-cubic character of leucite is similar to that of the mineral boracite; the crystals are white or ash-grey in colour, hence the name suggested by A. G. Werner in 1701, from λευκος,' white'.
They are transparent and glassy when fresh, albeit with a noticeably subdued'subvitreous' lustre due to the low refractive index, but alter to become waxy/greasy and dull and opaque. The Mohs hardness is 5.5, the specific gravity 2.47. Inclusions of other minerals, arranged in concentric zones, are present in the crystals. On account of the color and form of the crystals the mineral was early known as'white garnet'. French authors in older literature may employ René Just Haüy's name amphigène, but'leucite' is the only name for this mineral species, recognised as official by the International Mineralogical Association; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Leonard James. "Leucite". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 503–504
Albano Laziale is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, on the Alban Hills, in Latium, central Italy. Rome is 25 kilometres distant, it is bounded by other communes of Castel Gandolfo, Rocca di Papa and Ardea. Located in the Castelli Romani area of Lazio, it is sometimes known as Albano. Albano is one of the most important municipalities of the Castelli Romani, a busy commercial centre, it has been a suburbicarian bishopric since the 5th century, a historic principality of the Savelli family, from 1699 to 1798 the inalienable possession of the Holy See. It now houses, among other things, the Praetor of the district court of Velletri; the territory of Albano is included in the Parco Regionale dei Castelli Romani. The territory of Albano Laziale is one of the largest of Colli Albani. According to the classification given by the Geological Survey of Italy most of the territory is similar to other areas of the Colli Albani, from lands classified as v 2; the main hydrographic feature is Lake Albano, whose full name is Lake Albano and Castel Gandolfo.
In fact, most coastal lakes are relevant to the town of Castel Gandolfo, while the remainder are in the Albanense territory. The lake basin is run by the Metropolitan City of Rome; some small streams dry, start from the north: Fosso of Santa Palomba, originates from springs from the hills of the Colli Albani area of the old town, flows westwards to the town of Santa Palomba, in the municipality of Rome and Pomezia. Fosso of Chancellor, originates from springs from the Chancellor resort, in Ariccia common, about 118 metres above sea level, continues to flow in a south-south-west to the Tyrrhenian Sea. Fosso di Valle Caia, originates from the Quarto Negroni, bordering with the municipality of Ariccia at 7 kilometres of National Road 207 Nettunense and continues its path towards the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west. Fosso di Montagnano; the highest peak of the town of Albano is the Colle dei Cappuccini, located at 615 m above sea level. From the hill, which houses a pine forest adjacent to the Capuchin Monastery, there is a remarkable overview of Lake Albano, Agro Romano and Monte Cavo.
The historic center of Albano has a maximum gradient of 11%, or 47 metres, 435, taking into consideration the distance between the Cathedral of San Pancrazio and the St. Paul's Church. Other altitudes through the center of town are Villa Altieri, at kilometre 25 of the State Road 7 Via Appia and the Church of Stella; the hill town of Castel Savelli is 280 m above sea level, while the underlying fraction of Pavona is built at 110 m above sea level. The village of Cecchina at the railway station is located at 212 m above sea level. In terms of climate, the area falls within the domain of the temperate Mediterranean climate with mild winters, with temperatures higher than those autumnal spring, summer breezes. In the area of Colli Albani, so at Albano, presents the phenomenon called TSUE, the reduction of water vapour in the clouds as the ground rises. So there will be more rainfall on the foothills of the hills, facing the sea, south southwest, to the north. Albano, lying on the trajectory of the current wet Tyrrhenian, is rainy with 900–1000 mm annual precipitation.
The winds blow from the south and west, more from the north and east. Summer is hot and dry, with a mild and rainy winter with snow quite and only in the presence of a marked generalised cold. In summer, temperatures can reach 35 °C with peaks of 37 °C in rare cases; the temperature never reached 40 °C. The name Albano is still a source of debate. In Roman times, the territory of Latium was called Albanum: Albanum; the estate of the wealthy Romans on the Colli Albani and Castra Albana was the name of the camp built by Septimius Severus, within the confines of the fund Albanum owned by Domitian, to accommodate the Legio II Parthica. This place-name hypothesis is considered the most reliable as the root of these ties in Indo-European * alb / * alp indicating a high location, the Mons Albanus in this case, while it was the centre of worship and common pasture. Other assumptions, considered valid are the Latin place-name adjective albus or Greek αλαβα. Etymologically proposed Albanum / Castra Albana is the same as being proposed for Alba Longa, whose location is not known with certainty, but placed in a medieval tradition of urban core areas of modern Albano Laziale.
The second part of the Latium name of was used in 1873 to distinguish the city from Albano Sant'Alessandro, Albano Vercellese and Albano di Lucania. The first recorded evidence of human settlement in the town of Albano Laziale dates from the beginning of the first millennium BC with the remains of settlements of Tor Paluzzi, Castel Savelli and Colle dei Cappuccini; the human presence in these locations, is maintained in times, while from Laziale IIB period start to appear due to traces of the mythical foundation Latin capital of Alba Longa. Most modern historians seems inclined to place the
Volcanology is the study of volcanoes, lava and related geological and geochemical phenomena. The term volcanology is derived from the Latin word vulcan. Vulcan was the ancient Roman god of fire. A volcanologist is a geologist who studies the eruptive activity and formation of volcanoes, their current and historic eruptions. Volcanologists visit volcanoes active ones, to observe volcanic eruptions, collect eruptive products including tephra and lava samples. One major focus of enquiry is the prediction of eruptions. In 1841, the first volcanological observatory, the Vesuvius Observatory, was founded in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Seismic observations are made using seismographs deployed near volcanic areas, watching out for increased seismicity during volcanic events, in particular looking for long period harmonic tremors, which signal magma movement through volcanic conduits. Surface deformation monitoring includes the use of geodetic techniques such as leveling, strain and distance measurements through tiltmeters, total stations and EDMs.
This includes GNSS observations and InSAR. Surface deformation indicates magma upwelling: increased magma supply produces bulges in the volcanic center's surface. Gas emissions may be monitored with equipment including portable ultra-violet spectrometers, which analyzes the presence of volcanic gases such as sulfur dioxide. Increased gas emissions, more changes in gas compositions, may signal an impending volcanic eruption. Temperature changes are monitored using thermometers and observing changes in thermal properties of volcanic lakes and vents, which may indicate upcoming activity. Satellites are used to monitor volcanoes, as they allow a large area to be monitored easily, they can measure the spread of an ash plume, such as the one from Eyjafjallajökull's 2010 eruption, as well as SO2 emissions. InSAR and thermal imaging can monitor large, scarcely populated areas where it would be too expensive to maintain instruments on the ground. Other geophysical techniques include monitoring fluctuations and sudden change in resistivity, gravity anomalies or magnetic anomaly patterns that may indicate volcano-induced faulting and magma upwelling.
Stratigraphic analyses includes analyzing tephra and lava deposits and dating these to give volcano eruption patterns, with estimated cycles of intense activity and size of eruptions. Volcanology has an extensive history; the earliest known recording of a volcanic eruption may be on a wall painting dated to about 7,000 BCE found at the Neolithic site at Çatal Höyük in Anatolia, Turkey. This painting has been interpreted as a depiction of an erupting volcano, with a cluster of houses below shows a twin peaked volcano in eruption, with a town at its base; the volcano may be either Hasan Dağ, or its smaller neighbour, Melendiz Dağ. The classical world of Greece and the early Roman Empire explained volcanoes as sites of various gods. Greeks considered that Hephaestus, the god of fire, sat below the volcano Etna, forging the weapons of Zeus; the Greek word used to describe volcanoes was hiera, after Heracles, the son of Zeus. The Roman poet Virgil, in interpreting the Greek mythos, held that the giant Enceladus was buried beneath Etna by the goddess Athena as punishment for rebellion against the gods.
Enceladus' brother Mimas was buried beneath Vesuvius by Hephaestus, the blood of other defeated giants welled up in the Phlegrean Fields surrounding Vesuvius. The Greek philosopher Empedocles saw the world divided into four elemental forces, of Earth, Air and Water. Volcanoes, Empedocles maintained, were the manifestation of Elemental Fire. Plato contended that channels of hot and cold waters flow in inexhaustible quantities through subterranean rivers. In the depths of the earth snakes a vast river of fire, the Pyriphlegethon, which feeds all the world's volcanoes. Aristotle considered underground fire as the result of "the...friction of the wind when it plunges into narrow passages." Wind played a key role in volcano explanations until the 16th century. Lucretius, a Roman philosopher, claimed Etna was hollow and the fires of the underground driven by a fierce wind circulating near sea level. Ovid believed that the flame was fed from "fatty foods" and eruptions stopped when the food ran out. Vitruvius contended that sulfur and bitumen fed the deep fires.
Observations by Pliny the Elder noted the presence of earthquakes preceded an eruption. His nephew, Pliny the Younger gave detailed descriptions of the eruption in which his uncle died, attributing his death to the effects of toxic gases; such eruptions have been named Plinian in honour of the two authors. Nuées ardentes were described from the Azores in 1580. Georgius Agricola argued the rays of the sun, as proposed by Descartes had nothing to do with volcanoes. Agricola believed vapor under pressure caused eruptions of basalt. Jesuit Athanasius Kircher witnessed eruptions of Mount Etna and Stromboli visited the crater of Vesuvius and published his view of an Earth with a central fire connected to numerous others caused by the burning of sulfur and coal. Johannes Kepler considered volcanoes as
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Augite is a common rock-forming pyroxene mineral with formula 2O6. The crystals are prismatic. Augite has two prominent cleavages, meeting at angles near 90 degrees. Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group. Diopside and hedenbergite are important endmembers in augite, but augite can contain significant aluminium and sodium and other elements; the calcium content of augite is limited by a miscibility gap between it and pigeonite and orthopyroxene: when occurring with either of these other pyroxenes, the calcium content of augite is a function of temperature and pressure, but of temperature, so can be useful in reconstructing temperature histories of rocks. With declining temperature, augite orthopyroxene. There is a miscibility gap between augite and omphacite, but this gap occurs at higher temperatures. There are no economic uses for this mineral. Augite is an essential mineral in mafic igneous rocks, it occurs in high-temperature metamorphic rocks such as mafic granulite and metamorphosed iron formations.
It occurs in association with orthoclase, labradorite, leucite and other pyroxenes. Occasional specimens have a shiny appearance that give rise to the mineral's name, from the Greek augites, meaning "brightness", although ordinary specimens have a dull luster, it was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1792. Transparent augites containing dendritic patterns are used as gems and ornamental stones known as shajar in parts of India, it is found near the Ken River. Local jewelers export items to different parts of India. Banda is one city noted for trade of shazar stone. Fassaite Deer, W. A. Howie, R. A. and Zussman, J.. An introduction to the rock-forming minerals. Harlow: Longman ISBN 0-582-30094-0