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Perception is the organization and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system. For example, vision involves light striking the retina of the eye, smell is mediated by odor molecules, hearing involves pressure waves. Perception is not only the passive receipt of these signals, but it's shaped by the recipient's learning, memory and attention. Perception can be split into two processes, processing the sensory input, which transforms this low-level information to higher-level information. Perception depends on complex functions of the nervous system, but subjectively seems effortless because this processing happens outside conscious awareness. Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th century, psychology's understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques.

Psychophysics quantitatively describes the relationships between the physical qualities of the sensory input and perception. Sensory neuroscience studies the neural mechanisms underlying perception. Perceptual systems can be studied computationally, in terms of the information they process. Perceptual issues in philosophy include the extent to which sensory qualities such as sound, smell or color exist in objective reality rather than in the mind of the perceiver. Although the senses were traditionally viewed as passive receptors, the study of illusions and ambiguous images has demonstrated that the brain's perceptual systems and pre-consciously attempt to make sense of their input. There is still active debate about the extent to which perception is an active process of hypothesis testing, analogous to science, or whether realistic sensory information is rich enough to make this process unnecessary; the perceptual systems of the brain enable individuals to see the world around them as stable though the sensory information is incomplete and varying.

Human and animal brains are structured in a modular way, with different areas processing different kinds of sensory information. Some of these modules take the form of sensory maps, mapping some aspect of the world across part of the brain's surface; these different modules influence each other. For instance, taste is influenced by smell; the process of perception begins with an object in the real world, termed the distal stimulus or distal object. By means of light, sound or another physical process, the object stimulates the body's sensory organs; these sensory organs transform the input energy into neural activity—a process called transduction. This raw pattern of neural activity is called the proximal stimulus; these neural signals are processed. The resulting mental re-creation of the distal stimulus is the percept. An example would be a shoe; the shoe itself is the distal stimulus. When light from the shoe enters a person's eye and stimulates the retina, that stimulation is the proximal stimulus.

The image of the shoe reconstructed by the brain of the person. Another example would be a telephone ringing; the ringing of the telephone is the distal stimulus. The sound stimulating a person's auditory receptors is the proximal stimulus, the brain's interpretation of this as the ringing of a telephone is the percept; the different kinds of sensation such as warmth and taste are called sensory modalities. Psychologist Jerome Bruner has developed a model of perception. According to him, people go through the following process to form opinions: When we encounter an unfamiliar target, we are open to different informational cues and want to learn more about the target. In the second step, we try to collect more information about the target. We encounter some familiar cues which help us categorize the target. At this stage, the cues become less selective. We try to search for more cues. We actively ignore and distort cues that violate our initial perceptions. Our perception becomes more selective and we paint a consistent picture of the target.

According to Alan Saks and Gary Johns, there are three components to perception. The Perceiver, the person who becomes aware about something and comes to a final understanding. There are 3 factors that can influence his or her perceptions: experience, motivational state and emotional state. In different motivational or emotional states, the perceiver will react to or perceive something in different ways. In different situations he or she might employ a "perceptual defence" where they tend to "see what they want to see"; the Target. This is the person, being perceived or judged. "Ambiguity or lack of information about a target leads to a greater need for interpretation and addition." The Situation greatly influences perceptions because different situations may call for additional information about the target. Stimuli are not translated into a percept and does a single stimulus translate into a percept. An ambiguous stimulus may be translated into multiple percepts, experienced randomly, one at a time, in what is called multistable perception.

And the same stimuli, or absence of them, may result in different percepts depending on subject's culture and previous experiences. Ambiguous figures demonstrate that a single stimulus can result in more than one percept

Mikhail Dratvin

Mikhail Dratvin was a Soviet lieutenant general. Dratvin's military career began when he was drafted into the army of the Russian Empire during World War I, he subsequently became an expert in the fields of military intelligence and signals, teaching at a number of Soviet military academies and acting as a senior military advisor to the government of China during the Warlord Era and the Second Sino-Japanese War. He fought in World War II and served as a functionary of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany at the conclusion of the war. Mikhail Dratvin was born on 21 November 1897, in the village of Ekimovo, Galichsky District, Kostroma Oblast of the Russian Empire. In 1911, he graduated from a vocational school and subsequently worked in a Saint Petersburg telegraph company. In 1914, he acquired a telegraphist diploma. In 1916, he was drafted into the Russian army and fought in World War I as a functionary of the post–telegraph service. In 1918, he enlisted into the Red Army fighting in various campaigns of the Russian Civil War, including the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion.

At the conclusion of the war he was transferred into the intelligence branch of the army. Between 1924 and 1926 he acted as a military advisor to the signal corps of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army in its struggles during the Warlord Era. In 1931, he graduated from the Frunze Military Academy. Between 1931 and 1935, he commanded the signal corps of the Moscow Military District. Between 1936 and 1937, he taught at the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union. In August 1937, he was appointed rector of the Budyonny Military Academy of the Signal Corps. By November he had to leave his post a he was dispatched to China as a military advisor. At the time China was engaged in the Second Sino-Japanese War, receiving aid from both Germany and the Soviet Union; the May 1938 departure of Alexander von Falkenhausen mission of advisors marked the beginning of the end for the Sino-German cooperation. Komkor Dratvin thus became the most senior military advisor of Chiang Kai-shek, until he was replaced by Aleksandr Cherepanov in the June of the same year.

In 1939, Dratvin became the supervisor of 11th special department of the General Staff overseeing the recruitment of advisors for China and Spain. In December he became a functionary of the People's Defense Commissariat of U. S. S. R.. In April 1941, he returned to the Military Academy of the General Staff as a staff member. On 10 July, he became the commander of the 275th Rifle Division, engaged in the World War II; the 275th was formed at part of the Odessa Military District. Its basic order of battle included the 980th, 982nd, the 984th Rifle Regiments, as well as the 807th Artillery Regiment; as a result of the German advance, the division was relocated to Novorossiysk in the North Caucasus Military District while still incomplete around 7 August. In late August it was assigned to the Southern Front's 6th Army; the division fought in the Barvenkovo–Lozovaya Offensive in January 1942, after which it transferred to the 37th Army. On 11 January 1942, Dratvin became the deputy commander of the 37th Army.

On 1 September 1943, he was promoted to lieutenant general. From January until June 1945 he commanded the 47th Rifle Corps. In June 1945, Dratvin became the deputy of the head of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany. In 1949, he became the head of the foreign relations department of the Main Intelligence Directorate. In January 1953, Dratvin became the deputy rector of the Military Diplomatic Academy in Moscow. Dratvin died on 12 December 1953, he was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery. Throughout his career he received 4 Orders of the Red Banner, 3 Orders of Lenin, an Order of Kutuzov 2nd class, an Order of Suvorov as well as an Order of the Patriotic War 1st class

Gary A. Grappo

Gary Anthony Grappo was the United States Ambassador to Oman from September 17, 2006 to June 1, 2009. Prior to becoming ambassador, Grappo was Deputy Chief of Mission and Minister Counselor of the United States Mission in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Grappo holds a BS in Mathematics from the United States Air Force Academy, an MS in Geodesy and Survey Engineering from Purdue University, an MBA from the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. United States Department of State: Biography of Gary A. Grappo United States Embassy in Muscat: Biography of the ambassador

Chris Mannella

Christopher "Chris" Mannella is a Canadian professional soccer player who plays as a midfielder for York9. Mannella joined the youth academy of Toronto FC in 2009 to play in the Canadian Soccer League. In 2014, he was a part of the inaugural season of League1 Ontario with Toronto's senior Academy team, he was named the team's captain and made 11 appearances for the side as they captured the regular season championship. On September 14, 2014, Mannella signed a homegrown player contract with Toronto FC, making him the 10th homegrown signing in club history. Mannella was loaned to Toronto FC II on March 20, 2015 ahead of their inaugural season in the USL, he was named captain of the team upon his arrival. Mannella made his debut against the Charleston Battery on March 21. After two years with Toronto FC II, the club announced they would not pick up Mannella's contract option for the 2017 season. On March 16, 2018, Mannella signed with the Ottawa Fury after trialing in pre-season. In November 2018, The Fury announced Mannella would return for a second season in 2019.

After two seasons with the Fury, the club would cease operations for the 2020 season, making Mannella a free agent. On December 17, 2019, Mannella signed with Canadian Premier League side York9. On January 9, 2015, Mannella received his first call-up to the Canadian men's national team for friendlies against Iceland on January 16 and 19, he made his international debut a week later. In May 2016, Mannella was called to Canada's U23 national team for a pair of friendlies against Guyana and Grenada, he saw. League1 Ontario Second Team All Star: 2017 Canada Soccer profile Media related to Chris Mannella at Wikimedia Commons Chris Mannella at Major League Soccer Chris Mannella at Soccerway

King Charles I School

King Charles I School is a voluntary controlled mixed secondary school with academy status in the town of Kidderminster, England. King Charles I School is a specialist science college, renewed their specialist status in September 2009. In September 2011, King Charles I School was inspected by OFSTED inspectors during a 2-day section 5 inspection; the inspection deemed the school to be "Good, grade 2", stating "King Charles 1 is a good school that puts students at the heart of everything it does". However, the inspectors lowered the previous grade of the Sixth Form from "Good" in the 2008 report, to "Satisfactory", stating "standards have fluctuated since the school was last inspected but students make satisfactory progress"; the school was founded around 1566 by Esq.. Lord of the Manor of Kidderminster, it was in the chantry of the Parish Church of St. Mary and All Saints from 1566 until 1848, when it moved to the site known as Woodfield, on the Bewdley Road, it was granted its royal charter in 1636 by King Charles I and was the only school in England to bear his name.

The original premises, Woodfield House built in 1785, the Hall built about 1848, are now listed buildings.. When administered by Hereford and Worcester County Council in 1977 the Queen Elizabeth I Grammar School, Hartlebury merged with the two Kidderminster grammar schools, King Charles I Grammar School for Boys and the Kidderminster High School for Girls, the latter was founded in 1868, moved in 1912 to Hillgrove House, now a Grade II listed building; this marked the end of the Grammar School system in Kidderminster as the change was completed to comprehensive education. The transition to comprehensive took place until the early 1980s, becoming a ten-form entry a 13-18 comprehensive school from a six-form entry grammar school, it has been subject to several mergers and in line with district school reorganization, following an amalgamation of middle schools and high schools it reopened in 2007 to operate from two campuses, with a total capacity of around 1350 students aged 11 to 18. Under its new structure, the school retains its specialist status as a Science College, awarded in 2003 and has facilities that cater for students with special needs.

Following a November 2011 Ofsted inspection, the school was awarded a Grade 2 rating. The school was enlarged with the Brooks Building neighbouring the Sixth Form Rose Garden, which functions as a science laboratory and theatre; the school has two campuses with the lower school for Year 7-8's operating from the premises of the former Comberton Middle School site in Kidderminster. On both campuses the school caters for linguistically challenged and autistic students in a Communication Centre, which has a facility on both sites; the school converted to academy status in August 2012. The School offers a sixth form for any students wishing to continue their post-16 studies. Students have the option of participating in activities such as a recognised first aid course, formal debate, talks from lecturers on various issues such as driving skills and ethical issues in farming; the school offers a wide range of extra-curricular provision in sport. In July 1979 the school held the Guinness world record for the longest continuous cricket match.

Tom Watson, Labour MP since 2001 for West Bromwich East Guy Halsall and Professor of History at the University of York Mo Anthoine, mountaineer John Berry and computer programmer Alan Bowkett, businessman Steven Davies, English cricketer of Worcestershire, now playing for Surrey Paul Frampton, physicist Maj-Gen John Groom CB CBE, Director General from 1983-9 of The Guide Dogs for the Blind Association, Colonel Commandant from 1983-91 of the Royal Engineers Lt-Col Brian Turner Tom Lawrence, winner of the Victoria Cross during the Boer War Walter Nash, former Prime Minister of New Zealand Clifford T. Ward, singer-songwriter Charles Wood and scriptwriter Stephanie Bidmead, notably in Doctor Who Mal Lewis Jones, author Monica Jones, partner of poet Philip Larkin Debra Shipley, Labour MP from 1997-2005 for Stourbridge List of English and Welsh endowed schools Kidderminster Register Office King Charles I High School The Old Carolians Association Old Elizabethans Association

Heavy oil production

Heavy oil production is a developing technology for extracting heavy oil in industrial quantities. Estimated reserves of heavy oil are over 6 trillion barrels, three times that of conventional oil and gas. Factors that affect the difficulty of putting reserves into production include permeability, porosity and pressure; the density and viscosity of the oil is the determining factor. Density and viscosity determine the method of extraction. Oil viscosity determines the ease of extraction. Density is more important for refiners. However, no relationship links the two. Oil reservoirs exist at temperatures. Although viscosity varies with temperature, density is the standard in oilfield classification. Crude oil density is expressed in degrees of American Petroleum Institute gravity which are associated with specific gravity; the lower the API gravity, the denser the oil. The API gravity of liquid crude oil ranges from 4º for tar rich in bitumen to condensates that have an API gravity of 70º. Heavy oils are classified between light oils.

They have API gravities ranging between 10º and 20º. Crude oil generated by petroleum source rocks has an API gravity of between 30º and 40º. Crude oil becomes heavy after considerable degradation, after entrapment and during devolatilization. Degradation occurs through chemical and biological processes when oil reservoirs become contaminated by bacteria through subsurface water; the bacteria break down some crude oil components into heavy components, making it more viscous. Water carries away low molecular weight hydrocarbons in solution form; when crude oil is enclosed by a poor quality seal, lighter molecules separate and escape, leaving behind the heavier components through devolatilization. Heavy oils are found in geologically young formations since they are shallow and have less efficient seals, providing the conditions for heavy oil formation; the injection pattern refers to the arrangement of the production and injector wells to the position and orientation of flow of a reservoir. Injection patterns can vary over the well lifetime by moving the injection well to areas where maximum volume of contact can be achieved.

Geological heterogeneity is the spatial distribution of porosity and permeability in a reservoir rock. Permeability depends on the size of the sediment grains that formed the rock and the manner in which they were packed. Permeability is the number of pores, their interconnectedness in a rock and the existence of different layers in a rock with different permeability is a manifestation of geological heterogeneity; when steam injection takes place, water flows through the more permeable layers, bypassing the oil-rich less permeable layers. This causes low sweep efficiency and early water production with the volume of oil in contact with the water. Sweep efficiency is the measure of the effectiveness of an EOR method that depends on the total volume of the reservoir that the injected fluid contacts. Sweep efficiency is affected by multiple factors: mobility ratio, directional permeability, cumulative water injected, flood pattern, geological heterogeneity and distribution of pressure between injectors and producers.

Displacement efficiency is the fraction of oil, recovered from a zone, swept by a steam injection or any other displacement method. It is the percentage volume of oil, recovered through displacement by an injected fluid or displacing element injected into the reservoir, it is the difference between the volume of the reservoir before the displacement begins and the volume after the displacement has ended. Amplitude Versus Offset is a technique used in seismic inversion to forecast the existence of reservoirs and the rock types surrounding it. Literature reviews and studies incorporate the analysis of AVO and seismic inversion in oil exploration and rock physics studies. Seismic waves projected into oil reservoirs undergoing steam injection give data that show the existence of high values of wave attenuation; this attenuation is based on velocity dispersion. Studies show seismic wave reflection between an elastic overburden and an equivalent medium have coefficients of reflection that vary with frequency.

This variation, depends on the behavior of AVO at the interface. The calculation of synthetic seismographs for the ideal model is carried out using the reflectivity technique for those materials whose velocities and attenuations are frequency dependent; this is used since the effects of velocity and attenuation variations are detectable on stacked data. Improved spectral decomposition techniques have shown the frequency dependent parameters more clearly. Saturated rocks, for example, have seismic low frequency effects concerning hydrocarbon-saturated rocks. Furthermore, hydrocarbon-saturated zones have high values of attenuation from the direct quality factor measurements. Systemic variations of frequencies with offset, where the standard amplitude against the offset is the AVO, disregards attenuation resulting in the use of the purely reflective model; the primary objective is balancing the frequency content of near and far stacks, while correcting for the effect of the attenuation over the overburden.

AVO is used to detect the existence of oil reservoirs because of the anomaly evident in oil reservoirs where AVO rising is prominent in oil-rich sediments. It is not as useful in defining the rock formations and permeability properties to improve sweep efficiency. Furthermore, not all oil reservoirs manifest the same anomalies associated with hydrocarbon oil reservoirs sinc