American middle class
The American middle class is a social class in the United States. While the concept is ambiguous in popular opinion and common language use, contemporary social scientists have put forward several ostensibly congruent theories on the American middle class. Depending on the class model used, the middle class constitutes anywhere from 25% to 66% of households. One of the first major studies of the middle class in America was White Collar: The American Middle Classes, published in 1951 by sociologist C. Wright Mills. Sociologists such as Dennis Gilbert of Hamilton College divide the middle class into two sub-groups. Constituting 15% to 20% of households is the upper or professional middle class consisting of educated, salaried professionals and managers. Constituting one third of households is the lower middle class consisting of semi-professionals, skilled craftsmen and lower-level management. Middle-class persons have a comfortable standard of living, significant economic security, considerable work autonomy and rely on their expertise to sustain themselves.
Members of the middle class belong to diverse groups. Overall, middle-class persons upper-middle-class individuals, are characterized by conceptualizing and consulting. Thus, college education is one of the main indicators of middle-class status. Attributed to the nature of middle-class occupations, middle class values tend to emphasize independence, adherence to intrinsic standards, valuing innovation and respecting non-conformity. Politically more active than other demographics, college educated middle class professionals are split between the two major parties. Income varies from near the national median to well in excess of US$100,000. However, household income figures do not always reflect class status and standard of living as they are influenced by the number of income earners and fail to recognize household size, it is therefore possible for a large, dual-earner, lower middle class household to out-earn a small, one-earner, upper middle class household. The middle classes are influential as they encompass the majority of voters, teachers and editors.
Most societal trends in the U. S. originate within the middle classes. Scholars have a variety of technical measures of, middle-class. By contrast public opinion has a variety of implicit measures; the definitions seem to stretch quite a great deal depending on the political cause, being invoked or defended, as one commentator noted: Well, it depends on whom you ask. Everyone wants to believe. For people on the bottom and the top of the wage scale the phrase connotes a certain Regular Joe cachet, but this eagerness to be part of the group has led the definition to be stretched like a bungee cord - used to defend/attack/describe everything from the Earned Income Tax Credit to the estate tax. The middle class by one definition consists of an upper middle class, made up of professionals distinguished by exceptionally high educational attainment as well as high economic security. While the groups overlap, differences between those at the center of both groups are considerable; the lower middle class has lower educational attainment less workplace autonomy, lower incomes than the upper middle class.
With the emergence of a two-tier labor market, the economic benefits and life chances of upper middle class professionals have grown compared to those of the lower middle class. The lower middle class needs two income earners in order to sustain a comfortable standard of living, while many upper middle class households can maintain a similar standard of living with just one income earner; the "professional class" called the "upper middle class," consists of educated white collar salaried professionals, whose work is self-directed. In 2005, these household incomes exceed $100,000 per year. Class members hold graduate degrees, with educational attainment serving as the main distinguishing feature of this class; these professionals conceptualize, create and supervise. As a result, upper middle class employees enjoy great autonomy in the work place and are more satisfied with their careers than non-professional middle class individuals. In terms of financial wealth income, the professional middle class fits in the top third, but reach the top 5% of American society.
According to sociologists such as Dennis Gilbert, James Henslin, Joseph Hickey, William Thompson, the upper middle class constitutes 15% of the population. The upper middle class has grown... and its composition has changed. Salaried managers and professionals have replaced individual business owners and independent professionals; the key to the success of the upper-middle-class is the growing importance of educational certification... its lifestyles and opinions are becoming normative for the whole society. It is in fact a porous class, open to people.... Values and mannerisms are difficult to pinpoint for a group encompassing millions of persons. Any large group of people will feature social diversity to some extent. However, some generalizations can be made using income as class defining criteria. William Thompson and Joseph Hickey noted that upper middle class individuals have a more direct and confident manner of speech. In her 1989 publication Effects of Social Class and Interactive Setting on Maternal Speech, Erica Hoff-Ginsberg found that among her surveyed subjects, "upper-middle class mothers talked more per unit of time and sustained longer interactions with children".
Demographic history of the United States
This article is about the demographic history of the United States. 1610–1780 population data. Note that the census numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860. From 1890 to 2010, the median age at first marriage was as follows: Nearly all commercial activity was run in small owned businesses with good credit both at home and in England being essential since they were cash poor. Most settlements were nearly independent of trade with Britain as most grew or made nearly everything they needed—the average cost of imports per most households was only about 5-15 English pounds per year. Most settlements were created by complete family groups with several generations present in each settlement. Close to 80% of the families owned the land they lived and farmed on, they nearly all used English Common Law as their basic code of law and, except for the French and Germans, spoke some dialect of English. They established their own popularly elected governments and courts and were, within a few years self-governing, self-supporting and self-replicating.
Nearly all colonies and states in the United States were settled by migration from another colony or state, as foreign immigration only played a minor role after the first initial settlements were started. The New England colonists included more educated men as well as many skilled farmers and craftsmen, they were farmers and settled in small villages for common religious activity. Shipbuilding and fisheries were important in coastal towns. New England's healthy climate, abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate of any place in the world; the eastern and northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was settled by the Yankee descendants of the original New Englanders. Emigration to the New England colonies after 1640 and the start of the English Civil War decreased to less than 1% in nearly all years prior to 1845; the rapid growth of the New England colonies was entirely due to the high birth rate and low death rate per year. The middle colonies' settlements were scattered west of New York City, New York and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Dutch-started colony of New York had the most eclectic collection of residents from many different nations and prospered as a major trading and commercial center after about 1700. The Pennsylvania colonial center was dominated by the Quakers for decades after they emigrated there from the North Midlands of England, from about 1680 to 1725; the main commercial center of Philadelphia was run by prosperous Quakers, supplemented by many small farming and trading communities with strong German contingents located in the Delaware River valley. Many more settlers arrived in the middle colonies starting in about 1680, when Pennsylvania was founded and many Protestant sects were encouraged to settle there for freedom of religion and good, cheap land; these settlers were of 33 % English extraction. By 1780 in New York about 27% of the population were descendants of Dutch settlers 55,000 of 204,000. New Jersey had the rest of the Dutch where they were 14% of the population of 140,000; the rest were English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Blacks.
New Jersey and Delaware had a majority of British with 20% German-descended colonists, about a 6% black population, a small contingent of Swedish descendants of New Sweden. Nearly all were at least third-generation natives; the main drive of the economy in Virginia and South Carolina was large plantations growing staples for export tobacco and rice. Outside the plantations, land was farmed by independent farmers who rented from the proprietors, or owned it outright, they emphasized subsistence farming to grow food for their large families. Many of the Irish and Irish immigrants specialized in rye-whiskey making, which they sold to obtain cash. In Maryland, by 1700 there were about 25,000 people and by 1750 that had grown more than 5 times to 130,000. By 1755, about 40% of Maryland's population was black. From 1717 to 1775 the western frontier was settled by Presbyterian settlers who migrated in large part from Scotland and Ireland. Frontier settlers landed in Philadelphia or Baltimore before migrating to the western frontier for the cheaper land.
All the colonies, after they were started, grew by natural growth, with foreign born populations exceeding 10% in isolated instances. The last significant colonies to be settled by immigrants were Pennsylvania in the early 18th century and Georgia and the Borderlands in the late 18th century, as migration continued to provide nearly all the settlers for each new colony or state; this pattern would continue throughout U. S. history. The extent of colonial settlements by 1800 is shown by this map from the University of Texas map collection. According to one source the following were the countries of origin for new arrivals coming to the United States before 1790; the regions marked. The ancestry of the 3.9 million population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources by sampling last names in the 1790 census and assigning them a country of origin. The Irish in the 1790 census were Scots Irish; the French were Huguenots. The total U. S. Catholic population in 1790 is estimated at 40,000 or 1.6% a low count due to prejudice.
Afghan Americans are Americans of Afghan descent or Americans who originated from Afghanistan. Afghan Americans may originate from any of the ethnic groups of Afghanistan. Afghan Americans have a long history of immigrating to the United States, as they have arrived as early as the 1860s. A group of 200 ethnic Pashtuns were reported to be in the United States in 1920, which included Pashtuns from Afghanistan as well as Pashtuns from northwestern British India; this was around time. Wallace Fard Muhammad, credited for being the founder of the Nation of Islam, may have been from Afghanistan. A World War I draft registration card for Wallie Dodd Fard from 1917 indicated he was living in Los Angeles, California, as an unmarried restaurant owner, reported that he was born in Shinka, Afghanistan in 1893. During the 1930s and 1940s, well-educated Afghans entered America. Between 1953 and early 1970, at least 230 migrated into the United States; some of those who entered the US were students who won scholarships to study in American universities.
After the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, around five million Afghan citizens were displaced, being forced to immigrate or seek refuge in other countries. These Afghan refugees settled in neighboring Pakistan and Iran, from there many made it to the European Union, North America and elsewhere in the world; those who were granted refugee status in the United States began to settle in the New York metropolitan area, California and in the Northeastern United States, where large Muslim community centers keep them bonded. Fremont, California, is home to the largest population of Afghan Americans followed by Northern Virginia. Smaller Afghan American communities exist in the states of Colorado, Illinois, New Jersey, Texas and Washington, D. C. In the city of Chicago, the 2000 census counted 556 Afghans half of them within the city. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, there were 65,972 Afghan-Americans living in the country in 2006; the American Community Survey estimates a total of 94,726 Afghan foreign-born immigrants residing in the United States in 2016, which shows a 30% increase in the last ten years.
Congress passed the Afghan Allies Protection Act in 2009, motivated by the ongoing War on Terror. This Act stated that Afghans who agreed to work with the U. S. government as translators and interpreters in Afghanistan are eligible for special immigrant visas after completing one year of employment. Because these individuals put their lives at risk for the interest of U. S. intelligence, Afghans eligible for SIVs are able to use this as a pathway towards lawful permanent residence for both themselves and their immediate family members.. Since 2005, tens of thousands of Afghans have been admitted to the United States under special programs such as the Special Immigrant Visa. From the fiscal year of 2007 to 2015, a total of 19,916 Afghans were issued a Special Immigrant Visa. Like all other immigrants living in the United States, Afghan Americans have adopted the American way of life but some still value their traditional culture, they watch Afghan television stations, listen to Afghan music, eat traditional Afghan food at home.
They value their oral tradition of story telling. The stories they tell are about Nasreddin, Afghan history and religion. Afghan Americans celebrate August 19 as "Afghan Day", it is a commemoration of the Afghan Independence Day, which relates to August 1919, the date when Afghanistan became globally recognized after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed. Eid and Nowruz remain popular festivals for Afghans. Small festivals are held in cities that have Afghan communities at the parks where black and green colored Afghan flags are spotted around cars. Afghan Americans are composed of the various ethnic groups that exist in Afghanistan, which include Pashtun, Hazara, a number of others. In a 2002 analysis, American researchers reported that 65% of Afghan Americans are ethnic Tajiks. Most Afghan Americans are Muslims, the majority of whom follow Sunni Islam, with a sizable community of Shia Muslims. There is a community of Afghan Jews in New York City, numbering about 200 families in 2007. In addition, a group of Afghan Americans in the Los Angeles area follow Christianity.
Hussain Andaryas is an Afghan Christian televangelist. Outside of the Abrahamic faiths, there exists a community of Afghan Hindus and Sikhs, concentrated in New York and Maryland. Afghan immigrants that arrived to the United States before 1979 were well-educated. In contrast, current immigrants have fled Afghanistan after it destabilized during the 1979 Soviet occupation as this group has had trouble coping with learning a new language; those who have pursued their education in America in the middle 20th century and traveled back to Afghanistan, faced trouble attaining employment when returning to the United States since their education in medicine and engineering, is viewed as outdated. After the Soviet invasion, Afghanistan's education system worsened, causing many migrants in the late 20th century to place less emphasis on educational attainment; some of the latest Afghan immigrants can be found as vendors in Manhattan where they have replaced Greek Americans in the field. Ali Ahmad Jalali – Distinguished Professor at the National Defense University in Washington, D.
C. Said Tayeb Jawad – Ambassador of Afghanistan to the United States from 2003 to 2010 Zalmay Khalilzad – United States Ambassad
Sikhism in the United States
Sikhism is a religion originating from South Asia, introduced into the United States during the 19th century. In 2007, there were estimated to be between 250,000 and 500,000 Sikhs living in the United States, with largest populations living on the East and West Coasts, together with additional populations in Detroit and Austin; the United States has a number of non-Punjabi converts to Sikhism. Sikh men are identifiable by their unshorn beards and turbans, articles of their faith. Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, subsequent other terrorism related activities by Islamic groups, Sikhs have been mistaken as Muslims or Arabs, have been subject to several hate crimes, including murders. Sikh temples have been targets of violence due to being mistaken for mosques. A 2012 shooting at a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin garnered national and international attention, with President Obama ordering flags to be half-staffed at all federal buildings. Sikhs have served in the United States military at least as far back as the early 20th century, when one Bhagat Singh Thind, who though not a citizen joined the United States Army and served in World War I.
Thind requested citizenship at the end of the war, being granted and revoked twice, before being naturalized in 1936. Far larger numbers of Sikhs served in World War II, all American wars following; the ability of observant Sikhs to serve in the American military has, since 1985, been compromised by a discontinuation of exemptions to uniform standards which allowed Sikhs to maintain their religiously-mandated beards and turbans while in uniform. As of 2010, a Sikh doctor, Kamaljeet S. Kalsi, dentist, Tejdeep Singh Rattan, are the only Sikh officers to be permitted to serve in uniform with beard and turban. In addition, Simranpreet Lamba was permitted to enlist, with exemption to wear his turban and beard, in 2010 due to his knowledge of Punjabi and Hindi. In 2016, the New York City Police Department began to allow turbans, subject to standards compatible with unimpeded performance of duty. Many Sikhs started life in America working in lumber mills, as farm laborers, with many becoming landowners.
Many early Sikh immigrants were restaurant owners. In 1956, Dalip Singh Saund became the first Asian Indian-born person to be elected to the United States House of Representatives. Dalip Singh Saund served 3 terms in the United States House of Representatives between 1957 and 1963. Preet Didbal was elected to the position of mayor of Yuba City, California in 2017, she is the first Sikh woman to serve as a city mayor in United States history. Balvir Singh was elected to the Burlington County Board of Chosen Freeholders, New Jersey on November 7th, 2017, he became the first Asian-American to win a countywide election in Burlington County and the first Sikh-American to win a countywide election in New Jersey. City planner Satyendra Huja was elected mayor of Charlottesville, Virginia in January 2012. Amarjit Singh Buttar was elected in December 2001 to the Vernon, Connecticut Board of Education and won re-election in 2011. United States Ambassador to the United Nations and former Governor of South Carolina Nikki Haley was born a Sikh but converted to Christianity.
Ravinder Bhalla was elected mayor of Hoboken, New Jersey in November 2017. Satwinder Kaur became the first Sikh elected to the City Council of Kent, Washington in November 2017. Manka Dhingra of Washington became the first Sikh woman elected to a state legislature in November 2017; the most concentrated Sikh community in the United States has traditionally resided in agricultural Yuba City, although this agglomeration has since dispersed as Sikhs have gained a greater educational foundation, enabling them to have now spread out to metropolitan areas all over the United States. The largest and most growing Sikh community in New York City is based in the Richmond Hill area of the borough of Queens. Conversely, in the Sikh Foundation of Virginia, most members comprise both recent and more established Jatt Sikhs, Ramgarhia Sikhs, Sikh Rajputs. Most Sikhs of Española, New Mexico are non-Punjabi converts to Sikhism. Sikhs have been a part of the American populace for more than 130 years. Near the end of the 19th century, the state of Punjab of British India was hit hard by British practices of mercantilism.
Many Sikhs began arriving to work on farms in California. They traveled via Hong Kong to Angel Island, the western counterpart to Ellis Island in New York Harbor; some Sikhs worked in lumber mills of Oregon or in railroad construction and for some Sikhs it was on a railway line, which allowed other Sikhs who were working as migrant laborers to come into the town on festival days. A big effect on Sikh migration to the western states occurred during World War I and World War II, where Sikhs were recruited by the British Army to serve for them. Sikhs began to live in England after their serving period. Among the Sikhs who lived in America prior to the wars, many Sikhs joined them during World Wars I and II. Among those who served in the US military include Bhagat Singh Thind in World War I; the first Sikh gurdwara in the US was the Gurdwara Sahib Stockton, in California. As a result of the September 11 attacks, some Sikh Americans have become subject to discrimination from individuals who mistakenly believe that they are Arab or Muslim.
Balbir Singh Sodhi, a gas station owner, was killed on September 15, 2001 due to being mistaken for a Muslim. In a 2011 report
Jainism in the United States
Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United States in the 20th century. The most significant time of Jain immigration was in the early 1970s. In 1893, Virachand Gandhi was the first Jain delegate to visit the United States, represented Jainism in the first Parliament of World Religions. Virchand Gandhi is considered a key figure in the history of American Jainism as the first practicing Jain to speak publicly in the United States about Jainism; the first St. Louis Jain temple in the United States was built for the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. After the fair, the temple was moved to Las Vegas and to Los Angeles, it is now owned by the Jain Center of Southern California. Adherents of Jainism first arrived in the United States in 1944; the most significant time of Jain immigration was in the early 1970s. The United States has since become a center of the Jain diaspora; the first former Jain monastic to travel to the United States, arrived in 1971. He gave several lectures about Jainism at Harvard University and established a Jain center in New York City.
The first monk who traveled outside India by use of mechanical means was Acharya Sushil Kumar who arrived in the United States in 1975. He established multiple Jain centers, including International Mahavira Jain Mission popularly known as Siddhachalam. In the 1980s, he and Chitrabhanu inspired the founding of Federation of Jain Associations in North America to support the Jain community in the United States and Canada; as of 2010 the United States contained the most Jain temples of any country in the Jain diaspora. At least one third of the Jains living outside India live in the United States, numbering close to 100,000. Jain temples in the United States, which numbered 26 as of 2006 incorporate marble and arches in a style reminiscent of Rajasthan architecture. There are 100 distinct Jain congregations in the United States. Many Jains in the United States are employed in white-collar occupations, they frequently volunteer at animal welfare organizations. Unlike India and United Kingdom, the Jain community in United States doesn't find sectarian differences, Both Digambara and Śvētāmbara share common roof.
Although Swetambara sect in United States claims to represent all Jains by Cultural Appropriation as they are in majority with various non-denominational Jain temples, which, in reality are run as Śvētāmbara temples with little or no management participation of Digambara. Digambara communities have protested this treatment by forming Digambar Jain Sangh of North America; the Federation of Jain Associations in North America is an umbrella organization of local American and Canadian Jain congregations to preserve and promote Jainism and the Jain way of life. Siddhachalam located in Blairstown, NJ, is the first place of pilgrimage for Jains outside India, it is a sister organization of Jaina and brings together all Jains into one place for worship and reflection. The Federation of Jain Associations in North America uses a modified version of the standard Jain symbol, the Jain Emblem, it replaces the swastika with an om because the former is not considered a pious symbol in the western world. Florida International University hosts the Bhagwan Mahavir Professorship in Jain Studies, the first Jain Studies chair at a North American university.
The Jain Society and Rice University signed a memorandum of understanding in January 2016 to establish a post-doctoral fellowship in Jain studies. Most of the Jain centers are complexes that include a main temple that houses both Shvetambara and Digambara images, meeting rooms, room for visiting monks/nuns etc. Siddhachalam, New Jersey Jain Center of Southern California, Buena Park, California St. Louis Jain temple Jain Center of America Jain Center of Greater Phoenix Jain Center/Sangh of Greater Austin Siddhayatan Jain center of Northern California, California Jain Center of Connecticut, Connecticut Jain Sangh of New England, Massachusetts Jain Society of Chicago, Illinois Jain Society of Greater Atlanta Redmond Jain Derasar, Washington Jain Society of Seattle Jain Center of Washington Jain Society of Greater Cleveland Jain religion center of Wisconsin Jain Temple of Greater Detroit - Farmington Hills, Michigan Franklin Township Derasar, New Jersey Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago Jain Temple of Pennsauken Township, New Jersey Jain Vishwa Bharti - NEW JERSEY.
ORLANDO HOUSTON - Swetamber Terapanthi stanak- jvbnewjersey.org Jain Society of Tampa Bay, Tampa Virchand Gandhi JAINA Jainism in Canada Jainism in America Bhuvanendra Kumar. Benaras, Jain Humanities Press, 1996 The Western Order of Jainism by Nathubhai Shah of London Jains and Their Religion in America: A Social Survey by Dr. Bhuvannendra Kumar JAIN eLibrary attempts to provide an complete digitized collection of Jain Scriptures, encyclopedias, commentaries and other materials related to Jain life. Federation of Jain Associations in North America
Wealth in the United States
Wealth in the United States is measured in terms of net worth, the sum of all assets, including the market value of real estate, like a home, minus all liabilities. The United States is the wealthiest country in the world. For example, a household in possession of an $800,000 house, $5,000 in mutual funds, $30,000 in cars, $20,000 worth of stock in their own company, a $45,000 IRA would have assets totaling $900,000. Assuming that this household would have a $250,000 mortgage, $40,000 in car loans, $10,000 in credit card debt, its debts would total $300,000. Subtracting the debts from the worth of this household's assets, this household would have a net worth of $600,000. Net worth can vary with fluctuations in value of the underlying assets; as one would expect, households with greater income have the highest net worths, though high income cannot be taken as an always accurate indicator of net worth. Overall the number of wealthier households is on the rise, with baby boomers hitting the highs of their careers.
In addition, wealth is unevenly distributed, with the wealthiest 25% of US households owning 87% of the wealth in the United States, $54.2 trillion in 2009. U. S. Household and non-profit organization net worth rose from $44.2 trillion in Q1 2000 to a pre-recession peak of $67.7 trillion in Q3 2007. It fell $13.1 trillion to $54.6 trillion in Q1 2009 due to the subprime mortgage crisis. It recovered, rising to $86.8 trillion by Q4 2015. This is nearly double the 2000 level. While income is seen as a type of wealth in colloquial language use and income are two different measures of economic prosperity. Wealth is the total number of net possessions of an individual or household, while income is the total inflow of wealth over a given time period. Hence the change in wealth over that time period is equal to the income minus the expenditures in that period. Income is a so-called "flow" variable; when observing the changes in the wealth among American households, one can note an increase in wealthier individuals and a decrease in the number of poor households, while net worth increased most in semi-wealthy and wealthy households.
Overall the percentage of households with a negative net worth declined from 9.5% in 1989 to 4.1% in 2001. The percentage of net worths ranging from $500,000 to one million doubled while the percentage of millionaires tripled. From 1995 to 2004, there was tremendous growth among household wealth, as it nearly doubled from $21.9 trillion to $43.6 trillion, but the wealthiest quartile of the economic distribution made up 89% of this growth. During this time frame, wealth became unequal, the wealthiest 25% became wealthier. According to US Census Bureau statistics this "Upward shift" is most the result of a booming housing market which caused homeowners to experience tremendous increases in home equity. Life-cycles have attributed to the rising wealth among Americans. With more and more baby-boomers reaching the climax of their careers and the middle aged population making up a larger segment of the population now than before and more households have achieved comfortable levels of wealth. Zhu Xiao Di notes that household wealth peaks around families headed by people in their 50s, as a result, the baby boomer generation reached this age range at the time of the analysis.
Household net worth fell from 2007 to 2009 by a total of $17.5 trillion or 25.5%. This was the equivalent loss of one year of GDP. By the fourth quarter of 2010, the household net worth had recovered by a growth of 1.3 percent to a total of $56.8 trillion. An additional growth of 15.7 percent is needed just to bring the value to where it was before the recession started in December 2007. In 2014 a record breaking net worth of $80.7 trillion was achieved. Assets are known as the raw materials of wealth, they consist of stocks and other financial and non-financial property homeownership. While these assets are unequally distributed, financial assets are much more unequal. In 2004, the top 1% controlled 50.3% of the financial assets while the bottom 90% only held 14.4% of the total US financial assets. These discrepancies exist despite the availability of many wealth building tools established by the Federal Government; these include 401k plans, 403b plans, IRAs. Traditional IRAs, 401k and 403b plans are tax shelters created for working individuals.
These plans allow for tax sheltered contributions of earned income directly to tax sheltered savings accounts. Annual contributions are capped to ensure that high earners cannot enjoy the tax benefit disproportionally; the Roth IRA is another tool that can help create wealth in middle classes. Assets in Roth IRAs grow tax free. Contributions to Roth IRAs are limited to those with annual incomes less than the threshold established yearly by the IRS; the benefits of these plans, are only available to workers and families whose incomes and expenses allow them excess funds to commit for a long period until the investor reaches age 59½. The effect of these tools are further limited by the contribution limits placed on them. Including human capital such as skills, the United Nations estimated the total wealth of the United States in 2008 to be $118 trillion. According to an analysis that excludes pensions and social security, the richest 1% of the American population in 2007 owned 34.6% of the country's total wealth, the next 19% owned 50.5%.
Thus, the top 20% of Americans owned 85% of the country's wealth and the bottom 80% of the populati
The Five-Percent Nation, sometimes referred to as the Nation of Gods and Earths or the Five Percenters, is a movement founded in 1964 in the Harlem section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, by Clarence Edward Smith, a former member of the Nation of Islam who took the name Clarence 13X, came to be known as Allah the Father. Allah the Father, a former student of Malcolm X, left the NOI after a dispute with Elijah Muhammad over Elijah's teaching that the white man was the devil, yet not teaching that the black man was God. Allah the Father rejected the assertion that Nation's light-skinned founder, Wallace Fard Muhammad, was Allah and instead taught that the black man was himself God personified. Members of the group call themselves Allah's Five Percenters, which reflects their concept that ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, those elites and their agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the New York City areas of Harlem and Brooklyn were named after notable Islamic cities by members of the organization.
Other areas include Detroit, New Jersey, Queens, Connecticut, St. Louis, New Rochelle, Dallas; the Nation of Gods and Earths teaches that black people are the original people of the planet Earth, therefore they are the fathers and mothers of civilization. The Nation teaches that Supreme Mathematics and Supreme Alphabet, a set of principles created by Allah the Father, is the key to understanding humankind's relationship to the universe; the Nation does not believe in a God but instead teaches that the Asiatic Blackman is God and his proper name is Allah, the Arabic word for "God". The Nation of Gods and Earths was founded by Allah the Father after he left the Nation of Islam's Temple Number Seven in Harlem, New York. Multiple stories exist as to why the father and the NOI parted ways: some have him refusing to give up gambling; the story states that Allah the Father was disciplined by the NOI and excommunicated in 1963, but another version of events says that he left on his own free will along with Abu Shahid, who agreed with Allah's questioning of Wallace Fard Muhammad.
That same year Allah met James Howell, a sea merchant, who would become known as Justice, Allah's closest associate until his death. Allah the Father proselytized the streets of Harlem to teach others his views based on his interpretation of NOI teachings. After failing to reach elder adults whom he saw as set in their ways, he found success with street youth. On October 10, 1964, this young group formed the First Nine Born of what became known as the Five Percent Nation, or the Nation of Gods and Earths. Allah the Father taught his Black male students. Allah taught them. In Supreme Mathematics, the Black man is symbolized as "Knowledge." The Black women who came into Allah's growing movement to study along with the males were taught they were symbolic of the planet Earth, because women produce and sustain human existence as does the Earth. Female Five Percenters are referred to as "Wisdom." The Nation of Gods and Earths Supreme Wisdom states: "Wisdom is the Original Woman because life is continued through her cipher."
The NGE does not consider itself a religion—its position is that it makes no sense to be religious or to worship or deify anyone or anything outside of oneself because adherents, are the highest power in the known universe, both collectively and individually. Allah the Father developed a curriculum of eight lessons that included the Supreme Alphabets and Mathematics, which he devised, as well as lessons from developed by the Nation of Islam's Elijah Muhammad and Wallace Fard Muhammad; the eight lessons were taught in the order which follows: Supreme Mathematics Supreme Alphabets Student Enrollment English Lesson C-1 Lost-Found Muslim Lesson #1 Lost Found Muslim Lesson #2 Actual Facts Solar Facts Each Five Percenter was required to "master" each lesson and was expected to be able to "think and reason by forming profound relationships between the lessons and significant experiences within life." Five Percenters were required to share what they had learned with others, thereby recruit new members.
The FBI opened a file on the Five Percenters in 1965, the height of the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements in America. In “Disturbance by Group Called ‘Five Percenters,’” the FBI refers to the organization as a “loosely knight group of Negro youth gangs.... These particular gangs emanate from New York City Public School Number 120, a junior high school...” The FBI file stated that the organization’s name meant, “The five percent of the Muslims who smoke and drink.” 1965 New York newspaper articles referred to the Five Percenters to as a “gang,” “hoodlums,” and “terror group.” Allah the Father and the Five Percenters "had a reputation for being unreachable, anti-white criminals." With the goal of preventing New York from having a race riot or uprising, New York Mayor John V. Lindsay sent Barry Gottehrer, the head of the mayor's Urban Task Force, to meet with the organization the FBI