Juan Domingo Perón was an Argentine Army general and politician. After serving in several government positions, including Minister of Labor and Vice President, he was elected President of Argentina three times, serving from June 1946 to September 1955, when he was overthrown in a coup d'état, from October 1973 until his death in July 1974. During his first presidential term, Perón was supported by his second wife, Eva Duarte, they were immensely popular among many Argentines. Eva died in 1952, Perón was elected to a second term, serving from 1952 until 1955. During the following period of two military dictatorships, interrupted by two civilian governments, the Peronist party was outlawed and Perón was exiled; when the left-wing Peronist Héctor José Cámpora was elected President in 1973, Perón returned to Argentina and was soon after elected President for a third time. His third wife, María Estela Martínez, known as Isabel Perón, was elected as Vice President on his ticket and succeeded him as President upon his death in 1974.
Although they are still controversial figures and Evita Perón are nonetheless considered icons by the Peronists. The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labour, while their detractors considered them demagogues and dictators; the Peróns gave their name to the political movement known as Peronism, which in present-day Argentina is represented by the Justicialist Party. Peronism is a political phenomenon that draws support from both the political left and political right. Peronism is not considered a traditional party, but a political movement, because of the wide variety of people who call themselves Peronists, there is great controversy surrounding his personality. A number of following Argentinian presidents are considered Peronists, including administrations covering a majority of the democratic era: Héctor Cámpora, Isabel Perón, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, Eduardo Duhalde, Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Kirchner. Juan Domingo Perón was born in Lobos, Buenos Aires Province, on 8 October 1895.
He was the son of Mario Tomás Perón. The Perón branch of his family was Spanish, but settled in Spanish Sardinia, from which his great-grandfather emigrated in the 1830s, he had Spanish and French Basque ancestry. Perón's great-grandfather became a successful shoe merchant in Buenos Aires, his grandfather was a prosperous physician; the couple had their two sons out of wedlock and married in 1901. His father moved to the Patagonia region that year, where he purchased a sheep ranch. Juan himself was sent away in 1904 to a boarding school in Buenos Aires directed by his paternal grandmother, where he received a strict Catholic upbringing, his father's undertaking failed, he died in Buenos Aires in 1928. The youth entered the National Military College in 1911 at age 16 and graduated in 1913, he excelled less in his studies than in athletics boxing and fencing. Perón began his military career in an Infantry post in Entre Ríos, he went on to command the post, in this capacity mediated a prolonged labor conflict in 1920 at La Forestal a leading firm in forestry in Argentina.
He earned instructor's credentials at the Superior War School, in 1929 was appointed to the Army General Staff Headquarters. Perón married his first wife, Aurelia Tizón, on 5 January 1929. Perón was recruited by supporters of the director of the War Academy, General José Félix Uriburu, to collaborate in the latter's plans for a military coup against President Hipólito Yrigoyen. Perón, who instead supported General Agustín Justo, was banished to a remote post in northwestern Argentina after Uriburu's successful coup in September 1930, he was promoted to the rank of Major the following year and named to the faculty at the Superior War School, where he taught military history and published a number of treatises on the subject. He served as military attaché in the Argentine Embassy in Chile from 1936 to 1938, returned to his teaching post, his wife was diagnosed with uterine cancer that year, died on 10 September at age 30. Perón was assigned by the War Ministry to study mountain warfare in the Italian Alps in 1939.
He attended the University of Turin for a semester and served as a military observer in countries across Europe. He studied Benito Mussolini's Italian Fascism, Nazi Germany, other European governments of the time, concluding in his summary, Apuntes de historia militar, that social democracy could be a viable alternative to liberal democracy or totalitarian regimes, he returned to Argentina in 1941, served as an Army skiing instructor in Mendoza Province. In 1943 a coup d'état was led by General Arturo Rawson against conservative President Ramón Castillo, fraudulently elected to office; the military was opposed to Governor Robustiano Patrón Costas, Castillo's hand-picked successor, the principal landowner in Salta Province, as well as a main stockholder in its sugar industry. As a colonel and his power of premier minister, Perón took a significant part in the military coup by the GOU against the conservative civilian government of Castillo. At first an assistant to Secretary of War General Edelmiro Farrell, under the administration of General Pe
Revolución Libertadora was a military and civilian uprising that ended the second presidential term of Juan Perón in Argentina, on 16 September 1955. President Perón was first elected in 1946. In 1949, a constitutional amendment sponsored by the government introduced a number of workers' rights and the possibility of presidential reelection. Perón was reelected in 1952. At the time, his administration was supported by the labor unions, the military and the Catholic Church. However, economic problems, some of the government's policies and Perón's own personality cult changed this situation; the opposition criticized Perón because of his treatment of dissidents. The government's relationship with the Catholic Church worsened; as the Church distanced itself from Perón, the government, which had first respected the Church's privileges, now took them away in a distinctly confrontational fashion. By 1954, the Catholic clergy was anti-Peronist, which influenced some factions of the military. Meanwhile, a Christian Democratic Party was founded in 1954 after several other organisations had been active promoting Christian democracy in Argentina.
By 1955, Perón had lost the support of a large part of the military, who conspired with other political actors. There was turmoil in different parts of the country. On 14 June, Catholic bishops spoke against Perón during a Corpus Christi procession which turned into an anti-government demonstration. On 16 June 1955, 30 Argentine Navy and Air Force aircraft bombed Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires' main square, killing over 300 civilians and wounding hundreds more; the attack remains to this day the largest aerial bombing executed on the Argentine mainland. The bombing targeted the adjacent Casa Rosada, the official seat of government, as a large crowd was gathered there expressing support for president Juan Perón; the strike took place during a day of official public demonstrations to condemn the burning of a national flag carried out by detractors of Perón during the recent procession of Corpus Christi. In retaliation, extremist Peronist groups attacked and burned several churches that night instigated by Vice-President Alberto Teisaire.
The only important political support for Perón came from the General Confederation of Labour, which called the workers to defend the president. Perón addressed a workers' demonstration on 31 August. On 16 September, a new uprising, led by General Eduardo Lonardi, General Pedro E. Aramburu and Admiral Isaac Rojas, deposed Perón and established a provisional government. For several days, there was some fighting in places like the city of Córdoba, the Puerto Belgrano Naval Base near Bahía Blanca, another naval base at Río Santiago, a mechanized infantry regiment at Curuzú Cuatiá, Corrientes Province; the rebellion in Corrientes, defeated, was led by Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, who became one of the main players of the future government. Two rebel destroyers, that were enforcing the blockade of the Río de la Plata, were strafed by loyalist aircraft and suffered some casualties; the city of Mar del Plata was subjected to naval bombardment on 19 September by the light cruiser ARA 9 de Julio and several destroyers, scattered skirmishes and air strikes took place elsewhere, including Buenos Aires itself.
After realizing that the country was on the brink of civil war, Perón resigned and sought asylum in Paraguay, after taking shelter aboard the Paraguayan gunboat Paraguay. On 23 September, Lonardi assumed the presidency and gave a speech from the balcony of the Casa Rosada, saying that there would be "neither victors nor vanquished". General Lonardi promised that the interim administration would end as soon as the country was "reorganized", his conciliatory tone earned him the opposition of hard-liners, in November an internal coup deposed Lonardi and placed General Aramburu in the presidency, giving rise to a wild "anti-Peronism". After the Revolución Libertadora, Perón and his followers were accused of treason, Eva Perón's remains were moved secretly to Italy and buried in a graveyard at Milan under a fake identity. Public references to Perón or his late wife, including songs and pictures, were forbidden. Sportsmen like Delfo Cabrera, Mary Terán de Weiss, many of the major basketball players, as well as Olympic-level athlete, Osvaldo Suárez, were unfairly punished, by being accused of having gotten their sports success only because they were Perón followers.
The Peronist Party suffered a proscription, to last until Perón's return in 1973 though Perón influenced the results of the 1958 and 1963 elections from his exile in Madrid. Peronismo. Historia Argentina: Los gobiernos de Perón. Sucesos Históricos Argentinos. Civiles y militares de 1955 a 1983. La Revolución Libertadora en Internet 16 de septiembre de 1955 - Golpe autodenominado “Revolución Libertadora” Potash, Robert A; the Army and Politics in Argentina, 1945-1962: Peron to Frondizi Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804710565
1943 Argentine coup d'état
The 1943 Argentine coup d'état known as the Revolution of'43, was a coup d'état on June 4, 1943, which ended the government of Ramón Castillo, fraudulently elected to the office of vice-president, as part of the period known as the Infamous Decade. The military was opposed to Governor Robustiano Patrón Costas, Castillo's hand-picked successor, a major landowner in the Salta Province and a primary stockholder in the sugar industry; the only serious resistance to the military coup came from the Argentine Navy, which confronted the advancing army columns at the Navy Petty-Officers School of Mechanics. Two primary factors influenced the coup of 4 June 1943: The Infamous Decade that preceded it and World War II. What is known as the Infamous Decade began on September 6, 1930 with the military coup led by the corporatist, catholic-nationalis General Jose Felix Uriburu. Uriburu overthrew President Hipólito Yrigoyen, a member of the Radical Civic Union party, democratically elected in 1928 to serve his second term.
On September 10, 1930, Uriburu was recognized as de facto president of the nation by the Supreme Court. This court order laid the foundation for the doctrine of de facto governments and would be used to legitimize all other military coups; the de facto government of Uriburu outlawed the Radical Civic Union. The local elections of Buenos Aires on 5 April 1931, had an unexpected result for the government; the radical candidate, Honorio Pueyrredón, won the election despite the national party's confidence of their own victory and despite the radical party's lack of leadership. Although the radical party still lacked a few votes in the electoral college and the national party could still negotiate with the socialists to prevent the radicals from winning the governorship, the government began to panic. Uriburu reorganized appointed ministers from the "liberal" sector, he cancelled the local government elections for the provinces of Santa Fe. On 8 May 1931 he cancelled the appeal to the provincial electoral college, on 12 May, he named Manuel Ramón Alvarado as de facto governor of Buenos Aires.
A few weeks a revolt led by Lieutenant Colonel Gregorio Pomar, broke out in the province of Corrientes. Although the revolt was brought under control, it gave Uriburu the excuse he was looking for, he closed all the premises of the Radical Civic Union, arrested dozens of its leaders, prohibited the electoral colleges from electing politicians that were directly or indirectly related with Yrigoyen. Because Pueyrredón had been a minister of Yrigoyen, this meant. However, Uriburu exiled Pueyrredón from the country with Alvear, a prominent leader of the radical party. In September he called for elections in November and shortly after, he annulled the elections in Buenos Aires. After the failure of the corporatist effort, Argentina was governed by the Concordancia, a political alliance formed between the conservative National Democratic Party, the Antipersonalist Radical Civic Union, the Independent Socialist Party; the Concordancia governed Argentina during the Infamous Decade, throughout the presidencies of Agustín Pedro Justo, Roberto María Ortiz, Ramón Castillo.
This period was characterized by the beginning of a new economic model known as Import substitution industrialization. In 1943, elections for a new president had to be held, an attempt to fraudulently award the presidency to the sugar entrepreneur Robustiano Patrón Costas, a powerful figure in the Salta Province during the previous four decade, was evaded. Costas's assumption of the presidency would have secured the continuation and deepening of the fraudulent regime; the Second World War had a decisive and complex influence on Argentinian political events on the coup of 4 June 1943. At the time when the second world war began, Great Britain had a pervading economic influence in Argentina. On the other hand, the United States had secured its hegemonic presence throughout the entire continent and was preparing to permanently replace Great Britain as a hegemonic power in Argentina; the war brought about an ideal moment for the U. S. from the moment it abandoned neutrality due to Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.
Argentina had a long tradition of neutrality regarding European wars, sustained and defended by every political party since the 19th century. The reasons for Argentinian neutrality are complex, but one of the most important is connected with its position of food supplier to Britain and to Europe in general. In both the first as well as the second world war, Great Britain needed to guarantee the provision of food for its population and its troops, this would have been impossible if Argentina had not maintained neutrality, since the cargo ships would have been the first to be attacked, thus interrupting the supply. At the same time, Argentina had traditionally maintained a skeptical stance toward the hegemonic vision of Pan-Americanism that had driven the United States since the 19th century. In December 1939 the Argentine government consulted with Britain on the possibility of abandoning neutrality and joining the Allies; the British government flatly rejected the proposition, reiterating the principle that the main contribution of Argentina was its supplies and in order to guarantee them it was necessary to maintain neutrality.
At that time the United States held a neutral position strengthened by the Neutrality Acts and its traditional Isolationism, although that would change radically when Japan attacked its military bases in the Pacific. In the wake of Pearl Harbor, at the Rio Conference of 1942, the United States called upon all Latin American countries to enter the w