Pepin II of Aquitaine
Pepin II, called the Younger, was King of Aquitaine from 838 as the successor upon the death of his father, Pepin I. Pepin II was daughter of Theodobert, count of Madrie, he was a grandson of the Emperor Louis the Pious. Pepin was elected king upon his father's death by the nobles of Aquitaine who were keen to establish their independence from the Empire. However, his grandfather Louis the Pious had appointed his son Charles the Bald, Pepin's uncle, about the same age, as King of Aquitaine in 832 when he dispossessed Pepin’s father Pepin I, contested the kingship on Pepin I’s death in 838. Pepin had thereafter been at war with his half-uncle Charles. Louis the Pious disinherited him at Crémieu and at Worms in two subsequent divisions of the empire. Louis demanded the Aquitainians send Pepin to Aachen to learn the ways of good governance, which they refused. Pepin was in total control of Aquitaine until 841 when he went to his uncle Lothair I's aid at the Battle of Fontenoy. Pepin defeated Charles the Bald, but Lothair was routed by Louis the German, another son of Emperor Louis.
Pepin continued war with Charles the Bald. In 844 Pepin made the fatal error of asking for help from a Viking adventurer, he guided Oscar's forces up the Garonne to Toulouse, giving them an opportunity to scout the land for plundering. In 845 Pepin welcomed Seguin of Bordeaux. Pepin made him dux Wasconum, to help his fight against Sans II Sancion of Gascony, at war with his father Pepin I. Bordeaux, the largest city in Aquitaine and controlled by Charles, was seized by Oscar in 847, with the aid of disaffected citizens; these were either partisans of Pepin. The loss of this city to a heathen pirate, coupled with Pepin's heavy drinking and loose living, eroded his support in the nobility until 848 he was left with no support, his younger brother, Charles tried to claim the Aquitainian Kingdom for himself. Pepin II's rule ended in 851 or 852 when he was captured by Sans II Sancion, handed over to Charles, he was detained in the monastery of Saint Médard in Soissons. As reward Sans was awarded the status of Duke.
Louis the German, at war with Charles the Bald, sent his son Louis the Younger, to claim Aquitaine. He marched as far as Limoges in 855 before returning east. Pepin escaped and recovered some of his old authority and lands in 854; the Vikings now established in the Loire Valley ravaged Poitiers, Angoulême, Périgueux, Limoges and Bourges while Charles the Bald was busy trying to subdue Pepin. In 864 Pepin joined the Vikings and is rumored to have turned from Christianity to worship Woden and "lived like one of them ", he joined the Vikings in an attack on Toulouse. He was captured again in 864, deposed by the Edict of Pistres, imprisoned in Senlis, where he would die
Arnulf of Metz
Saint Arnulf of Metz was a Frankish bishop of Metz and advisor to the Merovingian court of Austrasia, who retired to the Abbey of Remiremont. In French he is known as Arnoul or Arnoulf. In English he is known as Arnold, he is claimed to be a direct descendant of Flavius Afranius Syagrius, being a case for descent from antiquity. The Vita Sancti Arnulfi, written shortly after the saint's death, states that he was of Frankish ancestry, from "sufficiently elevated and noble parentage, rich in worldly goods". Shortly after 800, most in Metz, a brief genealogy of the Carolingians was compiled, with no verifiable historical basis, it was modelled in style after the genealogy of Jesus in the New Testament. According to this source, Arnulf's father was a certain Arnoald, who in turn was the son of Ansbertus and Blithilt, an alleged and otherwise unattested daughter of Chlothar I; this claim of royal Merovingian descent is not confirmed by the contemporary reference in the Vita. Under Salic Law no children of Blithilde would be recognized as legitimate heirs to the dynasty, so an event like this would hardly be recorded, least remembered after many centuries.
J. Depoin observed that Arnulf was identified as a Frank in contemporary documents, whereas Arnoald was identified by Paul the Deacon as a Roman. Based on the Vita Gundolphi Arnulf's father was Bodegisel, a Frankish noble. David Humiston Kelley proposed that Arnoald was an ancestor of the Carolingians through a daughter Itta, wife of Pepin of Landen. Christian Settipani revisited and expanded upon the work of Depoin and Kelley, concurred in Arnulf's descent from Bodegisel instead of Arnoald, but noting that there was a connection between the Ripuarian Frankish royal house and the Carolingians, he argued that there was a connection through Arnulf's wife Doda, whom he posited as a daughter of Arnoald. Kelly considered probable Settipani's proposed connection between the Carolingians and Arnoald. Arnulf was born to an important Frankish family near Nancy in Lorraine around 582; the family owned vast domains between the Meuse rivers. As an adolescent, he was called to the Merovingian court of king Theudebert II of Austrasia where he was educated by Gondulf of Provence.
Arnulf was sent to serve as dux at the Schelde. Arnulf gave distinguished service at the Austrasian court under Theudebert II, he distinguished himself both in the civil administration. Arnulf was married ca 596 to a noblewoman whom sources give the name of Dode or Doda. Chlodulf of Metz was their oldest son, but more important is his second son Ansegisel, who married Begga daughter of Pepin I, Pepin of Landen. Arnulf is thus the male-line grandfather of Pepin of Herstal, great-grandfather of Charles Martel and 3rd great-grandfather of Charlemagne; the rule of Austrasia came into the hands of Brunhilda, the grandmother of Theudebert, who ruled in Burgundy in the name of her great-grandchildren. In 613 Arnulf joined his politics with Pepin of Landen and led the opposition of Frankish nobles against Queen Brunhilda; the revolt led to her overthrow and eventual execution, the subsequent reunification of Frankish lands under Chlothachar II. He and his friend Romaricus an officer of the court, planned to make a pilgrimage to the Abbey of Lérins.
Chlothachar, who appreciated Arnulf's administrative skills, offered him the vacant see of Metz, the capital of the Autrasian kingdom. His wife took the veil as a nun in a convent at Treves, Arnulf saw it as a sign of God and became a priest and bishop afterwards. Arnulf continued to serve as the king's courtier. Chlothachar made his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia, which he ruled with the help of his adviser Arnulf. Pepin of Landen, became the Mayor of the Palace. In 624 Pepin and Arnulf encouraged Dagobert in the murder of Chrodoald, an important leader of the Frankish Agilolfings family. During his career he was attracted to religious life, he retired to become a monk, he retired around 628 to a hermitage at a mountain site in his domains in the Vosges. His friend Romaric, whose parents had been killed by Brunhilda, had preceded him to the mountains around 613, together with Amatus had established Remiremont Abbey there. After the death of Chlothachar in 629, Arnulf settled near Habendum, where he died some time between 643 and 647.
He was buried at Remiremont. Arnulf was canonized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. In iconography he is portrayed with a pastoral staff in his hand. There are three legends associated with Arnulf: Arnulf was tormented by the violence that surrounded him and feared that he had played a role in the wars and murders that plagued the ruling families. Obsessed by these sins, Arnulf went to a bridge over the Moselle river. There he took off his bishop's ring and threw it into the river, praying to God to give him a sign of absolution by returning the ring to him. Many penitent years a fisherman brought to the bishop's kitchen a fish in the stomach of, found the bishop's ring. Arnulf repaid the sign of God by retiring as bishop and becoming a hermit for the remainder of his life. At the moment Arnulf resigned as bishop, a fire broke out in the cellars of the royal palace and threatened to spread throughout the city of Metz. Arnulf, full of courage and feeling unity with the townspeople, stood before the fire and said, “If God wants me to be consumed, I am in His hands.”
He made the sign of the cross at which point the fire receded. It was July 642 and hot when the parishioners of Metz went to Remiremont to recove
Carloman I Karlmann was king of the Franks from 768 until his death in 771. He was the second surviving son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon and was a younger brother of Charlemagne, his death allowed Charlemagne to begin his expansion into other kingdoms. At the age of 3, he was, together with his father, Pepin the Short, his elder brother, anointed King of the Franks and titled "Patrician of the Romans" by Pope Stephen II, who had left Rome to beg the Frankish King for assistance against the Lombards. Carloman and Charlemagne each inherited a half of the Kingdom of the Franks upon Pepin's death, his share was based in the centre of the Frankish Kingdom, with his capital at Soissons, consisted of the Parisian basin, the Massif Central, the Languedoc, Burgundy, southern Austrasia and Alemannia. It is agreed that Carloman and Charlemagne disliked each other, although the reasons behind this are unclear: some historians suggest that each brother considered himself rightfully to be the sole heir of their father – Charlemagne as the elder child, Carloman as the legitimate child.
Be that as it may, Pepin the Short's disposal of his kingdom appears to have exacerbated the bad relations between the pair, since it required co-operation between the pair and left both feeling cheated. Carloman's reign proved troublesome; the brothers shared possession of Aquitaine, which broke into rebellion upon the death of Pepin the Short. The two quarreled at Moncontour, near Poitiers, Carloman withdrew. This, it had been suggested, was an attempt to undermine Charlemagne's power, since the rebellion threatened Charlemagne's rule. Charlemagne crushed the rebels, whilst Carloman's behaviour had damaged his own standing amongst the Franks. Relations between the two degenerated further, requiring the mediation of their mother, who appears to have favoured Charlemagne, with whom she would live out her widowhood. In 770, his mother Bertrada began a series of diplomatic offensive to encircle Carloman. Charlemagne had married Desiderata, the daughter of the Lombard king Desiderius in Italy, which created an alliance between Charlemagne and the Lombards.
Although Pope Stephen III remained hostile to an alliance between the Franks and the Lombards in theory, in reality, he was conflicted between the threat the Lombards posed to him and the chance to dispose of the anti-Lombard Christopher the Primicerius, the dominant figure at the Papal court. These maneuvers had been favorable to the Franks in general, but posed serious threats to Carloman's position, he had been left without allies: he attempted to use his brother's alliance with the Lombards to his own advantage in Rome, offering his support against the Lombards to Stephen III and entering into secret negotiations with the Primicerius, isolated by the Franco-Lombard rapprochement. Carloman's position was rescued, however, by Charlemagne's sudden repudiation of his Lombard wife, Desiderius' daughter. Desiderius and humiliated, appears to have made an alliance with Carloman in opposition to Charlemagne and the Papacy, which took the opportunity to declare itself against the Lombards. Carloman died on 4 December 771, at the Villa of Samoussy.
At the time of his death, he and his brother Charlemagne were close to outright war, which Charlemagne's biographer Einhard attributes to the miscounsel of Carloman's advisors. Carloman was buried in Reims. Carloman had married a beautiful Frankish woman, who according to Pope Stephen III was chosen for him, together with Charlemagne's concubine, Himiltrude, by Pepin the Short. With Gerberga he had two sons, the older of whom was named Pepin after his grandfather, marking him according to Carolingian tradition as the heir of Carloman, of Pepin the Short. After Carloman's death, Gerberga expected her elder son to become King, for herself to rule as his regent. Gerberga fled with her sons and Count Autchar, one of Carloman's faithful nobles, to the court of Desiderius, who demanded of the new Pope Hadrian I that he anoint Carloman's sons as Kings of the Franks. Gerberga's flight precipitated Charlemagne's destruction of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Desiderius and his family were captured and sent to Frankish religious houses.
Pepin of Herstal
Pepin II known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death. He took the title Prince of the Franks upon his conquest of all the Frankish realms; the son of the powerful Frankish statesman Ansegisel, Pepin worked to establish his family, the Pippinids, as the strongest in Francia. He became Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia in 680. Pepin subsequently embarked on several wars to expand his power, he united all the Frankish realms by the conquests of Neustria and Burgundy in 687. In foreign conflicts, Pepin increased the power of the Franks by his subjugation of the Alemanni, the Frisians, the Franconians, he began the process of evangelisation in Germany. Pepin's statesmanship was notable for the further diminution of Merovingian royal authority, for the acceptance of the undisputed right to rule for his family. Therefore, Pepin was able to name as heir his grandson Theudoald, but this was not accepted by his powerful son Charles Martel, leading to a civil war after his death in which the latter emerged victorious.
Pepin, sometimes called Pepin II and Pepin the Middle, was the grandson and namesake of Pepin I the Elder through the marriage of Pepin I's daughter Begga to Ansegisel. He was the grandfather of Pepin the Short and great-grandfather of Charlemagne; that marriage united the two houses of the Pippinids and the Arnulfings which created what would be called the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin II was born in Herstal, modern Belgium, whence his byname; as mayor of Austrasia and Martin, the duke of Laon, fought the Neustrian mayor Ebroin, who had designs on all Francia. Ebroin came close to uniting all the Franks under his rule. Pepin made peace with his successor, Waratton. However, Waratton's successor and the Neustrian king Theuderic III, since 679, was nominal king of all the Franks, made war on Austrasia; the king and his mayor were decisively defeated at the Battle of Tertry in the Vermandois in 687. Berthar and Theuderic withdrew themselves to Paris, where Pepin followed and forced on them a peace treaty with the condition that Berthar leave his office.
Pepin was created mayor in all three Frankish kingdoms and began calling himself Duke and Prince of the Franks. In the ensuing quarrels, Berthar fled, his wife Anstrude married Pepin's eldest son Drogo, Duke of Champagne, Pepin's place in Neustria was secured. The Neustrians tolerated an Austrasian overlord, but Pepin preferred to put these local resistances aside to deal with Germany. Over the next several years, Pepin subdued the Alemanni and Franconians, bringing them within the Frankish sphere of influence. Between 690 and 692, Utrecht fell; this gave the Franks control of important trade routes on the Rhine to the North Sea. He supported the missionary work of Willibrord. In 695, he placed Drogo in the Burgundian mayorship and his other son, Grimoald, in the Neustrian one. Around 670, Pepin had married Plectrude, who had inherited substantial estates in the Moselle region, she was the mother of Drogo of Grimoald II, both of whom died before their father. However, Pepin had a mistress named Alpaida who bore him two more sons: Charles Martel and Childebrand.
Just before Pepin's death, Plectrude convinced him to disinherit the sons he had with his second wife Alpaida in favour of his grandson, still a young child. Pepin died at the age of 79 on 16 December 714, at Jupille, his grandchildren through Plectrude claimed themselves to be Pepin's true successors and, with the help of Plectrude, tried to maintain the position of mayor of the palace after Pepin's death. However, Charles had gained favour among the Austrasians for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests. Despite the efforts of Plectrude to silence her child's rival by imprisoning him, he became the sole mayor of the palace—and de facto ruler of Francia—after a civil war which lasted for more than three years after Pepin's death. In 2018, Dutch production company Farmhouse will release a movie called "Redbad", based on the historical Redbad and directed by Roel Reiné. Jonathan Banks will play Pepin of Herstal, the main villain in this movie.
Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476–918. London: Rivingtons, 1914. Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. translator. The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its Continuations. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1960. Bachrach, Bernard S. translator. Liber Historiae Francorum. 1973
Middle Francia was a short-lived Frankish kingdom, created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire. Middle Francia was allocated to emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the Pious, his realm contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the residence of Charlemagne, as well as Pavia but lacked any geographic or ethnic cohesion which prevented it from surviving and forming a nucleus of a larger state, as was the case with West Francia and East Francia. Middle Francia was situated between the realms of East and West Francia, comprised the Frankish territory between the rivers Rhine and Scheldt, the Frisian coast of the North Sea, the former Kingdom of Burgundy and Provence, as well as parts of northern Italy. Following the 855 partition, Middle Francia became only a geographic term and the bulk of its territory was reorganized as Lotharingia, named after Lothair I's namesake son.
In 855, on his deathbed at Prüm Abbey, Emperor Lothair I with the Treaty of Prüm divided Middle Francia among his three sons. The lands in northern Italy, which extended as far south as Rome and Spoleto, were left to the eldest son Louis II the Younger, crowned co-Emperor in 850 and sole Emperor from 855; this became the Kingdom of Italy. Most of the lands north of the Alps, comprising the Low Countries, the western Rhineland, the lands today on the border between France and Germany, what is now western Switzerland, passed to Lothair II and were called Lotharingia, after its ruler. Charles received Kingdom of Burgundy and Provence, which became the Kingdom of Arles, after Charles' capital. Charles died early and without sons in 863. According to Frankish custom, his brothers Louis II and Lothair II divided his realm. Lothair II received the western Lower Burgundian parts which were bordering his western Upper Burgundy which were incorporated into Lotharingia; when Lothair II died in 869, his only son Hugh by his mistress Waldrada, was declared illegitimate, so his only legal heir was his brother, Louis II.
If Louis II had inherited Lotharingia, Middle Francia would have been reunited. However, as Louis II was at that time campaigning against the Emirate of Bari, Lotharingia was partitioned between his uncles Charles the Bald and Louis the German by the Treaty of Meerssen in 870. Louis the German took Upper Burgundy, territory north of the Jura mountains, while the rest went to Charles the Bald. In 875 the last of Lothair I's children Louis II died without sons and named as his successor in Italy his cousin Carloman of Bavaria, eldest son of Louis the German. However, Pope John VIII, dealing with the constant threat of raiders from the Emirate of Sicily, sided with Charles the Bald. After much confusion and conflict, Charles the Bald took Louis' realm in Italy. Carloman was crowned King of Bavaria in 876 and invaded Italy in 877 to claim the Kingdom of Italy, but on his death in 880 without any legitimate heirs, his kingdom went to his younger brother, King Charles the Fat. Charles was crowned Emperor by Pope John VIII in 881 and thus he reunited the entire Carolingian Empire in 884, although it lasted only until Charles' overthrow in 887.
John M. Riddle: A History of the Middle Ages: 300–1500. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008. ISBN 978-0742554092. Timothy Reuter: The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 3: c. 900–c. 1024. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 9780521364478. Engreen, Fred E.. "Pope John the Eighth and the Arabs". Speculum. 20: 318–30. Doi:10.2307/2854614
Kingdom of Germany
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries. East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective; the initial electors were the rulers of the stem duchies, who chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire along with Italy. Like medieval England and medieval France, medieval Germany consolidated from a conglomerate of smaller tribes, nations or polities by the High Middle Ages; the term rex teutonicorum first came into use in Italy around the year 1000. It was popularized by the chancery of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy as a political tool against Emperor Henry IV. In the twelfth century, in order to stress the imperial and transnational character of their office, the emperors began to employ the title rex Romanorum on their election.
Distinct titulature for Germany and Burgundy, which traditionally had their own courts and chanceries dropped from use. After the Imperial Reform and Reformation settlement, the German part of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Reichskreise, which defined Germany against imperial territories outside the Imperial Circles: imperial Italy, the Bohemian Kingdom, the Old Swiss Confederacy. There are few references to a German realm distinct from the Holy Roman Empire; the eastern division of the Treaty of Verdun was called the regnum Francorum Orientalium or Francia Orientalis: the Kingdom of the Eastern Franks or East Francia. It was the eastern half of the old Merovingian regnum Austrasiorum; the "east Franks" themselves were the people of Franconia, settled by Franks. The other peoples of East Francia were Saxons, Frisians and the like, referred to as Teutonici and sometimes as Franks as ethnic identities changed over the course of the ninth century. An entry in the Annales Iuvavenses for the year 919 contemporary but surviving only in a twelfth-century copy, records that Baiuarii sponte se reddiderunt Arnolfo duci et regnare ei fecerunt in regno teutonicorum, i.e. that "Arnulf, Duke of the Bavarians, was elected to reign in the Kingdom of the Germans".
Historians disagree on. Beginning in the late eleventh century, during the Investiture Controversy, the Papal curia began to use the term regnum teutonicorum to refer to the realm of Henry IV in an effort to reduce him to the level of the other kings of Europe, while he himself began to use the title rex Romanorum or King of the Romans to emphasise his divine right to the imperium Romanum; this title was employed most by the German kings themselves, though they did deign to employ "Teutonic" titles when it was diplomatic, such as Frederick Barbarossa's letter to the Pope referring to his receiving the coronam Theutonici regni. Foreign kings and ecclesiastics continued to refer to the regnum Alemanniae and règne or royaume d'Allemagne; the terms imperium/imperator or empire/emperor were employed for the German kingdom and its rulers, which indicates a recognition of their imperial stature but combined with "Teutonic" and "Alemannic" references a denial of their Romanitas and universal rule.
The term regnum Germaniae begins to appear in German sources at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Therefore, throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the king of Germany was Emperor of the Romans, his title was royal from his election to his coronation in Rome by the Pope. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the trend toward a "more conceived German kingdom" found no real consolidation; the title of "king of the Romans" became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome. The reign was dated to begin either on the day of the coronation; the election day became the starting date permanently with Sigismund. Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in 1508, with papal approval: after his German coronation, his style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator electus semper augustus; that is, he was "emperor elect": a term that did not imply that he was emperor-in-waiting or not yet emperor, but only that he was emperor by virtue of the election rather than papal coronation.
At the same time, the custom of having the heir-apparent elected as king of the Romans in the emperor's lifetime resumed. For this reason, the title "king of the Romans" came to mean heir-apparent, the successor elected while the emperor was still alive; the Archbishop