Peppermint is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint. Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, the plant is now spread and cultivated in many regions of the world, it is found in the wild with its parent species. Although the genus Mentha comprises more than 25 species, the most common one used is peppermint. While Western peppermint is derived from Mentha piperita, Chinese peppermint, or “Bohe” is derived from the fresh leaves of Mentha haplocalyx. Mentha piperita and Mentha haplocalyx are both recognized as plant sources of menthol and menthone and are among the oldest herbs used for both culinary and medicinal products. Peppermint was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus from specimens, collected in England, it is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant that grows to be 30–90 cm tall, with smooth stems, square in cross section. The rhizomes are wide-spreading and bear fibrous roots; the leaves can be 4–9 cm long and 1.5–4 cm broad. They are dark green with reddish veins, they have an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.
The leaves and stems are slightly fuzzy. The flowers are 6 -- 8 mm long, with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm diameter. Flowering season lasts from mid- to late summer; the chromosome number is variable, with 2n counts of 66, 72, 84, 120 recorded. Peppermint is a fast-growing plant. Peppermint occurs in moist habitats, including stream sides and drainage ditches. Being a hybrid, it is sterile, producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively, spreading by its runners. If placed, it can grow anywhere. Outside of its native range, areas where peppermint was grown for oil have an abundance of feral plants, it is considered invasive in Australia, the Galápagos Islands, New Zealand, the United States in the Great Lakes region, noted since 1843. Peppermint grows best in moist, shaded locations, expands by underground rhizomes. Young shoots are dibbled into the ground about 1.5 feet apart. They grow and cover the ground with runners if it is permanently moist. For the home gardener, it is grown in containers to restrict rapid spreading.
It grows best with a good supply of water, without being water-logged, planted in areas with part-sun to shade. The leaves and flowering tops are used; the wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose, with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. They may be allowed to lie and wilt a little before distillation, or they may be taken directly to the still. A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use: Mentha × piperita'Candymint'. Stems reddish. Mentha × piperita'Chocolate Mint'. Flowers open from bottom up. Mentha × piperita'Citrata'. Includes a number of varieties including Eau De Cologne Mint, Grapefruit Mint, Lemon Mint, Orange Mint. Leaves aromatic, hairless. Mentha × piperita'Crispa'. Leaves wrinkled. Mentha × piperita'Lavender Mint'. Mentha × piperita'Lime Mint'. Foliage lime-scented. Mentha × piperita'Variegata'. Leaves mottled pale yellow. Commercial cultivars may include Dulgo pole Zefir Bulgarian population #2 Clone 11-6-22 Clone 80-121-33 Mitcham Digne 38 Mitcham Ribecourt 19 Todd's#x2019 Todd's Mitcham, a verticillium wilt-resistant cultivar produced from a breeding and test program of atomic gardening at Brookhaven National Laboratory from the mid-1950s In 2014, world production of peppermint was 92,296 tonnes, led by Morocco with 92% of the world total reported by FAOSTAT of the United Nations.
Argentina accounted for 8% of the world total. In the United States and Washington produce most of the country's peppermint, the leaves of which are processed for the essential oil to produce flavorings for chewing gum and toothpaste. Peppermint has a high menthol content; the oil contains menthone and carboxyl esters menthyl acetate. Dried peppermint has 0.3–0.4% of volatile oil containing menthol, menthyl acetate, menthofuran and 1,8-cineol. Peppermint oil contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone and pinene. Peppermint contains terpenoids and flavonoids such as eriocitrin and kaempferol 7-O-rutinoside. Peppermint oil has a high concentration of natural pesticides pulegone and menthone, it is known to repel some pest insects, including mosquitos, has uses in organic gardening. The chemical composition of the essential oil from peppermint was analyzed by GC/FID and GC-MS; the main constituents were menthone. Further components were -menthyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, beta-pinene and beta-caryophyllene.
Peppermint oil is under preliminary research for its potential as a short-term treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, has supposed uses in traditional medicine for minor ailments. Peppermint oil and leaves have a cooling effect when used topically for muscle pain, nerve pain, relief from itching, or as a fragrance. High oral doses of peppermint oil can mimic heartburn. Fresh
Dessert is a course that concludes an evening meal. The course consists of sweet foods, such as confections dishes or fruit, a beverage such as dessert wine or liqueur, however in the United States it may include coffee, nuts, or other savory items regarded as a separate course elsewhere. In some parts of the world, such as much of central and western Africa, most parts of China, there is no tradition of a dessert course to conclude a meal; the term dessert can apply to many confections, such as biscuits, cookies, gelatins, ice creams, pies and sweet soups, tarts. Fruit is commonly found in dessert courses because of its occurring sweetness; some cultures sweeten foods that are more savory to create desserts. The word "dessert" originated from the French word desservir, meaning "to clear the table." Its first known use was in 1600, in a health education manual entitled Naturall and artificial Directions for Health, written by William Vaughan. In his A History of Dessert, Michael Krondl explains it refers to the fact dessert was served after the table had been cleared of other dishes.
The term dates from the 14th century but attained its current meaning around the beginning of the 20th century when "service à la française" was replaced with "service à la russe"" The word "dessert" is most used for this course in Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, the United States, while "pudding", "sweet", or more colloquially, "afters" are used in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong and India. Sweets were fed to the gods in ancient Mesopotamia and ancient India and other ancient civilizations. Dried fruit and honey were the first sweeteners used in most of the world, but the spread of sugarcane around the world was essential to the development of dessert. Sugarcane was grown and refined in India before 500 BC and was crystallized, making it easy to transport, by 500 AD. Sugar and sugarcane were traded, making sugar available to Macedonia by 300 BC and China by 600 AD. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, China, sugar has been a staple of cooking and desserts for over a thousand years.
Sugarcane and sugar were little known and rare in Europe until the twelfth century or when the Crusades and colonization spread its use. Herodotus mentions that, as opposed to the Greeks, the main Persian meal was simple, but they would eat many desserts afterwards. Europeans began to manufacture sugar in the Middle Ages, more sweet desserts became available. Sugar was so expensive only the wealthy could indulge on special occasions; the first apple pie recipe was published in 1381. The earliest documentation of the term cupcake was in "Seventy-five Receipts for Pastry and Sweetmeats" in 1828 in Eliza Leslie's Receipts cookbook; the Industrial Revolution in Europe and America caused desserts to be mass-produced, preserved and packaged. Frozen foods, including desserts, became popular starting in the 1920s when freezing emerged; these processed foods became a large part of diets in many industrialized nations. Many countries have foods distinctive to their nations or region. Sweet desserts contain cane sugar, palm sugar, honey or some types of syrup such as molasses, maple syrup, treacle, or corn syrup.
Other common ingredients in Western-style desserts are flour or other starches, Cooking fats such as butter or lard, eggs, acidic ingredients such as lemon juice, spices and other flavoring agents such as chocolate, peanut butter and nuts. The proportions of these ingredients, along with the preparation methods, play a major part in the consistency and flavor of the end product. Sugars contribute tenderness to baked goods. Flour or starch components gives the dessert structure. Fats can enable the development of flaky layers in pastries and pie crusts; the dairy products in baked goods keep the desserts moist. Many desserts contain eggs, in order to form custard or to aid in the rising and thickening of a cake-like substance. Egg yolks contribute to the richness of desserts. Egg whites can provide structure. Further innovation in the healthy eating movement has led to more information being available about vegan and gluten-free substitutes for the standard ingredients, as well as replacements for refined sugar.
Desserts can contain many extracts to add a variety of flavors. Salt and acids are added to desserts to create a contrast in flavors; some desserts are coffee-flavored, for coffee biscuits. Alcohol can be used as an ingredient, to make alcoholic desserts. Dessert consist of variations of flavors and appearances. Desserts can be defined as a sweeter course that concludes a meal; this definition includes a range of courses ranging from fruits or dried nuts to multi-ingredient cakes and pies. Many cultures have different variations of dessert. In modern times the variations of desserts have been passed down or come from geographical regions; this is one cause for the variation of desserts. These are some major categories. Biscuits, (from the Old French word bescuit meaning twice-baked in Latin known as "cookies" in North America, are flattish bite-sized or larger short pastries intended to be eaten out of the hand. Biscuits can have a texture, crispy, chewy, or soft. Examples include layered bars, crispy
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold in powder form; the aromatic principles of many spices, herbs, etc. and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extracts being almond, cloves, lemon, orange, pistachio, spearmint, violet and wintergreen. The majority of natural essences are obtained by extracting the essential oil from the blossoms, roots, etc. or the whole plants, through four techniques: 1) expression, 2) absorption, 3) maceration, 4) distillation. Expression is used when the oil is plentiful and obtained, as in lemon peel. Absorption is accomplished by steeping in alcohol, as vanilla beans. Maceration is used to create smaller bits of the whole, as in making peppermint extract, etc. Distillation is used with maceration, but in many cases, it requires expert chemical knowledge and the erection of costly stills; the distinctive flavors of nearly all fruits, in the popular acceptance of the word, are desirable adjuncts to many food preparations, but only a few are practical sources of sufficiently concentrated flavor extract.
The most important among those that lend themselves to "pure" extract manufacture include lemons and vanilla beans. The majority of concentrated fruit flavors such as banana, peach, pineapple and strawberry, are produced by combining a variety of esters with special oils; the desired colors are obtained by the use of dyes. Among the esters most employed are ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate; the chief factors in the production of artificial banana and strawberry extract are amyl acetate and amyl butyrate. Artificial extracts do not possess the delicacy of natural fruit flavor, but taste sufficiently similar to be useful when true essences are unobtainable or too expensive. Vanilla extract Spagyric This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ward, Artemas; the Grocer's Encyclopedia
Schnapps or schnaps is a type of alcoholic beverage that may take several forms, including distilled fruit brandies, herbal liqueurs, "flavored liqueurs" made by adding fruit syrups, spices, or artificial flavorings to neutral grain spirits. The English loanword "schnapps" is derived from the colloquial German word Schnaps, used in reference to spirit drinks; the word Schnaps stems from Low German language and is related to the German term "schnappen", which refers to the fact that the spirit or liquor drink is consumed in a quick slug from a small glass. In British English, a corresponding term is "dram"; the German term Schnaps refers to any kind of strong alcoholic drink, similar to how eau de vie is used in French, aguardiente in Spanish, or aguardente Portuguese. In Austria, southern Germany, the French region of Alsace, a type of schnapps called Obstler or Obstbrand is popular. Obstler, which are fruit brandies, are associated with the southern part of the German-language area. In northern Germany all traditional distilled beverages are grain-based.
The main kinds of fruit used for German schnapps are apples, plums and apricots. Fruits other than these five are used. Apples are used along with pears to make Obstwasser. A raspberry-flavored spirit called Himbeergeist is referred to as schnapps, although it is not an Obstler. Instead, it is an infusion of macerated fresh berries in neutral spirits, which have been steeped for several weeks before being distilled; the different kinds of Obstler are similar to the varieties of Rakija found in the Balkans and Eastern Europe. Slivovitz is a popular schnapps made from Damson plums found throughout the region. Kräuterlikör is another popular form of schnapps sweetened. Well known brands include Jägermeister, Kuemmerling and Wurzelpeter. An inexpensive sweetened form of liqueur is made in America by mixing neutral grain spirit with fruit syrup, spices, or other flavors. Referred to as "schnapps", these are bottled with an alcohol content between 15% and 20% ABV, though some may be much higher. Brandy Korn Pálinka Snaps
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine into the blood stream. Digestion is a form of catabolism, divided into two processes based on how food is broken down: mechanical and chemical digestion; the term mechanical digestion refers to the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces which can subsequently be accessed by digestive enzymes. In chemical digestion, enzymes break down food into the small molecules. In the human digestive system, food enters the mouth and mechanical digestion of the food starts by the action of mastication, a form of mechanical digestion, the wetting contact of saliva. Saliva, a liquid secreted by the salivary glands, contains salivary amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of starch in the food. After undergoing mastication and starch digestion, the food will be in the form of a small, round slurry mass called a bolus.
It will travel down the esophagus and into the stomach by the action of peristalsis. Gastric juice in the stomach starts protein digestion. Gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin, it contains rennin in case of infants and toddlers. As the first two chemicals may damage the stomach wall, mucus is secreted by the stomach, providing a slimy layer that acts as a shield against the damaging effects of the chemicals. At the same time protein digestion is occurring, mechanical mixing occurs by peristalsis, waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall; this allows the mass of food to further mix with the digestive enzymes. After some time, the resulting thick liquid is called chyme; when the pyloric sphincter valve opens, chyme enters the duodenum where it mixes with digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile juice from the liver and passes through the small intestine, in which digestion continues. When the chyme is digested, it is absorbed into the blood. 95% of absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine.
Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon where the pH is acidic about 5.6 ~ 6.9. Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K produced by bacteria in the colon are absorbed into the blood in the colon. Waste material is eliminated from the rectum during defecation. Digestive systems take many forms. There is a fundamental distinction between external digestion. External digestion developed earlier in evolutionary history, most fungi still rely on it. In this process, enzymes are secreted into the environment surrounding the organism, where they break down an organic material, some of the products diffuse back to the organism. Animals have a tube in which internal digestion occurs, more efficient because more of the broken down products can be captured, the internal chemical environment can be more efficiently controlled; some organisms, including nearly all spiders secrete biotoxins and digestive chemicals into the extracellular environment prior to ingestion of the consequent "soup".
In others, once potential nutrients or food is inside the organism, digestion can be conducted to a vesicle or a sac-like structure, through a tube, or through several specialized organs aimed at making the absorption of nutrients more efficient. Bacteria use several systems to obtain nutrients from other organisms in the environments. In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria, it is a simple system, which consists of only three protein subunits: the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein, outer membrane protein. This secretion system transports various molecules, from drugs, to proteins of various sizes; the molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 900 kDa. A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium can inject nutrients into protist cells. One such mechanism was first discovered in Y. pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the bacterial cytoplasm into the cytoplasm of its host's cells rather than be secreted into the extracellular medium.
The conjugation machinery of some bacteria is capable of transporting proteins. It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host, which develops the crown gall; the VirB complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the prototypic system. The nitrogen fixing Rhizobia are an interesting case, wherein conjugative elements engage in inter-kingdom conjugation; such elements as the Agrobacterium Ti or Ri plasmids contain elements that can transfer to plant cells. Transferred genes enter the plant cell nucleus and transform the plant cells into factories for the production of opines, which the bacteria use as carbon and energy sources. Infected plant cells form crown root tumors; the Ti and Ri plasmids are thus endosymbionts of the bacteria, which are in turn endosymbionts of the infected plant. The Ti and Ri plasmids are themselves conjugative. Ti and Ri transfer between bacteria uses an inde
Candy called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, sugar candy. Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied. Physically, candy is characterized by the use of a significant amount of sugar substitutes. Unlike a cake or loaf of bread that would be shared among many people, candies are made in smaller pieces. However, the definition of candy depends upon how people treat the food. Unlike sweet pastries served for a dessert course at the end of a meal, candies are eaten casually with the fingers, as a snack between meals; each culture has its own ideas of. The same food may be a dessert in another. Between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, the Persians, followed by the Greeks, discovered the people in India and their "reeds that produce honey without bees", they adopted and spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture.
Sugarcane is indigenous to tropical South and Southeast Asia, while the word sugar is derived from the Sanskrit word Sharkara. Pieces of sugar were produced by boiling sugarcane juice in ancient India and consumed as Khanda, dubbed as the original candy and the etymology of the word. Before sugar was available, candy was based on honey. Honey was used in Ancient China, Middle East, Egypt and the Roman Empire to coat fruits and flowers to preserve them or to create forms of candy. Candy is still served in this form today, though now it is more seen as a type of garnish. Before the Industrial Revolution, candy was considered a form of medicine, either used to calm the digestive system or cool a sore throat. In the Middle Ages candy appeared on the tables of only the most wealthy at first. At that time, it began as a combination of spices and sugar, used as an aid to digestive problems. Digestive problems were common during this time due to the constant consumption of food, neither fresh nor well balanced.
Banquet hosts would serve these types of'candies' at banquets for their guests. One of these candies, sometimes called chamber spice, was made with cloves, aniseed, juniper berries and pine kernels dipped in melted sugar; the Middle English word candy began to be used in the late 13th century. The first candy came to America in the early 18th century from France. Only a few of the early colonists were proficient in sugar work and were able to provide the sugary treats for the wealthy. Rock candy, made from crystallized sugar, was the simplest form of candy, but this basic form of sugar was considered a luxury and was only attainable by the rich; the candy business underwent a drastic change in the 1830s when technological advances and the availability of sugar opened up the market. The new market was not only for the enjoyment of the rich but for the pleasure of the working class. There was an increasing market for children. While some fine confectioners remained, the candy store became a staple of the child of the American working class.
Penny candies epitomized this transformation of candy. Penny candy became the first material good. For this reason, candy store-owners relied entirely on the business of children to keep them running. Penny candies were directly descended from medicated lozenges that held bitter medicine in a hard sugar coating. In 1847, the invention of the candy press made it possible to produce multiple shapes and sizes of candy at once. In 1851, confectioners began to use a revolving steam pan to assist in boiling sugar; this transformation meant that the candy maker was no longer required to continuously stir the boiling sugar. The heat from the surface of the pan was much more evenly distributed and made it less the sugar would burn; these innovations made it possible for only one or two people to run a candy business. As the path from producer to market became complicated, many foods were affected by adulteration and the addition of additives which ranged from harmless ingredients, such as cheap cornstarch and corn syrup, to poisonous ones.
Some manufacturers produced bright colors in candy by the addition of hazardous substances for which there was no legal regulation: green, red and white. In an 1885 cover cartoon for Puck, Joseph Keppler satirized the dangers of additives in candy by depicting the "mutual friendship" between striped candy and gravediggers. By 1906, research into the dangers of additives, exposés of the food industry, public pressure led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act, the first federal United States law to regulate food and drugs, including candy. Sugar candies include hard candies, soft candies, marshmallows and other candies whose principal ingredient is sugar. Commercially, sugar candies are divided into groups according to the amount of sugar they contain and their chemical structure. Comparison of sugar candies Chocolate is sometimes treated as a separate branch of confectionery. In this model, chocolate candies like chocolate candy bars and chocolate truffles are included. Hot chocolate or other cocoa-based drinks are excluded.
However, when chocolate is treated as a separate branch, it includes confections whose classification is otherwise difficult, being neither candies nor baked goods, like chocolate-dipped foods, tarts with chocolate shel
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a carbon. The term alcohol referred to the primary alcohol ethanol, used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH, it is these simple monoalcohols. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; when a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-. Alcohol distillation originated in India. During 2000 BCE, people of India used. Alcohol distillation was known to Islamic chemists as early as the eighth century.
The Arab chemist, al-Kindi, unambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise titled as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations". The Persian physician, alchemist and philosopher Rhazes is credited with the discovery of ethanol; the word "alcohol" is from a powder used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was used for the fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb2S3, it was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic and cosmetic; the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor. Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" authors for "fine powder." Vigo wrote: "the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre."The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium."
By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". Johnson glosses alcohol vini as "quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat." The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry after 1850. The term ethanol was invented 1892, combining the word ethane with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol". IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy. In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g. as in "ethanol" from the alkane chain name "ethane".
When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the -ol: propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy-is used, e.g. as in 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenol, is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain; as described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. Alcohols are classified into primary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group.
The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH. The simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RR'CHOH, the simplest of, 2-propanol. For the tertiary alcohols the general form is RR'R"COH; the simplest example is tert-butanol, for which each of R, R', R" is CH3. In these shorthands, R, R', R" represent substituents, alkyl or other attached organic groups. In archaic nomenclature, alcohols can be named as derivatives of methanol using "-carbinol" as the ending. For instance, 3COH can be named trimethylcarbinol. Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: methanol for the production of formaldehyde and as a fuel additive ethanol for alcoholic beverages, fuel additive, solvent 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutyl alcohol for use as a solvent a