Radio Times is a British weekly magazine which provides radio and television listings. It was the world's first broadcast listings magazine when it was founded in 1923 by John Reith general manager of the British Broadcasting Company became the British Broadcasting Corporation from 1927, it was published in-house by BBC Magazines from 1937 until 2011 when the BBC Magazines division was merged into Immediate Media Company. Radio Times was first issued on 28 September 1923 for the price of 2d, carrying details of BBC wireless programmes. Radio Times was a combined enterprise between the British Broadcasting Company and the publisher George Newnes, who type-set and distributed the magazine, but in 1925 the BBC assumed full editorial control, by 1937 the publication was in-house. The Radio Times established a reputation for using leading writers and illustrators, the covers from the special editions are now collectible design classics. In 1928, Radio Times announced a regular series of'experimental television transmissions by the Baird process' for half an hour every morning.
The launch of the first regular 405-line television service by the BBC was reflected with television listings in the Radio Times edition of 23 October 1936. Thus Radio Times became the first television listings magazine in the world. Only two pages in each edition were devoted to television. However, on 8 January 1937 the magazine published a lavish photogravure supplement and by September 1939, there were three pages of television listings. Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939 and television broadcasting ceased. Radio listings continued throughout the war with a reduced service, but by 1944, paper rationing meant editions were only 20 pages of tiny print on thin paper; when television resumed, the Radio Times expanded with regional editions were introduced. In 1953 the television listings, in the back of the magazine, were placed alongside the daily radio schedules and on 17 February 1957, television listings were moved to a separate section at the front with radio listings relegated to the back.
By the 1950s Radio Times had grown to be the magazine with the largest circulation in Europe, with an average sales of 8.8 million in 1955. Radio Times is published on Tuesdays and carries listings for the following Saturday through to Friday. From 20 April 1964, BBC Two starts broadcasting, the existing "BBCtv" is renamed BBC One on 1 July 1967, BBC Two becomes Europe's first colour television service is launched with the live Wimbledon coverage, two years BBC One is introduced colour service on 15 November 1969. Since Christmas 1969, a double-sized issue has been published each December containing listings for two weeks of programmes; this covered Christmas and New Year listings, but in some years these appear in separate editions, with the two-week period ending just before New Year. The cover of the'Christmas Number' dating from the time when it contained just a single week's listings features a generic festive artwork, atypical for the magazine, which since the 1970s has exclusively used photographic covers for all other issues.
By the 1970s, Radio Times took a stand with "no smoking" policies were beginning to appear for some reason and stopped cigarette advertising from September 1969 within the magazine. On 1 September 1984, the method of web-offset printing was used for the first time, the magazine became brighter and more colourful, gone were the sludgy greys of newsprint and sheets of gravure was replaced by clean blacks on white paper from leafing through although it wasn't until 2 June 1990 that the entire magazine was printed in full colour; until the deregulation of television listings on 1 March 1991, the Radio Times carried programme listings for BBC radio and television channels only, while the ITV-published magazine, TVTimes, carried television programme listings for ITV, from November 1982, Channel 4. Today both publications carry listings for all major terrestrial and satellite television channels in the United Kingdom and following deregulation, new listings magazines began to be published. After the deregulation of television listings, there was strong criticism from other listings magazines that Radio Times was advertised on the BBC, saying that it gave unfair advantage to the publication bearing "If it's on... it's in!" slogan.
The case went to court, but the outcome was that as the Radio Times had close connections with the BBC it would be allowed to be advertised by the BBC. By the early 2000s, advertisements for the publication had become sparse on the BBC; the Radio Times has not been promoted on BBC television and radio channels since 2005, following complaints by rival publications that the promotions were unfair competition. Radio Times gets with the new fresher look on 3 September 1994 as the television listings had the day's name going vertical with "today's choices" replacing "at a glance" on the left of a page, while the major revamp on 25 September 1999, which
Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Leeds has one of the most diverse economies of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city, it has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a gamma world city by World Cities Research Network. Leeds is the cultural and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire Urban Area. Leeds is served by four universities, has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy. Leeds was a small manorial borough in the 13th century, in the 17th and 18th centuries it became a major centre for the production and trading of wool, in the Industrial Revolution a major mill town. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century, Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century.
It now lies within the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.6 million. Today, Leeds has become the largest legal and financial centre, outside London with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the city's economy; the finance and business service sector account for 38% of total output with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city, including an office of the Bank of England. Leeds is the UK's third-largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy. The largest sub-sectors are engineering and publishing, food and drink and medical technology. Other key sectors include retail and the visitor economy and the creative and digital industries; the city saw several firsts, including the oldest-surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene, the 1767 invention of soda water.
Public transport and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds, the second phase of High Speed 2 will connect it to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield Meadowhall. Leeds has the third busiest railway station and the tenth busiest airport outside London; the name derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire that flows through the city. This name referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century. Bede states in the fourteenth chapter of his Ecclesiastical History, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria, that it is located in...regione quae vocatur Loidis. An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a word of uncertain origin; the term Leodensian is used, from the city's Latin name. The name has been explained as a derivative of Welsh lloed, meaning "a place".
Leeds developed as a market town in the Middle Ages as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth, white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall. Leeds handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770. Growth in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1816. In the late Georgian era, William Lupton, Lord of the Manor of Leeds, was one of a number of central Leeds landowners with the mesne lord title, some of whom, like him, were textile manufacturers. At the time of his death in 1828, Lupton's land in Briggate in central Leeds included a mill, manor house and outbuildings; the railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester and the ports of Liverpool and Hull giving improved access to international markets.
Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864. Marshall's Mill was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills. Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering and clothing manufacture. Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s, the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition; the contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds City Council's vision of building a'24-hour European city' and'capital of the north'. The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy. There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors, increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market.
Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road. Leeds was a manor and townshi
Alban Maria Johannes Berg was an Austrian composer of the Second Viennese School. His compositional style combined Romantic lyricism with twelve-tone technique. Berg was born in the third of four children of Johanna and Konrad Berg, his family lived comfortably until the death of his father in 1900. Berg was more interested in literature than music as a child and did not begin to compose until he was fifteen, when he started to teach himself music. With Marie Scheuchl, a maid fifteen years his senior in the Berg family household, he fathered a daughter, born December 4, 1902. Berg had little formal music education before he became a student of Arnold Schoenberg in October 1904. With Schoenberg, he studied counterpoint, music theory, harmony. By 1906, he was studying music full-time, his student compositions included five drafts for piano sonatas. He wrote songs, including his Seven Early Songs, three of which were Berg's first publicly performed work in a concert that featured the music of Schoenberg's pupils in Vienna that year.
The early sonata sketches culminated in Berg's Piano Sonata, Op. 1. Berg studied with Schoenberg for six years until 1911. Among Schoenberg's teaching was the idea that the unity of a musical composition depends upon all its aspects being derived from a single basic idea. Berg passed this on to his students, one of whom, Theodor W. Adorno, stated: "The main principle he conveyed was that of variation: everything was supposed to develop out of something else and yet be intrinsically different"; the Piano Sonata is an example—the whole composition is derived from the work's opening quartal gesture and its opening phrase. Berg was a part of Vienna's cultural elite during the heady fin de siècle period, his circle included the musicians Alexander von Zemlinsky and Franz Schreker, the painter Gustav Klimt, the writer and satirist Karl Kraus, the architect Adolf Loos, the poet Peter Altenberg. In 1906, Berg met daughter of a wealthy family. Despite the outward hostility of her family, the two were married on May 3, 1911.
In 1913, two of Berg's Altenberg Lieder were premièred in Vienna, conducted by Schoenberg in the infamous Skandalkonzert. Settings of aphoristic poetic utterances, the songs are accompanied by a large orchestra; the performance caused a riot, had to be halted. He withdrew the work, it was not performed in full until 1952; the full score remained unpublished until 1966. From 1915–18, Berg served in the Austro-Hungarian Army and during a period of leave in 1917, he accelerated work on his first opera, Wozzeck. After the end of World War I, he settled again in Vienna, he helped Schoenberg run his Society for Private Musical Performances, which sought to create the ideal environment for the exploration and appreciation of unfamiliar new music by means of open rehearsals, repeat performances, the exclusion of professional critics. Berg had a particular interest in the number 23. Various suggestions have been made as to the reason for this interest: that he took it from the biorhythms theory of Wilhelm Fliess, in which a 23-day cycle is considered significant, or because he first suffered an asthma attack on the 23rd of the month.
In 1924, three excerpts from Wozzeck were performed. The opera, which Berg completed in 1922, was first performed on December 14, 1925, when Erich Kleiber conducted the first performance in Berlin. Today, Wozzeck is seen as one of the century's most important works. Berg made a start on his second opera, the three-act Lulu, in 1928 but interrupted the work in 1929 for the concert aria Der Wein which he completed that summer. Der Wein presaged Lulu in a number of ways, including vocal style, orchestration and text. Other well-known Berg compositions include the Lyric Suite, shown to employ elaborate cyphers to document a secret love affair. Life for the musical world was becoming difficult in the 1930s both in Vienna and Germany due to the rising tide of antisemitism and the Nazi cultural ideology that denounced modernity. To have an association with someone, Jewish could lead to denunciation, Berg's "crime" was to have studied with the Jewish composer Arnold Schoenberg. Berg found that opportunities for his work to be performed in Germany were becoming rare, his music was proscribed and placed on the list of degenerate music.
In 1932, Berg and his wife acquired an isolated lodge, the Waldhaus on the southern shore of the Wörthersee, near Schiefling am See in Carinthia, where he was able to work in seclusion on Lulu and the Violin Concerto. At the end of 1934, Berg became involved in the political intrigues around finding a replacement for Clemens Krauss as director of the Vienna State Opera; as more of the performances of his work in Germany were cancelled by the Nazis, who had come to power in early 1933, he needed to ensure the new director would be an advocate for modernist music. Origina
Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva, near Lausanne. The German name Vivis is no longer used, it was the seat of the district of the same name until 2006, is now part of the Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut District. It is part of the French-speaking area of Switzerland. Vevey is home to the world headquarters of the international food and beverage company Nestlé, founded here in 1867. Milk chocolate was invented in Vevey by Daniel Peter in 1875, with the aid of Henri Nestlé; the residence of British American actor and comedian Charlie Chaplin was in Vevey, where he lived from 1952 until his death in 1977. A piloti settlement existed here as early as the 2nd millennium BC. Under Rome, it was known as Vibiscum, it was mentioned for the first time by the ancient Greek astronomer and philosopher Ptolemy, who gave it the name Ouikos. In the Middle Ages it was a station on the Via Francigena, it was ruled by the bishopric of Lausanne, under the Blonay family. Vevey lived through a period of prosperity after the Vaud Revolution of 1798.
In the 19th century industrial activities included mechanical engineering at the Ateliers de Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey and tobacco. Vevey has an area, as of 2009, of 2.4 square kilometers. Of this area, 0.07 km2 or 2.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.11 km2 or 4.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 2.13 km2 or 89.5 % is settled, 0.04 km2 or 1.7 % is either lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 2.9% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 51.3% and transportation infrastructure made up 26.9%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.7% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 6.7%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 0.4% is used for growing crops and 1.7% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality was the capital of the Vevey District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Vevey became the capital of the new district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut.
The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per pale Or and Azure, two Letters V interlaced counterchanged. Vevey has a population of 19,827; as of 2008, 43.2% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 16.2%. It has changed at a rate of 3.4 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, with Italian being second most common and Portuguese being third. There are 7 people who speak Romansh; the age distribution, as of 2009, in Vevey is. Of the adult population, 2,543 people or 14.1 % of the population are between 29 years old. 3,059 people or 17.0% are between 30 and 39, 2,852 people or 15.9% are between 40 and 49, 2,059 people or 11.5% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 1,516 people or 8.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 1,131 people or 6.3% are between 70 and 79, there are 806 people or 4.5% who are between 80 and 89, there are 138 people or 0.8% who are 90 and older.
As of 2000, there were 6,936 people who never married in the municipality. There were 6,966 married individuals, 1,065 widows or widowers and 1,235 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 7,830 private households in the municipality, an average of 2. Persons per household. There were 3,667 households that consist of only one person and 334 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 8,012 households that answered this question, 45.8% were households made up of just one person and there were 39 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 1,694 married couples without children, 1,754 married couples with children There were 527 single parents with a child or children. There were 149 households that were made up of unrelated people and 182 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 264 single family homes out of a total of 1,286 inhabited buildings. There were 565 multi-family buildings, along with 329 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 128 other use buildings that had some housing.
In 2000, a total of 7,752 apartments were permanently occupied, while 1,117 apartments were seasonally occupied and 430 apartments were empty. As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 6.8 new units per 1000 residents. As of 2003 the average price to rent an average apartment in Vevey was 1067.93 Swiss francs per month. The average rate for a one-room apartment was 567.76 CHF, a two-room apartment was about 787.77 CHF, a three-room apartment was about 1014.16 CHF and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 1817.64 CHF. The average apartment price in Vevey was 95.7% of the national average of 1116 CHF. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.45%. The historical population is given in the following chart: There are 14 structures in Vevey that are listed as Swiss heritage site of nat
The Oxford Companion to Music
The Oxford Companion to Music is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press. It was conceived and written by Percy Scholes and published in 1938. Since it has undergone two distinct rewritings: one by Denis Arnold, in 1983, the latest edition by Alison Latham in 2002, it is "arguably the most successful book on music produced". The first edition, a single-volume work, was produced in 1938, edited by Percy Scholes, was written entirely by him alone; the second edition, published 1939 includes a 64-page categorised List of books about music in the English language by Scholes. Wherever possible, Scholes tried to use primary source material, rather than summarizing other people's work, his preface to the First Edition describes how he played and read through thousands of sheets of music, as well as reading thousands of concert programs and studying "old literature and long-bygone musical journals". From this research, he produced about fifty-five volumes of notes.
Each of these was devoted to a separate branch of musical knowledge. He sought peer review of each of these volumes with specialists in the particular branch of musical knowledge; these volumes were broken up and re-constituted in alphabetical order. Scholes' intention was to produce a work relevant to a wide range of readers, from the professional musician to the concert-goer, "gramaphonist", or radio-listener, his work was aimed at a reader for whom it "will neither be beyond the scope of his pocket nor embarrass him by a manner of expression so technical as to add new puzzles to the puzzle which sent him to the book". The result was a work, accessible to the general reader, as well as being useful for the specialist. While scholarly and well-researched, Scholes' style was sometimes quirky and opinionated. For instance, his original articles on some of the twentieth-century composers were dismissive, as were his articles on genres such as jazz, his entry on the can-can concluded "Its exact nature is unknown to anyone connected with this Companion."
He produced several revisions prior to his death, with the last full revision being the 9th edition in 1955. The Tenth Edition, published in 1970, was a revision of Scholes' work by John Owen Ward. Ward considered it "inappropriate to change radically the characteristic rich anecdotal quality of Dr. Scholes' style." Although he brought some of the articles up to date, he left much of Scholes' distinctive work intact. A distinctive feature of this Companion is a series of "imaginative" portraits of composers created by the artist Oswald Barrett; these consist of engravings, a frontispiece, a colour reproduction of an oil painting of "Beethoven in Middle Life", described by Scholes as "the artist's personal gift to the volume". In 1983 a wholly revised two-volume work, titled The New Oxford Companion to Music, was introduced; this was edited by Denis Arnold who made extensive use of other specialist contributors, some 90 in all. The work was broader in coverage than Scholes' original, is the most extensively illustrated of the three versions.
Arnold expressed his intention of adhering to Scholes’ principles and indeed included much of Scholes’ material in the new work. He cut out much of the personal opinion and quirkiness, characteristic of the original. For instance, he increased the coverage of female composers and performers, who were totally absent from Scholes' work. There were no further revisions of this version due to its relative unpopularity and Arnold's own early death in 1986. In 2002, a third work was produced; this one, edited by Alison Latham, goes back to the single-volume format. Latham assembled her own team of over 120 contributors, some of whom had contributed to the prior edition, others drawn from her own previous editing work; this edition consists of some 7400 articles and aims to bring the work up-to-date: for example, in its coverage of areas such as electronic music and computers. The 2002 revision is more current and more affordable than its predecessor. However, it eliminates most of the illustrations; the text of the 2002 edition can be accessed online via Oxford Music Online, a portal for The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
As well as being available to individual and educational subscribers, it is available for use by members of many libraries worldwide. Arnold, Denis; the New Oxford Companion to Music: Volume 1: A-J. Oxford: OUP. ISBN 0-19-311316-3 Latham, Alison, ed.. The Oxford Companion to Music. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866212-2. OCLC 59376677. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Scholes, Percy A.. The Oxford Companion to Music: Self-indexed and with a Pronouncing Glossary. Oxford: OUP. ISBN 0-19-311306-6 Wright, Simon. "Oxford University Press and Music Publishing: A 75th Anniversary Retrospective." Brio 35, 2, p. 89-100
Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada is a federal institution tasked with acquiring and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible. It is the fourth biggest library in the world. LAC reports to Parliament through Pablo Rodríguez, the Minister of Canadian Heritage since August 28, 2018; the Dominion Archives was founded in 1872 as a division within the Department of Agriculture and was transformed into the autonomous Public Archives of Canada in 1912 and renamed the National Archives of Canada in 1987. The National Library of Canada was founded in 1953. Freda Farrell Waldon contributed to the writing of the brief which led to the founding of the National Library of Canada. In 2004, Library and Archives Canada combined the functions of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada, it was established by the Library and Archives of Canada Act, proclaimed on April 22, 2004. A subsequent Order in Council dated May 21, 2004 united the collections and personnel of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada.
Since inception LAC has reported to Parliament through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. LAC's stated mandate is: to preserve the documentary heritage of Canada for the benefit of present and future generations. LAC is expected to maintain "effective recordkeeping practices that ensure transparency and accountability". LAC's holdings include the archival records of the Government of Canada, representative private archives, 20 million books acquired through legal deposit, 24 million photographs, more than a petabyte of digital content; some of this content the book collection, university theses and census material, is available online. Many items are only available in physical form; as of May 2013 only about 1% of the collection had been digitized, representing "about 25 million of the more popular and most fragile items". The collection includes: the proclamation of the Canadian Constitution Act, which bears marks left by raindrops during a ceremony on Parliament Hill in April 1982 when Queen Elizabeth II signed it.
Genealogists account for 70% of LAC's clients. The building at 395 Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa is the main physical location where the public may access the collection in person; the building was opened on June 20, 1967. With the de-emphasis on physical visits, in-person services have been curtailed, for example since April 2012 reference services are by appointment only, the role of this building is decreasing. There are administrative offices in Gatineau and preservation and storage facilities throughout Canada for federal government records; the Preservation Centre in the city centre of Gatineau, about 10 kilometres away from the Ottawa headquarters, was designed to provide a safe environment for the long-term storage and preservation of Canada's valuable collections. It was built at a cost of CDN$107 million, the official opening took place on June 4, 1997, it is a unique building containing 48 climate-controlled preservation vaults and state-of-the-art preservation laboratories.
In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada named it one of the top 500 buildings constructed in Canada during the last millennium. A Nitrate Film Preservation Facility on the Communications Research Centre campus in Shirleys Bay, on the outskirts of Ottawa, houses Canada's cellulose nitrate film collection; the collection contains 5,575 film reels dating back to 1912, including some of the first Canadian motion pictures and photographic negatives. The film material is sensitive and requires precise temperatures for its preservation; the state-of-the-art facility, opened on June 21, 2011, is an eco-designed building featuring an environmentally friendly roof that provides better insulation and minimizes energy expenditures. A planned key activity for 2013–14 was to rehouse analogue information resources in a new state-of-the-art high-density storage facility in Gatineau, where the national newspaper collection and records of Second World War veterans will be stored; the facility will feature a high bay metal shelving system with a suitable environment to better protect Canada's published heritage.
In January 2019, Library and Archives Canada announced that negotiations for a new facility to be built next to the existing one in Gatineau were starting, with an opening date in 2022. LAC's online collection is accessible via its website and LAC provides ongoing information online via its blog, the Twitter and Facebook social networking services, the Flickr image-sharing site, the YouTube video-sharing site. RSS feeds provide links to news about LAC services and resources. A new modernized website is being developed and is scheduled for completion in 2013, with both new and old websites accessible during the transition period. In June 2004 LAC issued a discussion paper Creating a New Kind of Knowledge Institution, after consultation in