Wynberg, Cape Town
Wynberg is a southern suburb of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape, South Africa. It is situated between Plumstead and Kenilworth, and is a transport hub for the Southern Suburbs of Cape Town. In 1683 land belonging to Maxine Hall, whose farms along the Liesbeek River supplied the Dutch East India Company, was sold to Herman Weeckens, the farm was named De Oude Wijnbergh. The Capes rough seas in the winter led to a formal winter anchorage in 1743 where ships would dock at Simons Baai. A wagon route linking Cape Town to Simons Town went over the adjacent to De Oude Wjinbergh estate. A notable settler was Alexander Tennant who built a still standing. At Wynberg the Dutch had earlier made a show of resistance, Wynberg was a convenient half way point between Table Bay and False Bay and this led to a hub of commercial activity. The authorities had allotted places where teams of oxen could be unyoked. The village provided farmers with an alternative to the market in Cape Town, as more farms were subdivided commercial and residential properties began to increase. Diplomat Edmund Roberts passed through Wynberg in 1833 and he described it as being beautiful, and being adorned with a great number of gentlemens seats, and neat cottages, the avenues leading to them having well-trimmed hedges of myrtle and oak. In addition, it was in Wynberg that the young Charles Darwin met Herschel in 1836, battswood School was established in 1891 by Martha Grey. Martha was a coloured woman, born at the time of the emancipation of slavery in 1838. The school was closed and the property sold by the Dutch Mission Church in 1997, it was officially re-opened in Ottery, Cape Town, Wynberg is bordered by Kenilworth to the north and Plumstead to the south east, Constantia is situated to its west. Wynberg railway station is on the line from Cape Town to Simons Town. Main Road runs through Wynberg, and the suburb can also be accessed from the M3 freeway which skirts the west of the Neighborhood close to the Wynberg Military Base. As of the census of 2001, there were 4,417 households and 12,821 people residing in the suburb. The racial makeup of the suburb was 8. 42% Black African,49. 82% Coloured,11. 93% Indian/Asian,29. 83% White and 0% from other races. In the suburb the population was out with 24. 67% under the age of 18,29. 94% from 18 to 34,25. 65% from 35 to 54,8. 74% from 55 to 64
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European, Asian, and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, however, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, nevertheless, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa. South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Bradford Park Avenue A.F.C.
Bradford Association Football Club is an English football club based in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. Its name derived from the old stadium on Horton Park Avenue in Bradford. However the club is known simply as Bradford, with the letters BFC adorning Leitchs grandstand. The present club is a reincarnation of the club played in the Football League from 1908 to 1970 before dropping to the Northern Premier League. The new entity, established in 1987, is part of the National League North for the 2015–16 season and plays its matches at the 3. Bradford Park Avenue is one of 35 clubs to compete in all four top tiers of English football, the new club started life at what was then the thirteenth tier, Division Three of the West Riding County Amateur League. The original club was formed in 1863 as the Bradford Football Club, playing rugby football, a member of the Rugby Football Union, Bradford FC became a founding member of the breakaway Northern Rugby Football Union in 1895. Bradford were runners-up the 1898 Challenge Cup in 1897–98, won the championship in 1903–04, the faction left the original club and formed a new Northern Union club, Bradford Northern. Bradford Northern applied for membership of the Northern Union, replacing Bradford FC, on 23 August 2012, Bradford Park Avenue was one of the parties interested in purchasing the Bradford Bulls. The club shared the West Yorkshire League championship with Hunslet in 1895–96, Bradford played in the FA Amateur Cup in 1896–97, progressing to the FA Cup in 1897–98 and 1898–99. The club entered the Yorkshire League in 1897–98, finishing next to last, bradfords first football club was closed down at the end of the 1898–99 season due to mounting losses. Despite the failure of this experiment, association-football success elsewhere prompted the club to abandon rugby in 1907. They were not accepted, instead joining the Southern League and filling a gap left by Fulham and their nearest opponents were Northampton Town, whose ground was 130 miles distant. In 1908, Bradford FC was elected to the Second Division of the Football League, the club was promoted to the First Division in 1914 after finishing second, and achieved its highest-ever league position at the end of the 1914–15 season. In 1914 Donald Bell played four games, but at the outbreak of war asked to be released to serve, rising to the rank of lieutenant, in 1916 he received the VC for conspicuous bravery on the Somme before being killed later that year. After the First World War the club began a decline, relegated to the Second Division in 1921. In 1928, the club were the Division 3N champions and were promoted back to the Second Division and they were relegated again in 1950, and placed in the Fourth Division after a 1958 reorganisation. Although the club won promotion to the Third Division in 1961, after several difficult seasons, in 1970 they were replaced in the Football League by Cambridge United
Rotherham County F.C.
Rotherham County F. C. was an English football club based in Rotherham, South Yorkshire. They spent a number of years in the Football League before merging with rivals Rotherham Town in 1925 to form Rotherham United. The club was founded in 1870 as Thornhill before adding United to their name at an unspecified time and it joined the Midland League in 1903, and stayed in that competition until it was abandoned for World War I. They won the Midland League title for four seasons, from 1911–12 to 1914–15 inclusive. After the War, they were elected to the Football League when the league expanded from 40 clubs to 44 in 1919, in 1925 they merged with local rivals Rotherham Town to form Rotherham United who are still members of the Football League. Players that played in the Football League with Rotherham County – Best league performance, 16th, Football League Division 2, 1921–22 Best FA Cup performance, 1st Round, 1922–23
Coventry City F.C.
Coventry City Football Club is a professional football club in Coventry, West Midlands, England, which plays in League One, the third tier of English football. Coventry City formed as Singers F. C. in 1883 and they won their only major trophy in 1987 when they beat Tottenham Hotspur 3–2 to win the FA Cup. They are one of five clubs to have ever won the FA Cup and FA Youth Cup in the same season. They returned to Wembley in April 2017, beating Oxford United 2-1 to win the English Football League Trophy. Following eleven seasons in the second-tier Football League Championship, Coventry were relegated to Football League One in 2012, Coventry have qualified for European competitions twice. In the 1970–71 season, they competed in the European Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, despite beating Bayern Munich 2–1 in their home leg, they had lost 1–6 in the first leg in Munich to go out of the competition. They were unable to compete in the 1987–88 UEFA Cup Winners Cup due to the ban on English clubs at that time, from 1899 to 2005, Coventry City played at Highfield Road. A return to the Ricoh Arena was announced on 21 August 2014 by the club after a one-year absence,1883 – The club is founded by employees of Singer, the cycle firm, with William Stanley one of the leading lights. 1898 – The clubs name is changed from Singers F. C. to Coventry City,1899 – The club move to Highfield Road following stints at Dowells Field and Stoke Road. 1901 – The club suffer their worst ever defeat with an 11–2 loss against Worcester-based Berwick Rangers in the round of the FA Cup. 1919 – The club are voted into the Football League, where they have remained ever since,1928 – In February, and with Coventry struggling near the foot of Division Three South, the clubs worst ever attendance is recorded. Only 2,059 turn up for the match against Crystal Palace,1932 – Centre-forward Clarrie Bourton heads the Football League scoring lists with 49 goals. The following season he scored 40 goals,1934 – City record their biggest ever victory a 9–0 league drubbing of Bristol City. 1936 – Coventry City win the Third Division South championship after a final day 2–1 victory over Torquay United. 1958 – Goalkeeper Alf Wood becomes the oldest player to start a game for the club and he played against Plymouth Argyle in the FA Cup aged 43 years and 207 days. 1961 – Former Fulham player and PFA chairman Jimmy Hill is appointed following an embarrassing FA Cup defeat at home to non-league Kings Lynn. 1964 – Jimmy Hill guides Coventry to promotion from Division Three as champions after a final day 1–0 victory over Colchester United,1967 – Coventry City promoted as Second Division champions to the top flight for the first time in their history. This made manager and BBC Sport presenter Jimmy Hill a legend at the club, Coventrys record attendance was also set in this year – officially recorded as 51,455, against Wolverhampton Wanderers, the team that finished a close second to Coventry at the top of the table
Halifax Town A.F.C.
Halifax Town Association Football Club was an English football club, which played in the Football League from 1921–1993 and 1998–2002. The club was dissolved in 2008, but reformed that July under the name of F. C. Halifax Town, the clubs stadium was The Shay. The club was formed on 24 May 1911 at the Saddle Hotel and it initially played in the Yorkshire Combination and the Midland League. Its highest league position prior to World War II was second in 1934–35 and they finished one place off promotion from the Football League Third Division in 1971. In 1993 they were relegated to the Football Conference, the club found the Conference no easier than the fourth division. After several poor seasons with financial constraints, the club was demoralised as there seemed to be no way out. However, previous manager George Mulhall returned towards the end of the 1996–97, the next season Mulhall and Kieran ORegan made a number of additions to the squad including Jamie Paterson, Mark Bradshaw and Lee Martin to put together a title-winning team. The Shaymen were crowned champions of the Conference and thus regained Football League status, free scoring Geoff Horsfield was also the top scorer in the Conference that season, scoring 30 goals. At the start of the 1998–99 season, manager George Mulhall chose to retire, striker and top scorer Geoff Horsfield only played ten games before he was sold to Fulham for £300,000 in October 1998. Halifax made a start to their league campaign and were amongst the leaders until December, after which their results started to drop off. Although only three points off playoff positions, ORegan was sacked as manager by Chairman Jim Bown after a 0 –0 draw with Rochdale in April 1999, chris Wilder was appointed Halifax manager in July 2002. In their first season back in the Conference the Shaymen finished in eighth position, in 2005–06 the Shaymen reached the play-off final, against Hereford United at Leicester Citys Walkers Stadium on 20 May 2006. Goals from Lewis Killeen and John Grant put Halifax 2–1 ahead but Guy Ipoua levelled the score for Hereford in the 80th minute, ryan Green scored the winner for Hereford in the 109th minute and Halifax missed out on a return to the Football League. In 2007, the club was placed into administration by a local trying to buy the club. In spite of being docked 10 points for entering administration, the club survived relegation on the last day of the season. In May 2008 it had revealed that following a major error. The Supporters Trust prepared a plan to form a new club should it be required. The club moved to The Shay in 1921 and remained there until they folded, from the mid-1990s on the Shay underwent substantial development, and Halifax RLFC moved in and shared the venue
Torquay United F.C.
Torquay United Football Club is a professional association football club based in Torquay, Devon, England. The club participates in the National League, the tier of English football. They are based at Plainmoor and are managed by player-manager. The original Torquay United was formed in 1899 by a group of school-leavers under the guidance of Sergeant-Major Edward Tomney, relations between the two Torquay clubs were poor, but in 1921 matters finally came to a head. From 1923 onwards the league was split into Eastern and Western halves, in 1925, the club battled through five qualifying rounds to reach the first round proper of the FA Cup for the first time in the clubs history. Captain Percy Mackrill lead the team through two 1–1 draws before a strong Reading side won the second replay 2–0 at Plainmoor. The club then went on to lose the Southern League Championship final against the Eastern Champions Brighton & Hove Albion Reserves 4–0, finally the town of Torquay had a professional league team and had joined Plymouth and Exeter in the football league at last. The side for that first game was, Millsom, Cook, Smith, Wellock, Wragge, Conner, Mackey, Turner, Jones, McGovern, a crowd of 11,625 watched a 1–1 draw with Torquays goal coming from Bert Turner. Throughout the 1930s Torquay struggled against financial problems, such as having to replace the roof when it was blown off in 1930. They also failed to finish higher than 10th in twelve seasons, in the last few seasons before league football was suspended during the Second World War, Torquay struggled in Division Three South, finishing 20th, 20th and 19th out of 22 teams. In 1939, Torquay qualified for the final of the Third Division South Cup, however, the 1939 final was never played due to the outbreak of the Second World War. When league football was resumed in 1946, United continued to struggle, with the change of colours came a change in fortunes starting with the clubs greatest ever FA Cup moment that very season. After defeating Cambridge United 4–0 at home and Blyth Spartans 1–3 away, Torquay were drawn against Leeds United, away, in the third round of the Cup. The Torquay United versus Huddersfield Town fourth round FA Cup game at Plainmoor will always live on in the memory of those who attended the match on 29 January 1955. Torquay lost 1–0 to the higher-placed Division One club, but the attendance of 21,908 remains a Club record. Following their FA Cup heroics, in the 1956–57 season Torquay just missed out on promotion to Division Two on goal average, the season had begun well – and by April, the possibility of a first promotion to Division Two was the talk of the town. A trip to Crystal Palace for the team and over 1,500 Torquay fans travelling on the last day of the season beckoned. However, after two seasons in the Third Division they were again relegated on the last day of the campaign, with a 4–2 away defeat at Barnsley
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
World War I
World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany