Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health. According to the World Health Organization, "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases." Personal hygiene refers to maintaining the body's cleanliness. Many people equate hygiene with'cleanliness,' but hygiene is a broad term, it includes such personal habit choices as how to take a shower or bathe, wash hands, trim fingernails, change and wash clothes. It includes attention to keeping surfaces in the home and workplace, including bathroom facilities and pathogen-free; some regular hygiene practices may be considered good habits by a society, while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful, or threatening. First attested in English in 1676s, the word hygiene comes from the French hygiène, the latinisation of the Greek ὑγιεινή hugieinē technē, meaning " of health", from ὑγιεινός hugieinos, "good for the health, healthy", in turn from ὑγιής, "healthful, salutary, wholesome".
In ancient Greek religion, Hygeia was the personification of health and hygiene. Hygiene is a concept related to cleanliness and medicine, it is as well related to professional care practices. In medicine and everyday life settings, hygiene practices are employed as preventative measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of disease. Hygiene practices vary, what is considered acceptable in one culture might not be acceptable in another. In the manufacturing of food, pharmaceutical and other products, good hygiene is a critical component of quality assurance; the terms cleanliness and hygiene are used interchangeably, which can cause confusion. In general, hygiene refers to practices. Cleaning processes remove infectious microbes as well as dirt and soil, are thus the means to achieve hygiene. Other uses of the term appear in phrases including body hygiene, personal hygiene, sleep hygiene, mental hygiene, dental hygiene, occupational hygiene, used in connection with public health. Hygiene is the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health.
Medical hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care that prevents or minimizes the spread of disease. Medical hygiene practices include: Isolation or quarantine of infectious persons or materials to prevent spread of infection. Sterilization of instruments used in surgical procedures. Use of protective clothing and barriers, such as masks, caps and gloves. Proper bandaging and dressing of injuries. Safe disposal of medical waste. Disinfection of reusables. Scrubbing up, hand-washing in an operating room, but in more general health-care settings as well, where diseases can be transmitted. Most of these practices were developed in the 19th century and were well established by the mid-20th century; some procedures were refined in response to late-20th century disease outbreaks, notably AIDS and Ebola. Home hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices that prevent or minimize the spread of disease at home and other everyday settings such as social settings, public transport, the workplace, public places, etc.
Hygiene in a variety of settings plays an important role in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. It includes procedures used in a variety of domestic situations such as hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene and water hygiene, general home hygiene, care of domestic animals, home health care. At present, these components of hygiene tend to be regarded as separate issues, although based on the same underlying microbiological principles. Preventing the spread of diseases means breaking the chain of infection transmission. Put, if the chain of infection is broken, infection cannot spread. In response to the need for effective codes of hygiene in home and everyday life settings the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene has developed a risk-based approach based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point referred to as "targeted hygiene." Targeted hygiene is based on identifying the routes of pathogen spread in the home and introducing hygiene practices at critical times to break the chain of infection.
The main sources of infection in the home are people and water, domestic animals. Sites that accumulate stagnant water—such as sinks, waste pipes, cleaning tools, face cloths, etc. support microbial growth and can become secondary reservoirs of infection, though species are those that threaten "at risk" groups. Pathogens are shed from these sources via mucous membranes, vomit, skin scales, etc. Thus, when circumstances combine, people are exposed, either directly or via food or water, can develop an infection; the main "highways" for the spread of pathogens in the home are the hands and food contact surfaces, cleaning cloths and utensils. Pathogens can be spread via clothing and household linens, such as towels. Utilities such as toilets and wash basins, for example, were invented for dealing safely with human waste but still have risks associated with them. Safe disposal of human waste is a fundamental need. Respiratory viruses and fungal spores are spread via
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a carbon. The term alcohol referred to the primary alcohol ethanol, used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH, it is these simple monoalcohols. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; when a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-. Alcohol distillation originated in India. During 2000 BCE, people of India used. Alcohol distillation was known to Islamic chemists as early as the eighth century.
The Arab chemist, al-Kindi, unambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise titled as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations". The Persian physician, alchemist and philosopher Rhazes is credited with the discovery of ethanol; the word "alcohol" is from a powder used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was used for the fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb2S3, it was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic and cosmetic; the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor. Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" authors for "fine powder." Vigo wrote: "the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre."The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium."
By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". Johnson glosses alcohol vini as "quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat." The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry after 1850. The term ethanol was invented 1892, combining the word ethane with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol". IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy. In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g. as in "ethanol" from the alkane chain name "ethane".
When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the -ol: propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy-is used, e.g. as in 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenol, is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain; as described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. Alcohols are classified into primary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group.
The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH. The simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RR'CHOH, the simplest of, 2-propanol. For the tertiary alcohols the general form is RR'R"COH; the simplest example is tert-butanol, for which each of R, R', R" is CH3. In these shorthands, R, R', R" represent substituents, alkyl or other attached organic groups. In archaic nomenclature, alcohols can be named as derivatives of methanol using "-carbinol" as the ending. For instance, 3COH can be named trimethylcarbinol. Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: methanol for the production of formaldehyde and as a fuel additive ethanol for alcoholic beverages, fuel additive, solvent 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutyl alcohol for use as a solvent a
A parody. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, animation and film; the writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche and burlesque. Meanwhile, the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and instructing the most sensible and polished minds; when a formula grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked that genre. According to Aristotle, Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody.
In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treating light, satirical or mock-heroic subjects". Indeed, the components of the Greek word are παρά para "beside, against" and ᾠδή oide "song". Thus, the original Greek word παρῳδία parodia has sometimes been taken to mean "counter-song", an imitation, set against the original; the Oxford English Dictionary, for example, defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect". Because par- has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule." Old Comedy contained parody the gods could be made fun of. The Frogs portrays the hero-turned-god Heracles as a glutton and the God of Drama Dionysus as cowardly and unintelligent; the traditional trip to the Underworld story is parodied as Dionysus dresses as Heracles to go to the Underworld, in an attempt to bring back a Poet to save Athens. In the 2nd century AD, Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-language writer in Syria, created a parody of travel/geography texts like Indica and The Odyssey.
He described the authors of such accounts as liars who had never traveled, nor talked to any credible person who had. In his named book True History Lucian delivers a story which exaggerates the hyperbole and improbable claims of those stories. Sometimes described as the first Science Fiction, along the lines of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the characters travel to the moon, engage in interplanetary war with the help of aliens they meet there, return to the earth to experience civilization inside a 200 mile long creature interpreted as being a whale; this is a parody of Ctesias' claims that India has a one-legged race of humans with a single foot so huge it can be used as an umbrella, Homer's stories of one-eyed giants, so on. Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. In French Neoclassical literature, parody was a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another to produce a humorous effect; the Ancient Greeks created satyr plays which parodied tragic plays with performers dressed like satyrs.
In classical music, as a technical term, parody refers to a reworking of one kind of composition into another. More a parody mass or an oratorio used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets or cantatas; the term is sometimes applied to procedures common in the Baroque period, such as when Bach reworks music from cantatas in his Christmas Oratorio. The musicological definition of the term parody has now been supplanted by a more general meaning of the word. In its more contemporary usage, musical parody has humorous satirical intent, in which familiar musical ideas or lyrics are lifted into a different incongruous, context. Musical parodies may imitate or refer to the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or a general style of music. For example, The Ritz Roll and Rock, a song and dance number performed by Fred Astaire in the movie Silk Stockings, parodies the Rock and Roll genre. Conversely, while the best-known work of Weird Al Yankovic is based on particular popular songs, it often utilises wildly incongruous elements of pop culture for comedic effect.
The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder than it was." The next citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was in common use, meaning to make fun of or re-create what you are doing. In the 20th century, parody has been heightened as the central and most representative artistic device, the catalysing agent of artistic creation and innovation; this most prom
Pea soup or split pea soup is soup made from dried peas, such as the split pea. It is, with variations, a part of the cuisine of many cultures, it is most greyish-green or yellow in color depending on the regional variety of peas used. Pea soup has been eaten since antiquity. During that era, vendors in the streets of Athens were selling hot pea soup."Eating fresh "garden" peas before they were matured was a luxurious innovation of the Early Modern period: by contrast with the coarse, traditional peasant fare of pease pottage, Potage Saint-Germain, made of fresh peas and other fresh greens braised in light stock and pureed, was an innovation sufficiently refined that it could be served to Louis XIV of France, for whose court at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye it was named, ca 1660-80. A well-known nursery rhyme which first appeared in 1765 speaks of "Pease" is the Middle English singular and plural form of the word "pea"—indeed, "pea" began as a back-formation. Pease pudding was a high-protein low-cost staple of the diet and, made from stored dried peas, was an ideal form of food for sailors boiled in accompaniment with salt pork, the origin of pea soup.
Although pease was replaced as a staple by potatoes during the nineteenth century, the food still remains popular in the national diet in the form of "mushy peas" sold as the typical accompaniment to fish and chips, as well as with meat pies. In 19th-century English literature, pea soup is referred to as a simple food and eating it as a sign of poverty. In the Thackeray short story "A Little Dinner at Timmins's", when a character asks his wife "Why don't you ask some of our old friends? Old Mrs. Portman has asked us twenty times, I am sure, within the last two years," she replies, with "a look of ineffable scorn," that when "the last time we went there, there was pea-soup for dinner!" In Thomas Hardy's Tess of the D'Urbervilles, Tess remarks that "we have several proofs that we are d'Urbervilles... we have a old silver spoon, round in the bowl like a little ladle, marked with the same castle. But it is so worn that mother uses it to stir the pea-soup." A soup of this sort made with yellow split-peas is called a London particular after the thick yellow smogs for which London was famous until the Clean Air Act.
Soupe aux pois is a traditional dish in Canadian cuisine. This split pea soup is popular nationwide, but spread via Québécois cuisine. One source says "The most authentic version of Quebec's soupe aux pois use whole yellow peas, with salt pork, herbs for flavour. After cooking, the pork is chopped and returned to the soup, or sometimes removed to slice thinly and served separately... Newfoundland Pea Soup is similar, but includes more vegetables such as diced turnips and carrots, is topped with small dumplings called dough boys or doughballs." A novel about nineteenth-century Canadian farmers by Louis Hémon, entitled Maria Chapdelaine, depicts pea soup as common farmhouse fare: Already the pea-soup smoked in the plates. The five men set themselves at table without haste, as if sensation were somewhat dulled by the heavy work..."... Most of you farmers, know. All the morning you have worked hard, go to your house for dinner and a little rest. Before you are well seated at table, a child is yelling:—'The cows are over the fence.
And when you have managed to drive the cows or the sheep into their paddock and put up the rails, you get back to the house nicely'rested' to find the pea-soup cold and full of flies, the pork under the table gnawed by dogs and cats, you eat what you can lay your hands on, watching for the next trick the wretched animals are getting ready to play on you."In Newfoundland, split peas are cooked in a bag as part of a Jiggs dinner, known as pease pudding. Outside Francophone areas, pea soup is sometimes served with johnny cake; this is reflected in an old saying: "pea soup and johnny cake makes a Frenchman's belly ache." Pea soup is a common dish throughout Germany. It contains meat such as bacon, sausage or Kassler depending on regional preferences. Several Würste will accompany a serving of pea soup as well as some dark bread. Ready-made soup in cans is sometimes used to prepare the dish. One of the first instant products was a pea soup product, which consisted of pea meal and beef fat, it was invented in 1867 by Johann Heinrich Grüneberg.
When the Franco-Prussian War broke out, the war ministry, which had tested the possibility of feeding soldiers on instant pea soup and bread, built a large manufacturing plant and produced between 4,000 and 5,000 tons of Erbswurst for the army during the war. In 1889, the Knorr instant-food company bought the license. Knorr, today a Unilever brand, discontinued the production of Erbswurst on December 31, 2018. Erwtensoep called snert, is the Dutch version of pea soup, it is a thick stew of green split peas, different cuts of pork, celeriac or stalk celery, leeks and potato. Slices of rookworst are added before serving; the soup, traditionally eaten during the winter, is emblematic of Dutch cuisine. It is customarily served with bacon, cheese or butter; the bacon is katenspek, a variety of bacon, coo
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet. Rocket engines are reaction engines. Most rocket engines use combustion, although non-combusting forms exist. Vehicles propelled by rocket engines are called rockets. Since they need no external material to form their jet, rocket engines can perform in a vacuum and thus can be used to propel spacecraft and ballistic missiles. Compared to other types of jet engines, rocket engines are by far the lightest, have the highest thrust, but are the least propellant-efficient; the ideal exhaust is hydrogen, the lightest of all gases, but chemical rockets produce a mix of heavier species, reducing the exhaust velocity. Rocket engines become more efficient at high velocities, due to greater propulsive efficiency and the Oberth effect. Since they do not require an atmosphere, they are well suited for uses at high altitudes and in space. Here, "rocket" is used as an abbreviation for "rocket engine". Thermal rockets use an inert propellant, heated by a power source such as nuclear power.
Chemical rockets are powered by exothermic chemical reactions of the propellant: Solid-fuel rockets are chemical rockets which use propellant in a solid state. Liquid-propellant rockets use one or more liquid propellants fed from tanks. Hybrid rockets use a solid propellant in the combustion chamber, to which a second liquid or gas oxidiser or propellant is added to permit combustion. Monopropellant rockets use a single propellant decomposed by a catalyst; the most common monopropellants are hydrogen peroxide. Rocket engines produce thrust by the expulsion of an exhaust fluid, accelerated to a high speed through a propelling nozzle; the fluid is a gas created by high pressure combustion of solid or liquid propellants, consisting of fuel and oxidiser components, within a combustion chamber. The nozzle uses the heat energy released by expansion of the gas to accelerate the exhaust to high speed, the reaction to this pushes the engine in the opposite direction. Combustion is most used for practical rockets, as high temperatures and pressures are desirable for the best performance, permitting a longer nozzle, giving higher exhaust speeds and better thermodynamic efficiency.
An alternative to combustion is the water rocket, which uses water pressurised by compressed air, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or manual pumping, for model rocketry. Rocket propellant is mass, stored in some form of propellant tank, or within the combustion chamber itself, prior to being ejected from a rocket engine in the form of a fluid jet to produce thrust. Chemical rocket propellants are most used, which undergo exothermic chemical reactions which produce hot gas, used by a rocket for propulsive purposes. Alternatively, a chemically inert reaction mass can be heated using a high-energy power source via a heat exchanger, no combustion chamber is used. Solid rocket propellants are prepared as a mixture of fuel and oxidising components called'grain' and the propellant storage casing becomes the combustion chamber. Liquid-fuelled rockets force separate fuel and oxidiser components into the combustion chamber, where they mix and burn. Hybrid rocket engines use a combination of liquid or gaseous propellants.
Both liquid and hybrid rockets use injectors to introduce the propellant into the chamber. These are an array of simple jets – holes through which the propellant escapes under pressure; when two or more propellants are injected, the jets deliberately cause the propellants to collide as this breaks up the flow into smaller droplets that burn more easily. For chemical rockets the combustion chamber is just a cylinder, flame holders are used; the dimensions of the cylinder are such. This leads to a number called L ∗: L ∗ = V c A t where: V c is the volume of the chamber A t is the area of the throatL* is in the range of 25–60 inches; the combination of temperatures and pressures reached in a combustion chamber is extreme by any standard. Unlike in airbreathing jet engines, no atmospheric nitrogen is present to dilute and cool the combustion, the propellant mixture can reach true stoichiometric ratios. This, in combination with the high pressures, means that the rate of heat conduction through the walls is high.
In order for fuel and oxidizer to flow into the chamber, the pressure of the propellant fluids entering the combustion chamber must exceed the pressure inside the combustion chamber itself. This may be accomplished by a variety of design approaches including turbopumps or, in simpler engines, via sufficient tank pressure to advance fluid flow. Tank pressure may be maintained by several means, including a high-pressure helium pressurization system common to many large rocket engines or, in some newer rocket systems, by a bleed-off of high-pressure gas from the engine cycle to autogenously pressurize the propellant tanks For example, the self-pressurization gas system of the BFR is a critical part of SpaceX strategy t
People driving under the influence of alcohol are referred to as drunk drivers, or drink-drivers. When charged with this as a crime, it may either be referred to as a DUI or a DWI, where a DUI is considered to be a lesser crime. Studies have been performed to identify commonalities between severe drunk drivers. Laws are in place to protect citizens from the consequences incurred by drunk drivers. According to "Why drunk drivers may get behind the wheel", a Mental Health Weekly Digest article, "lcohol-related motor vehicle accidents claim 17,000 American lives each year- the equivalent of one death every 30 minutes. An increase of blood alcohol concentration of 0.02 percent doubles the relative risk of a motor vehicle crash among 16- to 20-year-old males, that risk increases to nearly 52 times when the BAC is between 0.08 percent and 0.10 percent, the legal limits in many states." In fact "To help control the number of drunk driving episodes, states have lowered the blood alcohol content limit to.08%."
In terms of American law driving under the influence or while intoxicated "is never a defense to a crime or motor-vehicle infraction involving reckless behavior." Alcohol has a significant effect on the functions of the body which are vital to driving and being able to function. Alcohol is a depressant, which affects the function of the brain. Alcohol first affects the most vital components of the brain and "when the brain cortex is released from its functions of integrating and control, processes related to judgment and behavior occur in a disorganized fashion and the proper operation of behavioral tasks becomes disrupted." In all actuality alcohol weakens a variety of skills that are necessary to perform everyday tasks. One of the main effects of alcohol is impairing a person's ability to shift attention from one thing to another, "without impairing sensory motor functions." This indicates that people who are intoxicated are not able to properly shift their attention without affecting the senses.
People that are intoxicated have a much more narrow area of usable vision than people who are sober. The information the brain receives from the eyes "becomes disrupted if eyes must be turned to the side to detect stimuli, or if eyes must be moved from one point to another."Several testing mechanisms are used to gauge a person's ability to drive, which indicate levels of intoxication. One of these is referred to as a tracking task, testing hand–eye coordination, in which "the task is to keep an object on a prescribed path by controlling its position through turning a steering wheel. Impairment of performance is seen at BACs of as little as 0.7 milligrams per milliliter." Another form of tests is a choice reaction task, which deals more with cognitive function. In this form of testing both hearing and vision are tested and drivers must give a "response according to rules that necessitate mental processing before giving the answer." This is a useful gauge because in an actual driving situation drivers must divide their attention "between a tracking task and surveillance of the environment."
It has been found that "very low BACs are sufficient to produce significant impairment of performance" in this area of thought process. Studies suggest that a BAC of 0.01–0.04% would lower the risk, referred to as the Grand Rapids Effect or Grand Rapids Dip, based on a seminal research study by Borkenstein, et al. Some literature has attributed the Grand Rapids Effect to erroneous data or asserted that it was due to drivers exerting extra caution cautious at low BAC levels or to "experience" in drinking. Other explanations are that this effect is at least in part the blocking effect of ethanol excitotoxicity and the effect of alcohol in essential tremor and other movement disorders, but this remains speculative. A direct effect of alcohol on a person's brain is an overestimation of how their body is recovering from the effects of alcohol. A study, discussed in the article "Why drunk drivers may get behind the wheel", was done with college students in which the students were tested with "a hidden maze learning task as their BAC both rose and fell over an 8-hour period."
The researchers found through the study that as the students became more drunk there was an increase in their mistakes "and the recovery of the underlying cognitive impairments that lead to these errors is slower, more tied to the actual blood alcohol concentration, than the more rapid reduction in participants' subjective feeling of drunkenness."The participants believed that they were recovering from the adverse effects of alcohol much more than they were. This feeling of perceived recovery is a plausible explanation of why so many people feel that they are able to safely operate a motor vehicle when they are not yet recovered from the alcohol they have consumed, indicating that the recovery rates do not coincide; this thought process and brain function, lost under the influence of alcohol is a key element in regards to being able to drive safely, including "making judgments in terms of traveling through intersections or changing lanes when driving." These essential driving skills are lost.
Although situations differ and each person is unique, some common traits have been identified among drunk drivers. In the study "personality traits and mental health of severe drunk drivers in Sweden", 162 Swedish DUI offenders of all ages were studied to find links in psychological factors and characteristics
Violence is "the use of physical force so as to injure, damage, or destroy." Less conventional definitions are used, such as the World Health Organization's definition of violence as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation."Globally, violence resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1.28 million people in 2013 up from 1.13 million in 1990. Of the deaths in 2013 842,000 were attributed to self-harm, 405,000 to interpersonal violence, 31,000 to collective violence and legal intervention. In Africa, out of every 100,000 people, each year an estimated 60.9 die a violent death. For each single death due to violence, there are dozens of hospitalizations, hundreds of emergency department visits, thousands of doctors' appointments. Furthermore, violence has lifelong consequences for physical and mental health and social functioning and can slow economic and social development.
In 2013, assault by firearm was the leading cause of death due to interpersonal violence, with 180,000 such deaths estimated to have occurred. The same year, assault by sharp object resulted in 114,000 deaths, with a remaining 110,000 deaths from personal violence being attributed to other causes. Violence in many forms can be preventable. There is a strong relationship between levels of violence and modifiable factors in a country such as concentrated poverty and gender inequality, the harmful use of alcohol, the absence of safe and nurturing relationships between children and parents. Strategies addressing the underlying causes of violence can be effective in preventing violence, although mental and physical health and individual responses, etc. have always been decisive factors in the formation of these behaviors. The World Health Organization divides violence into three broad categories: self-directed violence interpersonal violence collective violenceThis initial categorization differentiates between violence a person inflicts upon himself or herself, violence inflicted by another individual or by a small group of individuals, violence inflicted by larger groups such as states, organized political groups, militia groups and terrorist organizations.
These three broad categories are each divided further to reflect more specific types of violence: physical sexual psychological emotionalAlternatively, violence can be classified as either instrumental or reactive / hostile. Self-directed violence is subdivided into suicidal self-abuse; the former includes suicidal thoughts, attempted suicides – called para suicide or deliberate self-injury in some countries – and completed suicides. Self-abuse, in contrast, includes acts such as self-mutilation. Collective violence is subdivided into economic violence. Unlike the other two broad categories, the subcategories of collective violence suggest possible motives for violence committed by larger groups of individuals or by states. Collective violence, committed to advance a particular social agenda includes, for example, crimes of hate committed by organized groups, terrorist acts and mob violence. Political violence includes war and related violent conflicts, state violence and similar acts carried out by larger groups.
Economic violence includes attacks by larger groups motivated by economic gain – such as attacks carried out with the purpose of disrupting economic activity, denying access to essential services, or creating economic division and fragmentation. Acts committed by larger groups can have multiple motives; this typology, while imperfect and far from being universally accepted, does provide a useful framework for understanding the complex patterns of violence taking place around the world, as well as violence in the everyday lives of individuals and communities. It overcomes many of the limitations of other typologies by capturing the nature of violent acts, the relevance of the setting, the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, – in the case of collective violence – possible motivations for the violence. However, in both research and practice, the dividing lines between the different types of violence are not always so clear. State violence involves upholding, forms of violence of a structural nature, such as poverty, through dismantling welfare, creating strict policies such as'welfare to work', in order to cause further stimulation and disadvantage Poverty as a form of violence may involve oppressive policies that target minority or low socio-economic groups.
The'war on drugs', for example, rather than increasing the health and well-being of at risk demographics, most results in violence committed against these vulnerable demographics through incarceration and police brutality War is a state of prolonged violent large-scale conflict involving two or more groups of people under the auspices of government. It is the most extreme form of collective violence. War is fought as a means of resolving territorial and other conflicts, as war of aggression to conquer territory or loot resources, in national self-defence or liberation, or to suppress attempts of part of the nation to secede from it. There are ideological and revolutionary wars. Since the Industrial Revolution the lethality of modern warfare has grown. World War I casualties were over 40 million and World War II casualties were over 70 million. Violence includes those acts that result from a power relationship, including threats and intimidation, neglect or acts of omission; such non-physical violence has