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Percussion section

The percussion section is one of the main divisions of the orchestra and the concert band. It includes all unpitched instruments; the percussion section is itself divided into three subsections: Pitched percussion, consisting of pitched instruments such as glockenspiel and tubular bells. Auxiliary percussion, consisting of all unpitched instruments such as snare drum and cymbals. Timpani; these three subsections reflect the three main skill areas. Percussion sections, consisting of similar instruments, may be found in stage bands and other musical ensembles. See untuned percussionThis subsection is traditionally called tuned percussion, however the corresponding term untuned percussion is avoided in modern organology in favour of the term unpitched percussion, so the instruments of this subsection are termed pitched percussion. All instruments of this subsection are pitched, with the exception of the timpani, all pitched instruments of the percussion section are in this subsection, they include: All mallet percussion instruments, keyboard percussion instruments such as the xylophone and tubular bells.

Collections of pitched instruments such as hand bells, tuned crotales. Most other melodic percussion instruments. Despite the name, keyboard percussion instruments do not have keyboards as such. Keyboard instruments such as the celesta and keyboard glockenspiel are not included in the percussion section owing to the different skills required to play them, but instead are grouped in the keyboard section with instruments that require similar skills; the timpani, although they are pitched percussion and are tuned by the player, are not included in the tuned percussion subsection owing to the particular skills expected of the player. All unpitched percussion instruments are grouped into the auxiliary percussion subsection, which includes an enormous variety of instruments, including drums, bells, shakers and found objects. Players are expected to be accomplished on the snare drum, bass drum, clash cymbals and other hand percussion, to be able to adapt these skills to playing other instruments and objects, for example the typewriter.

The timpanist is a specialist who does not perform on the other percussion instruments during a concert. A high level of skill unique to this instrument is expected. While players of tuned and auxiliary percussion play many instruments from both subsections during a performance or piece, the timpanist is dedicated to that instrument. Classification of percussion instruments String section Woodwind section Brass section Keyboard section

Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesis

Astronauts are exposed to 50-2,000 millisieverts while on six-month-duration missions to the International Space Station, the Moon and beyond. The risk of cancer caused by ionizing radiation is well documented at radiation doses beginning at 50 mSv and above. Related radiological effect studies have shown that survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear reactor workers and patients who have undergone therapeutic radiation treatments have received low-linear energy transfer radiation doses in the same 50-2,000 mSv range. While in space, astronauts are exposed to radiation, composed of high-energy protons, helium nuclei, high-atomic-number ions, as well as secondary radiation from nuclear reactions from spacecraft parts or tissue; the ionization patterns in molecules, cells and the resulting biological effects are distinct from typical terrestrial radiation. Galactic cosmic rays from outside the Milky Way galaxy consist of energetic protons with a small component of HZE ions.

Prominent HZE ions: Carbon Oxygen Magnesium Silicon Iron GCR energy spectra peaks and nuclei are important contributors to the dose equivalent. One of the main roadblocks to interplanetary travel is the risk of cancer caused by radiation exposure; the largest contributors to this roadblock are: The large uncertainties associated with cancer risk estimates, The unavailability of simple and effective countermeasures and The inability to determine the effectiveness of countermeasures. Operational parameters that need to be optimized to help mitigate these risks include: length of space missions crew age crew gender shielding biological countermeasures effects on biological damage related to differences between space radiation and x-rays dependence of risk on dose-rates in space related to the biology of DNA repair, cell regulation and tissue responses predicting solar particle events extrapolation from experimental data to humans and between human populations individual radiation sensitivity factors data on galactic cosmic ray environments physics of shielding assessments related to transmission properties of radiation through materials and tissue microgravity effects on biological responses to radiation errors in human data Quantitative methods have been developed to propagate uncertainties that contribute to cancer risk estimates.

The contribution of microgravity effects on space radiation has not yet been estimated, but it is expected to be small. The effects of changes in oxygen levels or in immune dysfunction on cancer risks are unknown and are of great concern during space flight. Studies are being conducted on populations accidentally exposed to radiation; these studies show strong evidence for cancer morbidity as well as mortality risks at more than 12 tissue sites. The largest risks for adults who have been studied include several types of leukemia, including myeloid leukemia and acute lymphatic lymphoma as well as tumors of the lung, stomach, colon and liver. Inter-gender variations are likely due to the differences in the natural incidence of cancer in males and females. Another variable is the additional risk for cancer of the breast and lungs in females. There is evidence of a declining risk of cancer caused by radiation with increasing age, but the magnitude of this reduction above the age of 30 is uncertain.

It is unknown whether high-LET radiation could cause the same types of tumors as low-LET radiation, but differences should be expected. The ratio of a dose of high-LET radiation to a dose of x-rays or gamma rays that produce the same biological effect are called relative biological effectiveness factors; the types of tumors in humans who are exposed to space radiation will be different from those who are exposed to low-LET radiation. This is evidenced by a study that observed mice with neutrons and have RBEs that vary with the tissue type and strain; the various approaches to setting acceptable levels of radiation risk are summarized below: Unlimited Radiation Risk - NASA management, the families of loved ones of astronauts, taxpayers would find this approach unacceptable. Comparison to Occupational Fatalities in Less-safe Industries - The life-loss from attributable radiation cancer death is less than that from most other occupational deaths. At this time, this comparison would be restrictive on ISS operations because of continued improvements in ground-based occupational safety over the last 20 years.

Comparison to Cancer Rates in General Population - The number of years of life-loss from radiation-induced cancer deaths can be larger than from cancer deaths in the general population, which occur late in life and with less numbers of years of life-loss. Doubling Dose for 20 Years Following Exposure - Provides a equivalent comparison based on life-loss from other occupational risks or background cancer fatalities during a worker's career, this approach negates the role of mortality effects in life. Use of Ground-based Worker Limits - Provides a reference point equivalent to the standard, set on Earth, recognizes that astronauts face other risks. However, ground workers remain well below dose limits, are exposed to low-LET radiation where the uncertainties of biological effects are much smaller than for space radiation. NCRP Report No


Halou, pronounced huh-loo, is a band from San Francisco, California. Their music could be described as dream pop with female vocals. Ryan and Rebecca met in 1992 as the vocalist for the Santa Cruz-based band Anomie; that group would change Ryan's musical focus from techno pop to more ambient guitar work, transform Rebecca from a riot girl enthusiast into someone more at home with 4AD. Anomie's shoegaze sound met with rapid success in Santa Cruz on the strength of their album Burgundy Girl; the band moved to San Francisco before the group split into two bands. In late 1995 Ryan and Rebecca's released two CDs. After "anymore" dissolved, they became Halou, releasing their debut album, We Only Love You in 1998, on a small, independent label called Bedazzled. We Only Love You was followed by a compilation of non-album tracks entitled Sans Soucie in 1999, their second album, was released by Nettwerk in 2001, while the more recent, Wholeness & Separation and Halou, were released by Vertebrae in 2006 and 2008 respectively.

Halou's first album was broadcast on influential independent radio stations in Seattle and Los Angeles. In recent years, the band has received coverage from notable news sources, they have been recognized for their production talents: In 2008, Halou announced that they would no longer be making music under the moniker, the three part collaboration was over. Rebecca and Ryan Coseboom continue to perform together under the name Stripmall Architecture. Count continues to be involved in music as a producer and engineer, is a member of a band called inu. In late 2015 Halou went back into the studio to record, releasing the track Stillbreathing on November 2, 2015. "Halfbreath" – 5:22 "Loop in Blue" – 6:19 "ifish" – 5:33 "La Mer" – 6:13 "Clip" – 2:51 "Present Tense" – 5:15 "It Was Safer When You Were Near" – 4:53 "You are One of Us" – 5:14 "Feeling Like This is Like to Fall Awake" – 5:16 "I'll Carry You" – 7:47 "Milkdrunk" – 4:53 "Wiser" – 4:36 "Him to Me to You" – 4:11 "Political" – 3:24 "I'll Carry You" – 5:57 "Before There Was Color" – 4:28 "Oceanwide" – 7:13 "I Would Love to Give Up" – 3:52 "Feeling This is Like to Fall Awake" – 4:47 "We Only Love You" – 5:28 "Arrhythmia" – 5:41 "Hollywood Ending" - 3:34 "Baby Beating Heart" - 3:55 "Soft Breasts And Ice Cream" - 7:01 "Eejit" - 7:02 "Shopworn" - 7:12 "Visitor Hummingbird" - 3:53 "Arrhythmia" - 5:46 "Little Dust Wing" - 7:06 "These Short Messages" - 7:47 "Separation" – 1:03 "Tubefed" – 3:11 "Honeythief" – 3:09 "Everything is OK" — 4:23 "Morsecode" – 3:20 "Stonefruit" – 3:21 "Your Friends" – 2:33 "The Ratio of Freckles to Stars" – 5:22 "Alaska" – 1:24 "Wholeness" – 4:03 "Today" – 2:36 "Hollow Bones" – 2:56 "I am Warm" – 4:12 "Things Stay the Same" – 4:29 "Professional" "It Will All Make Sense in the Morning" "Evensong" "Eejit" "Breath Makes Smoke" "Seabright" "Sneaky Creatures" "Any Bird That Dares To Fly" "Clipped" "Hollywood Ending" "Crumbs and Dust" "We Wear Strings" "Company" "Skimming" "Everything is OK" "Ingenue" "The Ratio of Freckles to Stars" "Wholeness" "Wiser" "Firefly" "Honeythief" "Everything is OK" "Exoskeleton" "Far Too Far" "Tubefed" "Cello" "Ingénue" "Albatross" "One Sunny Day" "Night Divides The Girls" "It Will All Make Sense in the Morning" "Evensong" "Breath Makes Smoke" "The Professional" "Clipped" "Hollywood Ending" "Present Tense" "Lovesong" "Half-Gifts" "I'll Carry You Two" "Blue Eye Smile Girl" "Words" "You Are One Of Us" "I'll Carry You" "Dog Dreams" "Heroine" "They Bite" "It Was Safer When You Were Near" Halou was featured on a remix EP for the ambient dream pop group Plink entitled Thank You For Waiting, with a remix of Plink's song With Old Photographs.

Official website Nettwerk's website Your Friends Music Video on Eithiriel Halou's Wholeness & Separation album review at

Anolis stratulus

Anolis stratulus is a moderately-sized species of anole found in Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands. It is a gray-colored lizard spotted with brown markings, it is arboreal found positioned on tree bark on branches in the canopies of forest trees, where in some areas of Puerto Rico it can be abundant, with tens of thousands of the lizards being present per hectare. It is locally known as the lagartijo manchando in Puerto Rico. Names which have been invented for it in English are spotted anole, Puerto Rican spotted anole, banded anole, saddled anole, salmon lizard, barred anole, St. Thomas anole or the somewhat of a misnomer chameleon, because it can change color, it is known as the "spotted anole" because of the black markings on its back. There are no salmon in Puerto Rico; the names "saddled anole" and "barred anole" are taken from the 1862 description by Edward Drinker Cope, although it is not true, Cope believed that the lizards were characteristically saddled with brown transverse bars on their back.

The name "banded anole" may refer to that. "St. Thomas anole" is from Cope; this species of lizard, along with many other reptiles, was first studied by the Danish apothecary Albert Heinrich Riise who in 1838 had moved to town of Taphus on Sankt Thomas Island in the Danish West Indies to open a pharmacy and distillery of medicinal rums and bitters. Riise, successful in this endeavour, was extremely interested in the natural history of his surroundings, by the 1840s had begun to ship ample specimens of plants and animals to Copenhagen, many found their way elsewhere throughout Europe and the young United States. In Copenhagen the zoologists Johannes Theodor Reinhardt and Christian Frederik Lütken had begun work on a great monograph some 200 pages excluding illustrations, on the amphibians and reptiles of the Danish West Indies and the wider Caribbean, much of it based on the extensive collections of Riise. Riise had collected numerous specimens of this lizard from the islands of St. Thomas, Puerto Rico, Vieques and Jost van Dyke, which Reinhardt and Lütken had described as Anolis dorsomaculatus, named as such numerous specimens, distributed to museums throughout Europe and the Americas.

For them however, just before they were set to publish their work, the young American Edward Drinker Cope, an industrious man, hungry for recognition, given a job cataloguing the herpetological collection at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, had set upon the Riise specimens and rushed to describe the new species for posterity himself, publishing his work a week or two earlier than them, which necessitated a rush of last minute changes to their manuscript in the days before it could be brought to the printers. The rather summary article by Cope is dated to 1861, although it was published in the beginning of February 1862, Reinhardt and Lütken published their work on 14 February 1862, with numerous revisions to accommodate and correct Cope. Cope only published that the species was to be found on Sankt Thomas, not having known or studied the entirety of Riise's collections, only examining a handful of specimens to be found in nearby US institutions, all of which happened to have been collected on that island.

Cope misspelled, or the typesetter of the printer, or editor of the journal his description was published in, the Latin name as striatulus. These two authors appended some two pages of anatomical corrections and extra details to Cope's original description. For the next century and a half the taxonomy remained stable and uncontroversial, but in 1986 Craig Guyer and Jay M. Savage attempted to split the large genus Anolis based on skeletal and karyological datasets used together in a type of cladistics method called "successive weighted characters", thus moving most species into a new large genus called Norops. Following Guyer and Savage, Albert Schwartz and Robert W. Henderson reclassified this species as Ctenonotus stratulus in 1988, moving the species to a new genus advocated by Guyer and Savage in 1986; because this splitting caused the new remaining genera to be paraphyletic, In 2012 the same authors and Savage, together with Kirsten Nicholson and Brian Crother, gave Ctenonotus another go, although soon after, in 2013, other taxonomists again pointed out flaws in this approach.

In 2018 Nicholson et al. again reiterated. At least in 2007 the Integrated Taxonomic Information System recognised the species in the genus Ctenonotus, but this database recognises it in Anolis as of 2020; the Reptile Database has maintained recognition of it within the genus Anolis as of 2020. A. stratulus has been classified as a member of a "cristatellus series" along with A. acutus, A. cristatellus, A. cooki, A. desechensis, A. ernestwilliamsi, A. evermanni, A. gundlachi, A. krugi, A. monensis, A. poncensis, A. pulchellus and A. scriptus.

Fyffes Line

Fyffes Line was the name given to the fleet of passenger-carrying banana boats owned and operated by the UK banana importer Elders & Fyffes Limited. With the formation of Elders & Fyffes Ltd in 1901 it was necessary to procure suitable ships on which to transport their bananas from the West Indies to the UK. Therefore, in 1902 when the Furness Line was anxious to sell three steamships each of 2,875 gross register tons, the new company raised the necessary funds to buy them. Named Appomattox and Greenbriar, they were all refitted in Newcastle upon Tyne and a special cooling system installed to keep the fruit firm in the crossing; the first of these entered service the same year as a banana boat and a fourth vessel, the Oracabessa, was added to the fleet. In 1904, three purpose built banana boats were ordered, each of 3,760 GRT. In 1910 the company retained its identity; the new ships carried a small number of passengers in relative comfort when compared to the Royal Mail steamers of that era. As such they have been acknowledged as playing a significant part in bringing the first tourists to Jamaica.

By the start of World War I, the Fyffes fleet had grown to 18 ships, but all were requisitioned by the UK Government for war work. In the next four years ten ships were sunk by mines; the company recovered and less than five years after the war had achieved an stronger position than it occupied in 1914. Major problems arose. By 1938 the Fyffes fleet which had numbered 36 ships in 1932 was down to 21. By September 1939 there had been 56 ships. In the next six years of World War II, 14 ships were lost at sea. In November 1940 the UK Government imposed a total ban on the import of bananas, having decided that the only fruit that could be imported for the duration of the war was oranges; this ban continued until 30 December 1945 when the SS Tilapa, flying the Fyffes Line flag, arrived in the UK with the first cargo of bananas to be seen for over five years. After the war, Fyffes carried distinguished passengers on its ships including Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, who, as Chancellor of the University of the West Indies, made frequent visits to Jamaica, the West Indies Cricket Team who came to play test cricket matches in England.

The team always ended its visit by playing a private game against Elders & Fyffes' own cricket team at the company’s sports ground in New Malden, Surrey. Fyffes had two final ships built: TSS Golfito and TSS Camito, which together provided a fortnightly service between the UK and the Caribbean until the company's withdrawal from ship-owning in the early 1970s. Thereafter its fleet acquisitions were second-hand ships, such as three turbo-electric cargo and passenger liners from the early 1930s that the United Fruit Company transferred to Fyffes in 1958, they were SS Quirigua, SS Talamanca and SS Veragua, which Fyffes renamed Samala and Sinaloa respectively. Beaver, Patrick. Yes! We have some: The story of Fyffes. Publications for Companies. ISBN 978-0-904928-02-0. Elders & Fyffes Shipping, Limited—Fyffes Group, Limited / Fyffes PLC—Geest Line Miller, William H. "Banana Boats". Ocean & Cruise News; the World Ocean & Cruise Liner Society. Archived from the original on 14 July 2006. "The Banana Boats Are In!"

Tamas Dobozy

Tamas Dobozy is a Canadian writer and professor at Wilfrid Laurier University. Dobozy was born in the city of Nanaimo, located on Vancouver Island in Canada. Between the ages of 3 and 18 he lived in Powell River, British Columbia, subsequently in Victoria, Budapest, Toronto, St. John's, he received his BA/BFA in English/Creative Writing from The University of Victoria, his MA in English from Concordia University, his Ph. D. in English from the University of British Columbia. Dobozy taught at Memorial University and teaches in the Department of English and Film Studies at Wilfrid Laurier University in Ontario. 1995 sub-Terrain Short Fiction Contest Winner for "Like A Salmon Getting Me Down" 2003 Danuta Gleed Award shortlist for When X Equals Marylou 2011 O Henry Award for "The Restoration of the Villa Where Tíbor Kálmán Once Lived" 2012 Camera Obscura Editors' Award for Outstanding Fiction for "The Selected Mugshots of Famous Hungarian Assassins" 2012 Rogers Writers' Trust Fiction Prize winner for Siege 13 2012 Governor General's Awards shortlist for Siege 13 2013 Frank O'Connor International Short Story Award shortlist for Siege 13 2014 National Magazine Awards, Gold Medal for Fiction for "Krasnagorsk-2" published in The New Quarterly When X Equals Marylou Last Notes and Other Stories Siege 13: Stories