Lake Starnberg — called Lake Würm until 1962 — is Germany's fifth largest freshwater lake in terms of area and, due to its great average depth, the second largest in terms of water volume, after Lake Constance. The lake and its surroundings are an unincorporated area within the rural district of Starnberg. Located in southern Bavaria 25 kilometres southwest of Munich, Lake Starnberg is a popular recreation area for the city and, since 1976, one of the wetlands of international importance protected by the Ramsar Convention; the small town of Berg is famous as the site where King Ludwig II of Bavaria was found dead in the lake in 1886. Because of its associations with the Wittelsbach royal family, the lake is known as Fürstensee, it is mentioned in T. S. Eliot's poem The Waste Land; the lake, lying in a zungenbecken or glacial hollow, was created by ice age glaciers from the Alps, extends 21 km from north to south and has a width of 3–5 km from east to west. It has a single small island, the Roseninsel, a single outlet, the Würm river.
Its major inflow comes from a small river called the Steinbach or Ostersee-Ach, which flows through a chain of small lakes to the south, the Osterseen. The lake's water is of excellent quality due to the introduction in the 1960s of a circular sewerage system which collects wastewater from the settlements around the lake and transports it to a treatment plant below the lake's outlet at Starnberg. Bronze fish-hooks and a dugout dating to the 9th or 8th century BCE have been discovered at the lake, there are still some professional fishers, most of them continuing a family tradition. Hikers and cyclists can circumnavigate the lake using a path 49 kilometres long. Access to the lake shore is not possible everywhere, since it is private property. Passenger ferries and excursion ships have operated on the lake since 1851. Today they are operated by the Bayerische Seenschifffahrt company, using modern diesel-engined ships; the earliest surviving mention of the lake, as Uuirmseo, is in an 818 document referring to Holzhausen, now part of Münsing.
This name became Wirmsee recorded during the reign of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Bavarian. This name is derived from the Wirm, now spelt Würm, the only river which flows out of the lake, at Starnberg. In the late 19th century, a railway connection between Munich and Starnberg made the lake an accessible destination for trips from the city. Trains departed from a wing of the Munich Central Station, known as the'Starnberg branch station' and the lake came to be known as Lake Starnberg. Clockwise from the north, the following settlements abut the lake: Starnberg Berg: including Kempfenhausen and Leoni Münsing: including Ammerland, Pischetsrieder and St. Heinrich Seeshaupt: including Seeseiten Bernried Tutzing: including Unterzeismering. Martinus Fesq-Martin, Amei Lang and Michael Peters. Der Starnberger See—Natur und Vorgeschichte einer bayerischen Landschaft. Munich, 2008. ISBN 978-3-89937-090-4 A. Link. Der Starnberger See und seine Umgebung vom Würmtal bis zum Alpenrand. Gauting-Buchendorf, 1982.
ISBN 3-923657-06-4 Susanne Westendorf. Das Starnberger-SeeBuch—eine Tour um den See, kleiner Führer. Munich, 1995. ISBN 3-00-000232-4 Lorenz von Westenrieder. Beschreibung des Wurm- oder Starenbergersees und der umherliegenden Schlösser, samt einer Landkarte. 1783, repr. Dachau: Bayerland, 2006. ISBN 3-89251-367-8 Oskar Weber and Josef Wahl. Am Starnberger See und die Würm entlang. Dachau, 1995. ISBN 3-89251-202-7 Nixdorf, B.. "Starnberger See", Dokumentation von Zustand und Entwicklung der wichtigsten Seen Deutschlands, Berlin: Umweltbundesamt, p. 75 Pictures of Lake Starnberg
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches; the roster of the Academy's 6,000 motion picture professionals is a "closely guarded secret". While the great majority of its members are based in the United States, membership is open to qualified filmmakers around the world; the Academy is known around the world for its annual Academy Awards and popularly known as "The Oscars". In addition, the Academy holds the Governors Awards annually for lifetime achievement in film; the Academy plans to open the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles in 2019. The notion of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences began with Louis B. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, he said he wanted to create an organization that would mediate labor disputes without unions and improve the industry's image.
He met with actor Conrad Nagel, director Fred Niblo, the head of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, Fred Beetson to discuss these matters. The idea of this elite club having an annual banquet was discussed, but no mention of awards at that time, they established that membership into the organization would only be open to people involved in one of the five branches of the industry: actors, writers and producers. After their brief meeting, Mayer gathered up a group of thirty-six people involved in the film industry and invited them to a formal banquet at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on January 11, 1927; that evening Mayer presented to those guests what he called the International Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Everyone in the room that evening became a founder of the Academy. Between that evening and when the official Articles of Incorporation for the organization were filed on May 4, 1927, the "International" was dropped from the name, becoming the "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences".
Several organizational meetings were held prior to the first official meeting held on May 6, 1927. Their first organizational meeting was held on May 11. At that meeting Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. was elected as the first president of the Academy, while Fred Niblo was the first vice-president, their first roster, composed of 230 members, was printed. That night, the Academy bestowed its first honorary membership, to Thomas Edison; the Academy was broken down into five main groups, or branches, although this number of branches has grown over the years. The original five were: Producers, Directors and Technicians; the initial concerns of the group had to do with labor." However, as time went on, the organization moved "further away from involvement in labor-management arbitrations and negotiations." One of several committees formed in those initial days was for "Awards of Merit," but it was not until May 1928 that the committee began to have serious discussions about the structure of the awards and the presentation ceremony.
By July 1928 the board of directors had approved a list of 12 awards to be presented. During July the voting system for the Awards was established, the nomination and selection process began; this "award of merit for distinctive achievement" is. The initial location of the organization was 6912 Hollywood Boulevard. In November 1927, the Academy moved to the Roosevelt Hotel at 7010 Hollywood Boulevard, the month the Academy's library began compiling a complete collection of books and periodicals dealing with the industry from around the world. In May 1928, the Academy authorized the construction of a state of the art screening room, to be located in the Club lounge of the hotel; the screening room was not completed until April 1929. With the publication of Report on Incandescent Illumination in 1928, the Academy began a long history of publishing books to assist its members. Another early initiative concerned training Army Signal Corps officers. In 1929, Academy members in a joint venture with the University of Southern California created America's first film school to further the art and science of moving pictures.
The school's founding faculty included Fairbanks, D. W. Griffith, William C. deMille, Ernst Lubitsch, Irving Thalberg, Darryl F. Zanuck.1930 saw another move, to 7046 Hollywood Boulevard, in order to accommodate the enlarging staff, by December of that year the library was acknowledged as "having one of the most complete collections of information on the motion picture industry anywhere in existence." They would remain at that location until 1935, when further growth would cause them to move once again. This time, the administrative offices would move to one location, to the Taft Building at the corner of Hollywood and Vine, while the library would move to 1455 North Gordon Street. In 1934, the Academy began publication of the Screen Achievement Records Bulletin, which today is known as the Motion Picture Credits Database; this is a list of film credits up for an Academy Award, as well as other films released in Los Angeles County, using research materials from the Academy's Margaret Her
Berlin State Opera
The Berlin State Opera is a German opera company based in Berlin. Its permanent home is the Staatsoper Unter den Linden referred to as Lindenoper, in the central Mitte district, which hosts the Staatskapelle Berlin orchestra; the Hofoper from 1742, it was named Königliches Opernhaus in 1844, Staatsoper Unter den Linden in 1918. From 1949 to 1990 it housed the state opera of East Germany. Since 2004, the State Opera company belongs to the Berlin Opera Foundation, like the Deutsche Oper Berlin, the Komische Oper Berlin, the Berlin State Ballet, the Bühnenservice Berlin. King Frederick II of Prussia shortly after his accession to the throne commissioned the original building on the site. Construction work began in July 1741 with what was designed by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff to be the first part of a "Forum Fredericianum" on present-day Bebelplatz. Although not completed, the Court Opera was inaugurated with a performance of Carl Heinrich Graun's Cesare e Cleopatra on December 7, 1742; this event marked the beginning of the successful, 250-year co-operation between the Staatsoper and the Staatskapelle Berlin, the state orchestra, whose roots trace back to the 16th century.
In 1821, the Berlin Opera—hosted at the Schauspielhaus Berlin—gave the premiere of Weber's Der Freischütz. In 1842, Wilhelm Taubert instituted the tradition of regular symphonic concerts. In the same year, Giacomo Meyerbeer succeeded Gaspare Spontini as General Music Director. Felix Mendelssohn conducted symphonic concerts for a year. On August 18, 1843 the Linden Opera was destroyed by fire; the reconstruction of the building was supervised by architect Carl Ferdinand Langhans, the Königliches Opernhaus was inaugurated the following autumn by a performance of Meyerbeer's Ein Feldlager in Schlesien. In 1849, Otto Nicolai's Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor was premiered at the Royal Opera House, conducted by the composer. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the Royal Court Opera, attracted many illustrious conductors, they included Felix von Weingartner, Karl Muck, Richard Strauss, Leo Blech. After the collapse of the German Empire in 1918, the Opera was renamed Staatsoper unter den Linden and the Königliche Kapelle became Kapelle der Staatsoper.
In the 1920s, Kurt Adler, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Erich Kleiber, Otto Klemperer, Alexander von Zemlinsky, Bruno Walter occupied the conductor's post. In 1925, Alban Berg's Wozzeck, was given its premiere in a production conducted by Erich Kleiber in the composer's presence. After having undergone an extensive renovation, the Linden Opera reopened on 28 April 1928 with a new production of Mozart's Die Zauberflöte; the cast included Delia Reinhardt, Richard Tauber, Friedrich Schorr and Leo Schützendorf, conducted by Erich Kleiber. The same year, the famous Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin and Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes with conductor Ernest Ansermet were guest performers. In 1930 Erich Kleiber conducted the premiere of Darius Milhaud's Christophe Colomb. However, in 1934, when symphonic pieces from Alban Berg's Lulu were performed by Kleiber, the National Socialists provoked a scandal and the conductor was forced into exile. After Hitler's Nazi takeover, members of Jewish origin were dismissed from the ensemble.
Many German musicians associated with the opera went into exile, including the conductors Kurt Adler, Otto Klemperer and Fritz Busch. Clemens Krauss became a prominent German conductor first at the Berlin State Opera in 1933 and was appointed as its director in 1935 due to Fritz Busch and Erich Kleiber resigning their positions in protest over Nazi rule. During the Third Reich, Robert Heger, Herbert von Karajan and Johannes Schüler were the "Staatskapellmeister". 1938: Werner Egk conducted the first night of his opera Peer Gynt on 24 November. Herbert von Karajan's interpretation of Die Zauberflöte was performed on 18 December. Karajan continued as Generalmusikdirektor, the principal musical director of the Staatsoper Unter den Linden between 1941 and 1945. 1939: Karajan conducted a performance of Rudolf Wagner-Régeny's Die Bürger von Calais. 1940: On 21 October, Karajan conducted a symphonic concert with the Staatskapelle at the Old Philharmonic. 1942: The Lindenoper was bombed in 1941. The house reopened on 12 December with Furtwängler's interpretation of Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.
1944: When Joseph Goebbels proclaimed his "total war", the Staatsoper was closed. The last performance before was Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro, conducted by Johannes Schüler on 31 August; the Staatskapelle continued to perform symphonic and opera concerts. On 4 and 5 October, Karajan conducted Bruckner's Eighth Symphony. 1945: The Lindenoper was once again destroyed on February 3. The concerts were relocated to the Admiralspalast and the Schauspielhaus. On 18 February, Karajan conducted his last symphonic concert with the Staatskapelle in the Beethoven hall; the second rebuilding took a long time. From 1945, the opera company played in the former Admiralspalast. From 1949, the company served as the state opera of East Germany, it moved back to its original home after the rebuilding in adapted baroque forms was completed in 1955. The newly rebuilt opera house was opened, with Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg; the capacity is now about 1,300. After the Berlin Wall was built in 1961, the Opera was somewhat isolated, but still maintained a comprehensive repertoire that featured the classic and romantic period together with contemporary ballet and operas.
After reunification, the Linden Opera rejoined the operatic world. Important works that had performed in the pa
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
Rainer Werner Fassbinder, sometimes credited as R. W. Fassbinder, was a West German filmmaker, playwright, theatre director, cinematographer and essayist, he is regarded as a prominent figure and catalyst of the New German Cinema movement. Success was not immediate for Fassbinder, his first feature length film, a gangster movie called Love Is Colder Than Death, was met with mixed reviews at the Berlin Film Festival. His next piece, was a minor critical success, garnering five prizes after its debut at Mannheim. In subsequent years, he made such controversial films as Pioneers in Ingolstadt and Whity, which dealt with human savagery, before scoring his first domestic commercial success with The Merchant of Four Seasons, his first international success Ali: Fear Eats the Soul, both of which are considered masterpieces by contemporary critics. Big budget projects followed, such as Despair, Lili Marleen, Lola, his greatest success came with The Marriage of Maria Braun, chronicling the rise and fall of a German woman in the wake of World War II.
Other notable films include The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant and His Friends, Satan's Brew, Querelle, all of which focused on gay and lesbian themes. Fassbinder died on 10 June 1982, at the age of 37, from a lethal cocktail of cocaine and barbiturates. Although Fassbinder's career lasted less than two decades, he was prolific. Fassbinder was born in the small town of Bad Wörishofen on 31 May 1945, he was born three weeks after the Allies occupied the town and the unconditional surrender of Germany. The aftermath of World War II marked his childhood and the lives of his family. In compliance with his mother's wishes, Fassbinder claimed he was born in 1946, to more establish himself as a child of the post-war period, he was the only child of Liselotte Pempeit, a translator, Helmut Fassbinder, a doctor who worked from the couple's apartment in Sendlinger Straße, near Munich's red light district. When he was three months old, he was left with a paternal uncle and aunt in the country, since his parents feared he would not survive the winter with them.
He was a year old. Fassbinder's mother came from the Free City of Danzig, from which many Germans had fled following World War II; as a result, a number of her relatives came to live with them in Munich. Fassbinder's parents were cultured members of the bourgeoisie, his father concentrated on his career, which he saw as a means to indulge his passion for writing poetry. His mother ignored him as well, spending the majority of her time with her husband working on his career. In 1951, Liselotte Pempeit and Helmut Fassbinder divorced. Helmut moved to Cologne while Liselotte raised her son as a single parent in Munich In order to support herself and her child, Pempeit took in boarders and found employment as a German to English translator; when she was working, she sent her son to the cinema to pass time. In life, Fassbinder claimed that he saw at least a film a day, sometimes four a day. During this period, Pempeit was away from her son for long periods while she recuperated from tuberculosis. In his mother's absence, Fassbinder was looked after by his mother's friends.
As he was left alone, he became used to the independence and thus, became a juvenile delinquent. He clashed with his mother's younger lover Siggi, who lived with them when Fassbinder was around eight or nine years old, he had a similar difficult relationship with the much older journalist Wolff Eder, who became his stepfather in 1959. Early in his adolescence, Fassbinder came out as a homosexual; as a teen, Fassbinder was sent to boarding school. His time there was marred by his repeated escape attempts and he left school before any final examinations. At the age of 15, he moved to Cologne with his father. Though they argued Fassbinder stayed with his father for a couple of years while attending night school. To earn money, he worked small jobs and helped his father who rented shabby apartments to immigrant workers. During his time with his father, Fassbinder began to cultivate himself in the world of theatre, such as writing poems, short plays, stories. In 1963, aged eighteen, Fassbinder returned to Munich with plans to attend night school with the idea to study drama.
Following his mother's advice, he took acting lessons and from 1964 to 1966 attended the Fridl-Leonhard Studio for actors in Munich. There, he met Hanna Schygulla. During this time, he made his first 8mm films and took on small acting roles, assistant director, sound man. During this period, he wrote the tragic-comic play: Drops on Hot Stones. To gain entry to the Berlin Film School, Fassbinder submitted a film version of his play Parallels, he entered several 8 mm films including This Night, but he was turned down for admission, as were Werner Schroeter and Rosa von Praunheim who would have careers as film directors. He returned to Munich, he made two short films,The City Tramp and The Little Chaos. Shot in black and white, they were financed by Fassbinder's lover, Christoph Roser, an aspiring actor, in exchange for leading roles. Fassbinder a
Berlin International Film Festival
The Berlin International Film Festival called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival has been held every February since 1978 and is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Cannes Film Festival. With around 300,000 tickets sold and 500,000 admissions each year, it has the largest public attendance of any annual film festival. Up to 400 films are shown in several sections across cinematic genres. Around twenty films compete for the festival's top awards, called the Golden Bear and several Silver Bears. Since 2001 the director of the festival has been Dieter Kosslick; the European Film Market, a film trade fair held to the Berlinale, is a major industry meeting for the international film circuit. The trade fair serves distributors, film buyers, financiers and co-production agents; the Berlinale Talents, a week-long series of lectures and workshops, is a gathering of young filmmakers held in partnership with the festival.
The film festival, EFM, other satellite events are attended by around 20,000 professionals from over 130 countries. More than 4200 journalists produce media coverage in over 110 countries. At some high-profile feature film premieres held during the festival, movie stars and celebrities are present on the red carpet; the Berlin International Film Festival was founded in West Berlin in 1951, with film historian Dr. Alfred Bauer as its first director, a position he would hold until 1976. Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca opened the first festival. Bauer was succeeded by film journalist Wolf Donner in 1976. After his first Berlinale in June 1977, he negotiated the shift of the festival from the summer to February, a change which has remained since. After only three years in the role, Donner was followed by Moritz de Hadeln who held the position from 1980 until current director Dieter Kosslick took over in 2001; the festival is composed of seven different film sections. Films are chosen in each category by a section director with the advice of a committee of film experts.
Categories include: Competition: comprises feature-length films yet to be released outside their country of origin. Films in the Competition section compete for several prizes, including the top Golden Bear for the best film and a series of Silver Bears for acting and production. Panorama: comprises new independent and arthouse films that deal with "controversial subjects or unconventional aesthetic styles". Films in the category are intended to provoke discussion, have involved themes such as LGBT issues. Forum: comprises experimental and documentary films from around the world with a particular emphasis on screening works by younger filmmakers. There are no format or genre restrictions, films in the Forum do not compete for awards. Generation: comprises a mixture of feature-length films aimed at children and youths. Films in the Generation section compete in two sub-categories: Generation Kplus and Generation 14plus. Awards in the section are determined by three separate juries—the Children's Jury, the Youth Jury and an international jury of experts—whose decisions are made independent of one another.
Perspektive Deutsches Kino: comprises a wide variety of German films, with an emphasis on highlighting current trends in German cinema. There are few entry requirements, enabling emerging filmmakers to display their work to domestic and international audiences. Berlinale Shorts: comprises domestic and international short films those that demonstrate innovative approaches to filmmaking. Films in the category compete for the Golden Bear for the best short film, as well as a jury-nominated Silver Bear. Retrospective: comprises classic films shown at the Berlinale, with films collated from the Competition, Forum and Generation categories; each year, the Retrospective section is dedicated to important filmmakers. The special Homage series examines past cinema, with a focus on honouring the life work of directors and actors. In addition to the seven sections, the Berlinale contains several linked "curated special series", including the Berlinale Special, Gala Special, Forum 5, Culinary Cinema and the Homage.
Since 2002 a 50-second trailer opens the performances in all sections of the festival with the exception of the Retrospective. The Golden Bear is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival. Golden Bear Best Motion Picture Best Short Film Lifetime Achievement Silver Bear The Silver Bear was introduced in 1956 as an award for individual achievements in direction and acting, for best short film. In 1965 a special film award for the runner-up to the Golden Bear was introduced. Although its official name was the Special Jury Prize from 1965 to 1999, has been the Jury Grand Prix since 2000, it is known as the Silver Bear as it is regarded as a second place award after the Golden Bear. In 2002 a Silver Bear for best film music, in 2008 an award for best screenplay. Jury Grand Prix Alfred Bauer Prize: in memory of the Festival Founder—for a feature film that opens new perspectives on cinematic art Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Short Film Outstanding Artistic Contribution - Not awarded every year, in some years more than one award is made.
Outstanding Single Achievement - Not a
A cinematographer or director of photography is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography; the cinematographer selects the camera, film stock, filters, etc. to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Reed Morano, ASC who lensed Frozen River and Beyonce's Lemonade before winning an Emmy for directing The Handmaid's Tale. Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Ellen Kuras, ASC photographed Eternal Sunshine of The Spotless Mind as well as a number of Spike Lee films such as Summer of Sam and He Got Game before directing episodes of Legion and Ozark.
In 2014, Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan's three Batman films, made his directorial debut with Transcendence. In the infancy of motion pictures, the cinematographer was also the director and the person physically handling the camera; as the art form and technology evolved, a separation between director and camera operator emerged. With the advent of artificial lighting and faster film stocks, in addition to technological advancements in optics, the technical aspects of cinematography necessitated a specialist in that area. Cinematography was key during the silent movie era. In 1919 Hollywood, the then-new motion picture capital of the world, one of the first trade societies was formed: the American Society of Cinematographers, which stood to recognize the cinematographer's contribution to the art and science of motion picture making. Similar trade associations have been established in other countries too; the ASC Vision Committee is known for working to encourage and support the advancement of underrepresented cinematographers, their crews and other filmmakers, to inspire us all to enact positive changes through hiring talent that reflects society at large.
However, the Soviet filmmaker, Dziga Vertov, writing in Kino-fot No.1 rejected the role of Cinematographer in the "We: Variant of a Manifesto": "We call ourselves kinoks – as opposed to "cinematographers", a herd of junkmen doing rather well peddling their rags. We see the cunning and calculation of the profiteers. We consider the psychological Russo-German film-drama – weighed down with apparitions and childhood memories – an absurdity." There are a number of national associations of cinematographers which represent members and which are dedicated to the advancement of cinematography. These include: the American Society of Cinematographers the International Collective of Women Cinematographers the Canadian Society of Cinematographers the British Society of Cinematographers the Australian Cinematographers Society the Cinematographers Guild of Korea the Filipino Society of Cinematographers the French Society of Cinematographers the Italian Society of Cinematographers the Indian Society of Cinematographers the German Society of Cinematographers the Netherlands Society of Cinematographers the Spanish Society of Cinematography Works the European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO the Uruguayan Society of Cinematographers the Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers Cinematographers XX IlluminatrixThe A.
S. C. defines cinematography as: A creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than the simple recording of a physical event. Cinematography is not a subcategory of photography. Rather, photography is but one craft that the cinematographer uses in addition to other physical, managerial and image-manipulating techniques to effect one coherent process. Camerimage Cinematography Cinematography Mailing List, a communication forum for cinematographers Filmmaking Glossary of motion picture terms Indian cinematographers List of film director and cinematographer collaborations List of film formats List of motion picture-related topics Cinematography.com Cinematography Mailing List International Cinematographers Guild The History of the Discovery of Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers The Guild of British Camera Technicians British Society of Cinematographers Indian Society of Cinematographers European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO Australian Cinematographers Society German Society of Cinematography, BVK Italian Society of Cinematography, AIC Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers, LAC
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor