Turku is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland. Turku, as a town, was settled during the 13th century and founded most at the end of the 13th century, making it the oldest city in Finland, it became the most important city in Finland, a status it retained for hundreds of years. After Finland became part of the Russian Empire and the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland was moved to Helsinki, Turku continued to be the most populous city in Finland until the end of the 1840s, it remains a regional capital and an important business and cultural center; because of its long history, it has been the site of many important events, has extensively influenced Finnish history. Along with Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia, Turku was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2011. In 1996, it was declared the official Christmas City of Finland. Due to its location, Turku is a notable commercial and passenger seaport with over three million passengers traveling through the Port of Turku each year to Stockholm and Mariehamn.
As of 30 September 2018, the population of Turku was 191,499 making it the sixth largest city in Finland. There were 330,192 inhabitants living in the Turku sub-region, ranking it as the third largest urban area in Finland after the Greater Helsinki area and Tampere sub-region; the city is bilingual as 5.2 percent of its population identify Swedish as a mother-tongue. The Finnish name Turku originates from an Old East Slavic word, tǔrgǔ, meaning "market place"; the word turku still means "market place" in some Finnish dialects. The Swedish word for "market place" is torg, was borrowed from Old East Slavic, was present in Old Swedish; the Swedish name Åbo may be a simple combination of bo. As this pattern does not appear in any other Swedish place names in Finland, etymologists believe there could be a different explanation. One theory is that it comes from "Aabo", the Finnish rendition of the Russian "Avram", which could be the origin of the name of the river Aura. There is however an old legal term called "åborätt", which gave citizens the inheritable right to live at land owned by the crown.
In Finnish, the genitive of Turku is Turun, meaning "of Turku". The Finnish names of organizations and institutes of Turku begin with this word, as in Turun yliopisto for the University of Turku. Turku has a long history as Finland's largest city and as the administrative center of the country, but for the last two hundred years has been surpassed by Helsinki; the city's identity stems from its status as the oldest city in Finland and the country's first capital. The word "Finland" referred only to the area around Turku. Although archaeological findings in the area date back to the Stone Age and early literary sources such as Al-Idrisi's world map from 1154 mentions Turku, the town of Turku was founded in late 13th century. Turku Cathedral was consecrated in 1300. During the Middle Ages, Turku was the seat of the Bishop of Turku, covering the eastern half of the Kingdom of Sweden until the 17th century. If Turku had no official capital status, both the short-lived institutions of Dukes and Governors-General of Finland had their Finnish residences there.
In the aftermath of the War against Sigismund, the town was the site of the Åbo Bloodbath. In 1640, the first university in Finland, the Royal Academy of Turku, was founded in Turku. Turku was the meeting place for the States of Finland in 1676. After the Finnish War, which ended when Sweden ceded Finland to Imperial Russia at the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in 1809, Turku became the official capital, but soon lost the status to Helsinki, as Emperor Alexander I felt that Turku was too far from Russia and too aligned with Sweden to serve as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland; the change took place in 1812. The government offices that remained in Turku were moved to the new capital after the Great Fire of Turku, which completely destroyed the city in 1827. After the fire, a new and safer city plan was drawn up by German architect Carl Ludvig Engel, who had designed the new capital, Helsinki. Turku remained the largest city in Finland for another twenty years. In 1918, a new university, the Åbo Akademi – the only Swedish language university in Finland – was founded in Turku.
Two years the Finnish language University of Turku was founded alongside it. These two universities are the third to be founded in Finland, both by private donations. In the 20th century, Turku was called "Finland's gateway to the West" by historians such as Jarmo Virmavirta; the city enjoyed good connections with other Western European countries and cities since the 1940s with Stockholm across the Gulf of Bothnia. In the 1960s, Turku became the first Western city to sign a twinning agreement with Leningrad in the Soviet Union, leading to greater inter-cultural exchange and providing a new meaning to the city's'gateway' function. After the fall of Communism in Russia, many prominent Soviets came to Turku to study Western business practices, among them Vladimir Putin Leningrad's deputy mayor; as for architecture in the city, both the body of architectural styles as well as the prevalent way of living have experienced significant changes in the 20th century. While having survived intact throughout the years of war 193
Bogesund Castle is a castle in Sweden. It is located on the Bogesundslandet peninsular, in the municipality of Vaxholm, about 15 kilometres to the east of Stockholm, although 34 kilometres distant by road; the castle overlooks the main shipping channel into and out of Stockholm through the Stockholm archipelago. List of castles in Sweden Official website
Ebba Magnusdotter Brahe was a Swedish countess and courtier. She is foremost known for being the love object of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, because he wished to marry her prior to his marriage, plans which were however never realized, their love affair has been famous in the Swedish romantic history and the subject of fiction, are documented in their preserved correspondence. Ebba Brahe was born to Britta Stensdotter Leijonhuvud, she was the cousin of Nils Brahe and Per Brahe the Younger. After the death of her mother, she was sent to the royal court to finish her upbringing, she served as maid of honor to Queen Dowager Christina of Holstein-Gottorp, a personal friend to her mother, in 1611-1614, to the elder queen dowager, Catherine Stenbock, in 1614-1618. She was described as a beauty, John, Duke of Östergötland, was among her admirers. At the royal court, she met King Gustavus Adolphus, her second cousin, once removed and they fell in love and wished to marry each other, it is not known when their love affair started.
By the letters exchanged between them, it seems that they were both in love with each other. Their first preserved love letter are from 6 March 1613, when their relationship was already long established. In this letter, the king asked her to inform her father of his wish to marry her and give them their blessing; the marriage plans were however opposed by the queen dowager, the de facto ruler during her son's first years. She wished for her son to enter an arranged dynastic marriage of political convenience, she regarded a marriage to a member of the national nobility politically risky and regarded the late queen Gunilla Bielke, criticized for using her position to benefit her family, as a bad example of such a marriage; the dispute between the dowager queen, the king and Ebba Brahe about the marriage continued until 1615, has been the subject of romantic plays and poems for centuries. The queen dowager harassed her maid of honor Brahe and told her not to trust the promises of the king, which made the father of Brahe unwilling to give his blessing.
The king tried to convince his mother with his half-sister Princess Catherine, Duke Henry Julius of Saxony, chancellor Nils Chesnecopherus with messengers. The queen dowager promised to consider the marriage if they agreed to a couple of years consideration, the couple corresponded during his absence in the war. In 1614, she was moved from the court of Queen Dowager Christina to that of Queen Dowager Catherine to place her further away from the king; the 10 October, she wrote: "It is not suited from me as a humble lady to desire the person of Your Majesty". In spring 1615, it was made clear. During this time, the king himself had an affair with Margareta Slots during his absence in the war, to have helped Brahe to make her mind; the most famous trivia about this dispute, if indeed it happened, is believed to have taken place shortly after this, ias as follows. The queen dowager passed a window followed by Ebba Brahe. On the windowpane, the queen dowager wrote with a diamond ring: "One thing you want, one thing you shall.
Ebba Brahe stepped forward and wrote in reply: "I am happy with what I have, thank my God for the grace of that". By this, Ebba Brahe accepted; the same year, she received a proposal from Count Jacob De la Gardie, which she accepted two years later: 11 November 1617, her engagement was celebrated at the court of Queen Dowager Catherine, 24 June 1618, Ebba Brahe married Jacob De la Gardie in the presence of the two queen dowagers and the brother of the king in Stockholm. On 24 June 1618 she married Count Jacob De la Gardie. After the marriage, she moved with him to Swedish Estonia, where he served as governor, lived with him there from 1619 until 1628; the relationship between Ebba Brahe and De la Gardie is described as happy, the couple had fourteen children. Because of the frequent absence of her spouse in service she was given the responsibility of the family finances, she moved extensively between Sweden and Estonia to manage the family estates. In 1628, the couple settled in Sweden. Ebba Brahe became known for her taste for luxury.
Brahe played a part at the royal court. In 1651, the historian Arnold Johan Messenius and his son accused her of having persuaded queen Christina not to marry by the use of witchcraft; such an accusation could not be accepted about a noble, the accusation lead to the accusers being decapitated for treason. She favored her son Magnus Gabriel, was said to have spoiled him and attending to his career, she was proud over his position as favourite to Queen Christina of Sweden, supported his marriage to the queen cousin Maria Eufrosyne of Pfalz. When Magnus Gabriel lost his position as favorite with the queen in 1653, Ebba Brahe fell upon her knees before the queen to ask him to forgive him, she sought the help of Axel Oxenstierna to reinstate him in favor, though she blamed the Oxenstierna party for having caused the fall of Magnus Gabriel. During the minor regency of Charles XI in 1660-1672, her son Magnus Gabriel was one of the leading members and rulers of Sweden. Ebba Brahe used her influence over her son to put forward both her own and various supplicants demands and suggestions.
Ebba Brahe became known as a business person. As a widow, Ebba Brahe became one of the many powerful female land holders, who occupy a significant place in the
Royal Prussia or Polish Prussia was a region of the Kingdom of Poland from 1466 to 1772. Royal Prussia was established after the Second Peace of Thorn, from territory in western Prussia ceded by the State of the Teutonic Order and incorporated into the Kingdom of Poland; the region became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, its autonomy and political status were re-organized several times during its existence. Royal Prussia was dissolved in 1772 when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland, the majority of its territory was formed into the province of West Prussia; the area consisted of the following districts: Pomerelia with Danzig, Chełmno Land with Michałów Land and Toruń, the mouth of the Vistula with Elbląg and Malbork, the Bishopric of Warmia with Olsztyn which were forcibly ceded from the Teutonic Order in the Second Peace of Thorn to the Kingdom of Poland. Until the 1569 Union of Lublin the region enjoyed a substantial autonomy. After 1569, Royal Prussia was directly administered by the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
From the 14th century, in old texts and in Latin, the terms Prutenia and Prutenic refer not only to the original settlement area of the now extinct Old Prussians along the Baltic coast east of the Vistula River, but to the adjacent lands of the former Samboride dukes of Pomerelia, which territory the Teutonic Knights had acquired from Poland in the 1343 Treaty of Kalisz and added to their Order's State. The former Pomerelian Lauenburg and Bütow Land in the far west was held by the Pomeranian dukes as a Polish fief. Royal Prussia is distinguished from Ducal Prussia, the remaining parts of Prussia around Königsberg, a fiefdom under Polish suzerainty but held by the Teutonic Knights. After secularisation in 1525 it was held by Lutheran dukes of the Hohenzollern dynasty. From 1618 this area was in personal union by the Electors of Brandenburg. In 1657 feudal overlordship was removed from Poland by the Treaty of Wehlau. Before 1308 the Pomerelian part of the region, with Gdańsk, was part of the first Polish state, enjoying periods of autonomy and independence.
During the rule of Władysław I the Elbow-high of Poland, the Margraviate of Brandenburg staked its claim on the territory in 1308, leading Władysław to request assistance from the Teutonic Knights, who evicted the Brandenburgers but took the area for themselves. This event caused a long-lasting dispute between Poland and the Teutonic Order over the control of Pomerelia, it resulted in a series of Polish -- Teutonic Wars throughout 15th centuries. After their defeat at the Battle of Grunwald, the Teutonic Knights according to the 1411 Peace of Thorn had to pay large contributions to the Polish kings, which affected the public budget. In view of rising taxes, several local nobles and Hanseatic cities in 1440 established the Prussian Confederation at Marienwerder protesting against the Order's internal and financial policies; the Confederation was led by the citizens of Danzig and Thorn. The gentry from Chełmno Land and Pomerelia participated as well. Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen demanded the dissolution and in 1453 searched for help from Pope Nicholas V and Emperor Frederick III.
In turn, in February 1454, the Confederation sent a delegation, under Johannes von Baysen, to King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland, to ask him for support against the Teutonic Order's rule and for incorporation of their homeland into the Kingdom of Poland. In this act, Prussian delegates declared the Polish king the only true heir of those lands, parts of which were earlier illegally separated from Poland. After some hesitation and negotiating the exact conditions of incorporation on 6 March 1454, the Royal Chancellery issued the Act of Incorporation that met the requests of the Prussian estates represented by the Confederation. After the Prussian Confederation pledged allegiance to Casimir on 6 March 1454, the Thirteen Years' War began. King Casimir IV Jagiellon appointed Baysen as the first war-time governor of Royal Prussia. On 28 May 1454 the king took an oath of allegiance from the citizens of Toruń and in June a similar oath from the citizens of Elbing and Königsberg; the rebellion included major cities from the eastern part of the Order's lands, such as Kneiphof a part of Königsberg.
Though the Knights were victorious at the 1454 Battle of Chojnice, they were not able to finance further mercenaries in order to reconquer the castles occupied by the insurgents. Thirteen years of attrition warfare ended in October 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorn, which provided for the Order's cession to the Polish Crown of its rights over the western half of Prussia, including Pomerelia and the districts of Elbing and Chełmno. According to the 1454 Incorporation Statute issued by King Casimir IV, Royal Prussia enjoyed substantial autonomy as part of the Crown of Poland: it had its own treasury, monetary unit, armies, it was governed by a council, subordinate to the Polish king, whose members were chosen from local lords and wealthy citizens. Prussians had seats provided for them in the Sejm, but they chose not to use this right until the Union of Lublin. Thorn and Danzig gained privileges simila
Eric XIV of Sweden
Eric XIV was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568. Eric XIV was the eldest son of Gustav Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg, he was ruler of Estonia, after its conquest by Sweden in 1561. While he has been regarded as intelligent and artistically skilled, as well as politically ambitious, early in his reign he showed signs of mental instability, a condition that led to insanity; some scholars claim that his illness began early during his reign, while others believe that it first manifested with the Sture Murders. Eric, having been deposed and imprisoned, was most murdered. An examination of his remains in 1958 confirmed that he died of arsenic poisoning. Eric XIV was born at Tre Kronor castle, at 9 o'clock on the morning of 13 December 1533. Before the age of two, he lost his mother. In 1536, his father, Gustav Vasa, married a Swedish noblewoman. Eric's first teacher was the learned German Georg Norman, whose services were shortly thereafter needed elsewhere within the Swedish state, he was replaced by French Calvinist Dionysius Beurraeus.
Dionysius taught both Eric and his brother John, seems to have been appreciated by both. Eric was successful in foreign languages and mathematics, he was an informed historian, a good writer and familiar with astrology. When Eric started to appear in public, he was referred to as "chosen king" and after the meeting of parliament in Stockholm in 1560, he received the title of "hereditary king". In 1557, Eric was assigned the fiefdoms of Kronoberg and Öland, he took up residence in the city of Kalmar. Against his father's wishes, Eric entered into marriage negotiations with the future Queen Elizabeth I of England and pursued her for several years. Tensions between Eric and his father grew. Eric made unsuccessful marriage proposals to, among others, Queen of Scots, Renata of Lorraine, Anna of Saxony and Christine of Hesse, he was crowned as Eric XIV, but was not the 14th king of Sweden named Eric. He and his brother Charles IX adopted regnal numbers according to Johannes Magnus's fictitious history of Sweden.
There had, been at least six earlier Swedish kings with the name of Eric, as well as pretenders about whom little is known. In domestic politics, Eric's ambitions were opposed by the Swedish nobility, including his half-brother John III of Sweden. John was the Duke of Finland and was married to a Polish princess, which made him friendly with Poland. John pursued an expansionist policy in Livonia. In 1563, John was tried for high treason by Eric's order. Unlike his father, satisfied with ruling an independent state, Eric tried to expand his influence in the Baltic region and in Estonia, beginning the process that resulted in Sweden becoming a great power in the 17th century; this expansionism resulted in a clash with Frederick II of Denmark. Most of Eric XIV's reign was dominated by the Livonian War and the Scandinavian Seven Years' War against Denmark, during which he repelled most Danish attempts at conquest, but was unable to keep his own acquisitions. From 1563 onwards, his insanity became pronounced.
In 1567, suspicious of high treason, he killed several members of the Sture family, Eric himself stabbing Nils Svantesson Sture. The King thought of the killing as an execution rather than murder. After the Sture homicides, John was imprisoned and Eric's conflict with the nobility came to its climax. In the fall of 1568, the dukes and the nobles rebelled, Eric was dethroned, he was imprisoned by Duke John, who took power. Eric's most trusted counsellor, Jöran Persson, took much of the blame for the actions directed against the nobility during Eric XIV's reign and was executed shortly after John III ascended to the throne. Eric XIV was held as a prisoner in many different castles in both Finland, he died in prison in Örbyhus Castle: according to a tradition starting with Johannes Messenius, his final meal was a poisoned bowl of pea soup. A document signed by his brother, John III of Sweden, a nobleman, Bengt Bengtsson Gylta, gave Eric's guards in his last prison authorization to poison him if anyone tried to release him.
His body was exhumed and modern forensic analysis revealed evidence of lethal arsenic poisoning. Eric XIV had several relationships before his marriage. With Agda Persdotter he had four daughters: Virginia Eriksdotter Constantia Eriksdotter Lucretia Eriksdotter died young. With Karin Jacobsdotter: An unnamed child, died April 1565. Eric XIV married Karin Månsdotter on 4 July 1568. Gustaf, mercenary Henrik Arnold The life of Eric XIV is the subject of an 1899 play by Swedish playwright August Strindberg; the love story of Eric XIV and Karin Månsdotter is the subject of a 1942 historical novel Karin Månsdotter by Mika Waltari. List of Swedish monarchs List of Finnish monarchs History of Sweden Foundation of Modern Sweden Media related to Eric XIV of Sweden at Wikimedia Commons Biography of Eric XIV of Sweden "Eric XIV.". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
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