Bergisel Ski Jump
The Bergisel Ski Jump, whose stadium has a capacity of 26,000, is a ski jumping hill located in Bergisel in Innsbruck, Austria. It is one of the more important venues in the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup, annually hosting the third competition of the prestigious Four Hills Tournament, its first competitions were held in the 1920s using simple wood constructions. The larger hill was first built in 1930 and was rebuilt before the 1964 Winter Olympics for the individual large hill event. Twelve years the venue hosted the same event; the hill in its current form was finished in 2003 and was designed by the British Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid. List of ski jumping hills 1964 Winter Olympics official report. P. 112. 1976 Winter Olympics official report. Pp. 201–2. &
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships is a biannial nordic skiing event organized by the International Ski Federation. The World Championships was started in 1925 for men and opened for women's participation in 1954. World Championship events include nordic skiing's three disciplines: cross-country skiing, ski jumping, nordic combined. From 1924 to 1939, the World Championships were held every year, including the Winter Olympics. After World War II, the World Championships were held every four years from 1950 to 1982. Since 1985, the World Championships have been held in odd-numbered years; the International Ski Federation arranged annual Rendezvous races from 1925 to 1927 and annual FIS races from 1929 to 1935. At the FIS congress in 1936, it was decided that the first World Championships should be held in 1937 and take place in Chamonix, France. All Rendezvous and FIS races were given official World Championship status at FIS' 25th congress in 1965; this decision ment that the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1925 in Janské Lázně, were given status as the first official World Championships.
The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1941 were declared a non-World Championship event by FIS at the 16th FIS congress in 1946 and their results have been struck from the official records. The 1980 and 1984 World Championships consisted of a total of only three events; these events were not held in the 1980 and 1984 Winter Olympics and therefore got their own World Championships. In the years 1925–1927, the FIS referred to these events as Rendezvous races. During the periods of 1929–1931 and 1933–1935, the FIS referred to these events as FIS races; this event has been referred to as the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships since 1937. The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1941 were declared a non-event by the FIS at their 1946 meeting and their results have been struck from the official records; the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1980 consisted of a women's 20 km cross-country event because it was not included in the program of the Winter Olympics at Lake Placid. The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1984 consisted of team events in both ski jumping and Nordic combined held at separate locations because neither event was included in the program of the Winter Olympics in Sarajevo.
The following list shows when new events were added for the first time: 1933, men's relay was added. 1954, women's 10 km and 3 × 5 km relay was added, men's 15 km replaced the 18 km. 1962, men's normal hill were added. 1978, women's 20 km was added. 1982, men's ski jumping team large hill and nordic combined team large hill were added. 1989, women's 15 km was added and women's 30 km replaced the 20 km. 1991, men's 10 km was added. 1993, cross-country pursuit were added. 2001, men's ski jumping team normal hill was added and cross-country sprint replaced the 10 km and the 5 km. 2003, women's 30 km and men's 50 km changed from interval start to mass start. 2005, cross-country team sprint were added. 2009, women's normal hill was added. 2011, nordic combined team normal hill was added. 2013, mixed team was added and team sprint large hill replaced the team large hill. 2019, women's team normal hill was added. Cross-country skiing List of FIS Nordic World Ski Championships medalists in men's cross-country skiing List of FIS Nordic World Ski Championships medalists in women's cross-country skiing Nordic combined List of FIS Nordic World Ski Championships medalists in Nordic combined Ski jumping List of FIS Nordic World Ski Championships medalists in ski jumping Table updated after the 2019 Championships.
Boldface denotes highest medal count among all athletes per type. Eurosport Match TV ORF Eesti Media YLE ARD/ZDF NRK SVT SRG/SSR NBC FIS Nordic Junior World Ski Championships World Para Nordic Skiing Championships Cross-country skiing at the Winter Olympics Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics Ski jumping at the Winter Olympics FIS Cross-Country World Cup FIS Nordic Combined World Cup FIS Ski Jumping World Cup FIS Nordic World Ski Championships from official site Sport 123 results – cross-country skiing Sport 123 results – Nordic combined Sport 123 results – ski jumping
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Kristian Johannson, was a Norwegian ski jumper who competed in the late 1920s and early 1930s. He won two ski jumping medals at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships with one gold and one silver 1929. Kristian Johansson at the International Ski Federation
Sigmund Ruud was a Norwegian ski jumper. Together with his brothers Birger and Asbjørn, he dominated ski jumping in the 1930s. At the 1928 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, Sigmund earned a silver medal. At the 1929 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, he won the ski jumping competition while earning a bronze at the 1930 event. Sigmund competed in the ski jumping competition at the Holmenkollen ski festival, which first began in 1933, he competed at the 1932 Winter Olympics in the ski jumping event, but finished seventh due to appendicitis. Additionally, Sigmund wanted to compete in the first alpine skiing events at the 1936 Winter Olympics, though he did not start. For his contributions in ski jumping, Sigmund earned the Holmenkollen medal in 1949, the last of the three Ruud brothers to do so. Sigmund was the only one of the three not to win the Holmenkollen ski jumping competition. Sigmund Ruud and fellow Norwegian ski jumper Jacob Tullin Thams are considered co-creators of the Kongsberger technique after World War I, a ski jumping technique, the standard until it was superseded by the Daescher technique in the 1950s.
Ruud served as chairman of the FIS Ski Jumping Committee in 1946–1955 and 1959–1967. He ran a sport shop in Oslo. Sigmund Ruud at the International Ski Federation Holmenkollen medalists – click Holmenkollmedaljen for downloadable pdf file Swiss Olympic Committee St. Moritz 1928, 1928. Swiss Olympic Committee Résultats DES concours DES IImes jeux Olympiques d'Hiver, 1928. Organizing Committee III Olympic Winter Games Lake Placid 1932, 1932 Organizing Committee, IV. Olympische Winterspiele 1936 Amtlicher Bericht, Reichssportverlag Berlin SW 68, 1936
Seefeld in Tirol
Seefeld in Tirol is an old farming village, now a major tourist resort, in Innsbruck-Land District in the Austrian state of Tyrol with a local population of 3,312. The village is located about 17 km northwest of Innsbruck on a plateau between the Wetterstein mountains and the Karwendel on a historic road from Mittenwald to Innsbruck, important since the Middle Ages, it was first mentioned in 1022 and since the 14th century has been a pilgrimage site, benefiting not only from the visit of numerous pilgrims but from its stacking rights as a trading station between Augsburg and the Venice. Since the 14th century, Tyrolean shale oil has been extracted in the area. Seefeld was a popular holiday resort before 1900 and, since the 1930s, has been a well known winter sports centres and amongst the most popular tourist resorts in Austria; the municipality, the venue for several Winter Olympics Games, is the home village of Anton Seelos, the inventor of the parallel turn. With more than one million overnight stays each year, it is one of the most popular Tyrolean tourist destinations for skiing in winter, but for walking holidays in the summer.
To the northwest Seefeld borders to the northeast on Scharnitz. Its eastern municipal boundary with Zirl runs along the arête from the Seefelder Joch and Seefelder Spitze. To the south lies Reith and to the west Telfs; the village is situated on the south-facing Seefeld Plateau north of the River Inn on the watershed between the basins of the Inn and the Isar. The plateau is surrounded by the Wetterstein mountain range to the west, the Karwendel mountain range to the east. To the north, the high valley leads through the village of Scharnitz towards the border with Germany at Mittenwald. Seefeld has two main mountain areas: one is the rounded hill, the Gschwandtkopf; these mountains dominate the Seefeld Plateau. Notable other landmarks include the Seekirchl, a small, onion-domed church, the Pfarrhügel, a spur of the Gschwandtkopf running into the town centre and forming a small attractive hill. There is a popular bathing lake called the Wildsee. On the east side of the Seefelder Joch rise the tributaries of the Haglbach, which flows west through the valley of Hermannstal swings south on reaching the plateau to run along the municipal boundary and feed the Wildsee.
The Wildsee is threatened by sediment deposition from the Haglbach. In future it is planned to excavate a reservoir east of Innsbrucker Straße to collect these sediments; the tailstream of the Wildsee, now called the Seebach, runs through Seefeld in a northerly direction and collects the waters of the Raabach shortly after passing the village centre. This section was called the Mühlbach by Peter Anich in 1762; the Raabach has its source in the southeast near the Mösern Mähder and was once impounded to form a reservoir that gave the church of Seekirchl its name. Below the Schlossberg, near the Seebach, is a radon-containing spring, under the name of the Franz Josef Spring, was mentioned in 1900 for the first time in the Directory of Spas of the Imperial-Royal Province of Tyrol and Vorarlberg and used until 1984 as a health spring, its radon content of 117 becquerels per litre is rather low. The Klammbach originates at the Wildmoosalm below the lake of Wildmoossee and runs northwest of the village on the far side of the Geigenbühel, passes the Triendlsäge and merges with the Seebach by the Lehenwald woods in front of the Bodenalm to form the Drahnbach.
The latter empties into the Isar tributary, the Gießenbach. The reservoir at 1,578 m above sea level near the Rosshütte has a capacity of 66,500 m³ and receives its water from the public mains. In 2015 it was additionally fed between April and August from the Blauer Schrofen spring below the Seefelder Spitze; the additional water from the Kaltwassersee for snowmaking was raised in 2009 from 100,000 m³ to 165,000 m³ per year. Parish and pilgrimage church of St. Oswald Former Augustine monastery west of the church, today a five-star hotel. Founded in 1516 by Maximilian I as a hostelry Pfarrhof and south of the church Lake church of the Holy Cross in the west of the village: symbol of Seefeld, built under Archduke Leopold V by Innsbruck's court architect, Christoph Gumpp, in the baroque style, paintings by Josef Anton Puellacher Seefeld's woodland cemetery on the eastern edge of the village with its chapel and monument to those who died on the railway journey from Dachau concentration camp at the end of April 1945 Hermitage and old ruined castle of Schlossberg north of the village Milestone unengraved Roman.
A cross potent has been inscribed Seefeld is on the Karwendel Railway with links to Munich via Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Innsbruck. It is served by S-Bahn line 5 from Innsbruck to Scharnitz. From the start of the winter timetable in 2010, Seefeld station became the highest Intercity-Expres
Hans-Georg Aschenbach is an East German former ski jumper. Aschenbach was born in Brotterode. In 1969 he became junior world champion, two years he won his first national championship, he won the FIS Ski Flying World Championships in 1973. 1974 was a banner year for Aschenbach, winning the Four Hills Tournament, both ski jumping events at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Falun. He won the gold medal in the individual normal hill event at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck. Aschenbach admitted he had taken anabolic steroids for eight years, he described his 1976 Olympic victory as both his greatest and most anxious moment in sports. This was due to the doping controls in place at the time. Hans-Georg Aschenbach at the International Ski Federation Wallechinsky and Jaime Loucky. "Ski Jumping: Normal Hill, Individual". In The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics: 2010 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. P. 259