The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence, with leaders emphasizing alcohol's negative effects on health and family life; the movement promotes alcohol education as well as demands new laws against the selling of alcohols, or those regulating the availability of alcohol, or those prohibiting it. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the temperance movement became prominent in many countries English-speaking and Scandinavian ones, it led to Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933. In the late-seventeenth century, alcohol was a vital part of colonial life as a beverage and commodity for men and children. Drinking was accepted and integrated into society. Despite that, drunkenness was common and not seen as a social problem; the attitudes towards alcohol began to change in the late eighteenth century. One of the reasons for the shifting attitudes was the necessity for sober laborers to operate heavy machinery, developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in 1775. As early as the 1790s, physician Benjamin Rush researched the danger that drinking alcohol could lead to disease that leads to a lack of self-control and he cited abstinence as the only treatment option. Rush condemned the use of distilled spirits; as well as addiction, Rush noticed the correlation that drunkenness had with disease, death and crime. According to, “Pompili, Maurizio et al,” there is increasing evidence that, aside from the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of the drinking is relevant for health outcomes. Overall, there is a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of diseases and injuries. Alcohol is estimated to cause about 20–30% of cases of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, homicide and motor vehicle accidents. After the American Revolution, Rush called upon ministers of various churches to act in preaching the messages of temperance. However, abstinence messages were ignored by Americans until the 1820s.
In the eighteenth century, there was a "Gin Craze" in the Kingdom of Great Britain. The bourgeoisie became critical of the widespread drunkenness among the lower classes. Motivated by the bourgeoisie's desire for order, amplified by the population growth in the cities, the drinking of gin became the subject of critical national debate. In the early nineteenth-century United States, alcohol was still regarded as a necessary part of the American diet for both practical and social reasons. On one hand, water supplies were polluted, milk was not always available, coffee and tea was expensive. On the other hand, social construct of the time made. Drunkenness was not a problem, because people would only drink small amounts of alcohol throughout the day, but at the turn of the nineteenth-century and subsequent intoxication became an issue that led to the disintegration of the family. Early temperance societies associated with churches were located in upstate New York and New England, but only lasted a few years.
These early temperance societies called for moderate drinking, but had little influence outside of their geographical areas. In 1743, John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Churches, proclaimed "that buying and drinking of liquor, unless necessary, were evils to be avoided". In 1810, Calvinist ministers met with a seminary in Massachusetts to write articles about abstinence from alcohol to use in preaching to their congregations; the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance was formed in 1813. The organization only accepted men of high social standing and encouraged moderation in alcohol consumption, its peak of influence was in 1818, but the MSSI ended in 1820 and made no significant mark on the future of the temperance movement. Other small temperance societies appear in the 1810s, but had little impact outside their immediate regions and they disbanded soon after, their methods had little effect in implementing temperance, drinking increased until after 1830. The temperance movement began at a national level in the 1820s, having been popularized by evangelical temperance reformers and among the middle classes.
There was a concentration on advice against hard spirits rather than on abstinence from all alcohol and on moral reform rather than legal measures against alcohol. An early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in Connecticut and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling; the movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence and taking positions on religious issues such as observance of the Sabbath. After the American Revolution there was a new emphasis on good citizenship for the new republic. With the Evangelical Protestant religious revival of the 1820s and'30s, called the Second Great Awakening, social movements began aiming for a perfect society; this included temperance. The Awakening brought with it an optimism about moral reform, achieved through volunteer organizations. Although the temperance movement was nonsectarian in principle, the movement consisted of church-goers; the temperance movement promoted temperance and emphasized th
Clapham is a district of south-west London lying within the London Borough of Lambeth, but with some areas extending into the neighbouring London Borough of Wandsworth. The present day Clapham High Street is an ancient "diversion" of the Roman military road Stane Street, which ran from London to Chichester; this followed the line of Clapham Road and onward along the line of Abbeville Road. The ancient status of that military road is recorded on a Roman stone now placed by the entrance of the former Clapham Library in the Old Town, discovered during building operations at Clapham Common South Side in 1912. Erected by Vitus Ticinius Ascanius according to its inscription, it is estimated to date from the 1st century. According to the history of the Clapham family, maintained by the College of Heralds, in 965 King Edgar of England gave a grant of land at Clapham to Jonas, son of the Duke of Lorraine, Jonas was thenceforth known as Jonas "de Clapham"; the family remained in possession of the land until Jonas's great-great grandson Arthur sided against William the Conqueror during the Norman invasion of 1066 and, losing the land, fled to the north.
Clapham appears in Domesday Book as Clopeham. It was held by Goisfrid de Mandeville, its domesday assets were 3 hides, it rendered £7 10s 0d, was located in Brixton hundred. The parish comprised 4.99 square kilometres. The benefice remains to this day a rectory, in the 19th century was in the patronage of the Atkins family: the tithes were commuted for £488 14s. In the early 19th century, so the remaining glebe comprised only 11 acres in 1848; the church, which belonged to Merton Priory was, with the exception of the north aisle, left standing for the performance of the burial service, taken down under an act of parliament in 1774, a new church erected in the following year at an expense of £11,000, on the north side of the common. In the late 17th century, large country houses began to be built there, throughout the 18th and early 19th century it was favoured by the wealthier merchant classes of the City of London, who built many large and gracious houses and villas around Clapham Common and in the Old Town.
Samuel Pepys spent the last two years of his life in Clapham, living with his friend, protégé at the Admiralty and former servant William Hewer, until his death in 1703. Clapham Common was home to Elizabeth Cook, the widow of Captain James Cook the explorer, she lived in a house on the common for many years following the death of her husband. Other notable residents of Clapham Common include Palace of Westminster architect Sir Charles Barry, Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg and 20th century novelist Graham Greene. John Francis Bentley, architect of Westminster Cathedral, lived in the adjacent Old Town. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the Clapham Sect were a group of wealthy City merchants social reformers who lived around the Common, they included William Wilberforce, Henry Thornton and Zachary Macaulay, father of the historian Thomas Macaulay, as well as William Smith MP, the Dissenter and Unitarian. They were prominent in campaigns for the abolition of slavery and child labour, for prison reform.
They promoted missionary activities in Britain's colonies. The Society for Missions to Africa and the East was founded on 12 April 1799 at a meeting of the Eclectic Society, supported by members of the Clapham Sect, who met under the guidance of John Venn, the Rector of Clapham. By contrast, an opponent of Wilberforce and slave-trader George Hibbert lived at Clapham Common, worshipping in the same church, Holy Trinity. After the coming of the railways, Clapham developed as a suburb for commuters into central London, by 1900 it had fallen from favour with the upper classes. Many of their grand houses had been demolished by the middle of the 20th century, though a number remain around the Common and in the Old Town, as do a substantial number of fine late 18th- and early 19th-century houses. Today's Clapham is an area of varied housing, from the large Queen Anne-, Regency- and Georgian-era homes of the Old Town and Clapham Common, to the grids of Victorian housing in the Abbeville area; as in much of London, the area has its fair share of council-owned social housing on estates dating from the 1930s and 1960s.
In the early 20th century, Clapham was seen as an ordinary commuter suburb cited as representing ordinary people: hence the familiar "man on the Clapham omnibus". By the 1980s, the area had undergone a further transformation, becoming the centre for the gentrification of most of the surrounding area. Clapham's relative proximity to traditionally expensive areas of central London led to an increase in the number of middle-class people living in Clapham. Today the area is an affluent place, although many of its professional residents live close to significant pockets of social housing. Clapham was an ancient parish in the county of Surrey. For poor law purposes the parish became part of the Wandsworth and Clapham Union in 1836; the parish was added to the Registrar General London Metropolis area in 1844 and it came within the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855. The population of 16,290 in 1851 was considered too small for the Clapham vestry to be a viable sanitary authority and the parish was grouped into the Wandsworth District, electing 18 members to the Wandsworth District Board of Works.
In 1889 the parish was transferred to the County of London and in 1900 it became p
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Winnetka is a village in Cook County, United States, located 16 miles north of downtown Chicago. The population was 12,187 at the 2010 census; the village is one of the wealthiest places in the nation in terms of household income, the richest in Illinois. Winnetka is located at 42°6′22″N 87°44′16″W. Winnetka is located 650 feet above sea level and has a magnetic declination of 3° 10' W. According to the 2010 census, Winnetka has a total area of 3.893 square miles, of which 3.81 square miles is land and 0.083 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 12,187 people, 4,102 households, 3,328 families residing in the village; the racial makeup of the village was 94.8% White, 0.3% African American, 0.1% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 4,102 households out of which 45.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.3% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.9% were non-families.
17.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.97 and the average family size was 3.39. In the village, the population was spread out with 36.2% under the age of 19, 2.3% from 20 to 24, 15.2% from 25 to 44, 32.7% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.8 years. The median income for a household in the village was $207,955, the median income for a family was over $250,000; the per capita income for the village was $105,575 in 2015. About 1.8% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.6% of those under age 18 and 2.0% of those age 65 or over. The first houses were built in 1836 That year Erastus Patterson and his family arrived from Vermont and opened a tavern to service passengers on the Green Bay Trail post road; the village was first subdivided in 1854 by Charles Peck and Walter S. Gurnee, President of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad.
Winnetka's first private school was opened in 1856 by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Peck with seventeen pupils. In 1859 the first public school building was built with private funds at the southeast corner of Elm and Maple streets; the first year's budget for this school was two hundred dollars. The village was incorporated in 1869 with a population of 450; the name is believed to originate from the Potawatomi language, meaning "beautiful place". The oldest surviving house in Winnetka is the Schmidt-Burnham House. Constructed on what is now the Indian Hill Club on the south edge of town and in 1917 moved to Tower Road, it was moved in 2003 from Tower Road to the Crow Island Woods. Winnetka's neighborhoods include estates and homes designed by distinguished architects including George Washington Maher, Walter Burley Griffin, John S. Van Bergen, Robert Seyfarth, Robert McNitt, Howard Van Doren Shaw and David Adler. Among Winnetka's celebrities are the late actor Rock Hudson and rock singer/songwriter/producer Richard Marx.
Churches in Winnetka were designed by noted architects. Among them, the former First Church of Christ, Scientist, 440 Ridge Avenue, was designed in 1924 by architect Solon S. Beman. In the 1920's, the famous Home Alone house was built on 671 Lincoln avenue; the Chicago and Milwaukee Railway was built in 1855 through Winnetka, connecting its namesake cities. It became the Chicago & Northwestern Railway. Between 1937 and 1942 the railroad tracks through Winnetka were grade separated after several people were hit at grade crossings. In 1995 the C&NW was merged into the Union Pacific. Only Metra trains are operated on this track now. Winnetka has three Metra stations: Hubbard Woods and Indian Hill; the Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee electric interurban was built through Winnetka and the North Shore in the first decade of the 1900s, the line through Winnetka was removed in 1955. This is now the Green Bay Trail bicycle path. In 1904 the Winnetka Park District was established, making it the fourth oldest park district in the state of Illinois.
Today, the park district maintains and operates 27 parks, five beaches, golf, ice skating/hockey, paddle tennis facilities. The Crow Island School, designed by Eliel & Eero Saarinen and the architectural firm Perkins, Wheeler & Will, was declared a National Historical Landmark in 1990, it was declared the best architectural design of all schools. 10,000 people attended the opening in 1938. In 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke in Winnetka. A plaque dedicated to him is on a park in the town, where he spoke; as a result of Dr. King's open housing campaign and the North Shore Summer Project, the nonprofit now known as Open Communities was founded. Winnetka was the site of the Hubbard Woods Elementary School shooting by Laurie Dann in 1988, she killed one student, wounded eight others and committed suicide at another person's house. A song named. Winnetka was named number 4 on the list of America's 25 top-earning towns by CNN Money in 2007; the film Home Alone is set in Winnetka, featured scenes filmed at 671 Lincoln Avenue.
The street address is mentioned in the film, but the street is called "Lincoln Boulevard". The opening scenes of the sequel Home Alone 2: Lost in New York were filmed at the same house. Numerous other films have been shot in Winnetka, including portions of films Ocean's 12, Breakfast Club, National Lampoon's Vacation, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Sixteen Candles, Risky Business, Trai
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
The Windsor Magazine
The Windsor Magazine was a monthly illustrated publication produced by Ward Lock & Co from January 1895 to September 1939. The title page described it as "An Illustrated Monthly for Men and Women", it was bound as six-monthly volumes, with the exception of Volume IV and the final volume, LXXXX. Until June 1917 the monthly magazine had a standard cover design, showing the title as "The Windsor Magazine", a sketch of Windsor Castle, the volume number and issue number in a panel at the foot; the December issues had this layout in colour, while the other months were on green paper with the magazine's name in a red block. In connection with the Royal family's decision to become the House of Windsor in July 1917, that month the magazine had a make-over, the new covers dispensed with the sketch of Windsor Castle and the word "Magazine" and instead proclaimed it as "The July Windsor", with the issue and volume number shown below, a different cover painting featuring a young woman, each month. Subsequently the issue and volume number disappeared from the front page, while the issue number and year continued to appear on the spine, the volume number was no longer quoted externally.
Latterly the subject of the cover paintings became more varied, while in the mid-1930s the word "Magazine" re-appeared on the front cover for a number of issues before again being dropped. Stanhope W. Sprigg David Williamson Arthur Hutchinson - died 26 August 1927 aged 57 Harry Golding Writers for the magazine included the following: Robert Barr Arnold Bennett Harold Bindloss Guy Boothby Leslie Charteris Wyatt Earp Charlotte O'Conor Eccles Rider Haggard whose Ayesha was serialised in 1904-5 Anthony Hope whose Sophy of Kravonia was serialised in 1905-6 Jerome K. Jerome Rudyard Kipling whose Stalky & Co. was serialised in 1898-9 Jack London Archibald Marshall L. T. Meade E. Nesbit E. Phillips Oppenheim Barry Pain Max Pemberton Eden Phillpotts Edgar Wallace Hugh Walpole Herbert Westbrook Fred M. White Dornford Yates who first appeared in issue 201 with the story, The Busy Bees and subsequently became a regular contributor to the magazine, providing 123 stories including His Brother's Wife which appeared in the final issue, 537, in September 1939.
Israel Zangwill Artists whose illustrations were published in the magazine included the following: Salomon van Abbé Harold Copping Maurice Greiffenhagen George Wylie Hutchinson E G Oakdale Norah Schlegel - born in Gateshead, daughter of Frederick, a Danish-born provisions importer Steven Spurrier George Cecil Wilmhurst - born in Walton-on-the-NazeVolumes continued to run from December to May and June to November thereafter, except for the final volume, 90 which covered the last four issues, from June to September 1939. On 13 September 1939 The Times carried a news article stating "The proprietors and publishers of the Windsor Magazine announce that in the present difficult circumstances it has been decided to suspend publication as from the September number, just issued." Publication was never resumed. Vaughan-Pow, Catherine; the Windsor Magazine - Indexes to Fiction Edward Liveing Adventure in Publishing: The House of Ward Lock, 1854-1954 The Windsor Magazine at The Fiction Mags Index