A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Canadian National Railway
Canadian National is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec that serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States. CN is Canada's largest railway, in terms of both revenue and the physical size of its rail network, is Canada's only transcontinental railway company, spanning Canada from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia across about 20,400 route miles of track. CN is a public company with 24,000 employees and as of September 2018 it had a market cap of $84 billion Canadian dollars. CN was government-owned, having been a Canadian Crown corporation from its founding to its privatization in 1995. In 2011, Bill Gates was the largest single shareholder of CN stock; the railway was referred to as the "Canadian National Railways" between 1918 and 1960, as "Canadian National"/"Canadien National" from 1960 to the present. The Canadian National Railways was incorporated on June 6, 1919, comprising several railways that had become bankrupt and fallen into federal government hands, along with some railways owned by the government.
On November 17, 1995, the federal government privatized CN. Over the next decade, the company expanded into the United States, purchasing Illinois Central Railroad and Wisconsin Central Transportation, among others. Now a freight railway, CN operated passenger services until 1978, when they were assumed by Via Rail; the only passenger services run by CN after 1978 were several mixed trains in Newfoundland, a several commuter trains both on CN's electrified routes and towards the South Shore in the Montreal area. The Newfoundland mixed trains lasted until 1988, while the Montreal commuter trains are now operated by Montreal's AMT. In response to public concerns fearing loss of key transportation links, the government of Canada assumed majority ownership of the near bankrupt Canadian Northern Railway on September 6, 1918, appointed a "Board of Management" to oversee the company. At the same time, CNoR was directed to assume management of Canadian Government Railways, a system comprising the Intercolonial Railway of Canada, National Transcontinental Railway, the Prince Edward Island Railway, among others.
On December 20, 1918, the federal government created the Canadian National Railways – a title only with no corporate powers – through a Canadian Privy Council Order in Council as a means to simplify the funding and operation of the various railway companies. The absorption of the Intercolonial Railway would see CNR adopt that system's slogan The People's Railway. Another Canadian railway, the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, encountered financial difficulty on March 7, 1919, when its parent company Grand Trunk Railway defaulted on repayment of construction loans to the federal government; the federal government's Department of Railways and Canals took over operation of the GTPR until July 12, 1920, when it too was placed under the CNR. The Canadian National Railway was organized on October 10, 1922; the bankrupt GTR itself was placed under the care of a federal government "Board of Management" on May 21, 1920, while GTR management and shareholders opposed to nationalization took legal action. After several years of arbitration, the GTR was absorbed into CNR on January 30, 1923.
In subsequent years, several smaller independent railways would be added to the CNR as they went bankrupt, or it became politically expedient to do so, however the system was more or less finalized following the addition of the GTR. Canadian National Railways was born out of both domestic urgency. Railways, until the rise of the personal automobile and creation of taxpayer-funded all-weather highways, were the only viable long-distance land transportation available in Canada for many years; as such, their operation consumed a great deal of political attention. Many countries regard railway networks as critical infrastructure and at the time of the creation of CNR during the continuing threat of the First World War, Canada was not the only country to engage in railway nationalization. In the early 20th century, many governments were taking a more interventionist role in the economy, foreshadowing the influence of economists like John Maynard Keynes; this political trend, combined with broader geo-political events, made nationalization an appealing choice for Canada.
The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 and allied involvement in the Russian Revolution seemed to validate the continuing process. The need for a viable rail system was paramount in a time of civil unrest and foreign military intervention. CN Telegraph originated as the Great North West Telegraph Company in 1880 to connect Ontario and Manitoba and became a subsidiary of Western Union in 1881. In 1915, facing bankruptcy, GNWTC was acquired by the Canadian Northern Railway's telegraph company; when Canadian Northern was nationalized in 1918 and amalgamated into Canadian National Railways in 1921, its telegraph arm was renamed the Canadian National Telegraph Company. CN Telegraphs began co-operating with its Canadian Pacific owned rival CPR Telegraphs in the 1930s, sharing telegraph networks and co-founding a teleprinter system in 1957. In 1967 the two services were amalgamated into a joint venture CNCP Telecommunications which evolved into a telecoms company. CN sold its stake of the company to CP in 1984.
In 1923 CNR's second president, Sir Henry Thornton who succeeded David Blyth Hanna, created the CNR Radio Department to provide passengers with entertainment radio reception and give the railway a competitive advantage over its rival, CP
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre federal political party in Canada. It was formed in 2003 from the merger of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Canadian Alliance, it traces its history to the original Conservative Party of Canada, formed after Confederation in 1867 and changed its name to Progressive Conservative Party in 1942. In Canadian politics, the party sits to the right of the Liberal Party of Canada. Like their federal Liberal rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", welcoming a broad variety of members; the party's leader is Andrew Scheer. From Confederation till 1942, the Conservative Party of Canada participated in numerous governments. Before 1942, the predecessors to the Conservatives had multiple names, but by 1942, the main right-wing Canadian force became known as the Progressive Conservatives. In 1957, John Diefenbaker became the first Prime Minister from the Progressive Conservative Party, remained in office until 1963.
Another Progressive Conservative government was elected after the results of the 1979 federal election, with Joe Clark becoming Prime Minister. Clark served from 1979 to 1980, when he was defeated by the Liberal Party after the 1980 federal election. In 1984, the Progressive Conservatives won with Brian Mulroney becoming Prime Minister. Mulroney was Prime Minister from 1984 to 1993, his government was marked by free trade agreements and economic liberalization; the party suffered a near complete loss after the 1993 federal election, thanks to a splintering of the right-wing. A similar result occurred in 1997, in 2000, when the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives merged, forming the Conservative Party of Canada; the unified Conservative Party favours lower taxes, small government, more decentralization of federal government powers to the provinces modeled after the Meech Lake Accord and a tougher stand on "law and order" issues.
The party won two minority governments after the 2006 federal election, a majority government in the 2011 federal election before being defeated in the 2015 federal election by a majority Liberal government. John Lynch-Staunton served as interim leader of the newly created Conservative Party of Canada from 8 December 2003 until 20 March 2004, when the party elected Stephen Harper as its first leader. Andrew Scheer was elected leader on 27 May 2017; the Deputy Leader is appointed by the Leader. The National Council is the party's national governing body, elected by the Conservative Party membership at its bi-annual meetings. A National Councillor is elected for a two-year term and cannot serve for more than three consecutive terms. Composition of the National Council is based on the following criteria: four members from a province with more than 100 seats in the House of Commons three members from a province with 52–100 seats two from any province with 26–50 seats one member from each province with 4–25 seats one member from each territory the Party leader The Chair of the Conservative Fund Canada the Executive Director.
At present, the National Council has four members from Ontario. The party president is elected by National Council following their election. Since 2016, the President of the Conservative Party has been Scott Lamb, a councillor representing British Columbia; the party President is the conduit between the National Council. Don Plett interim until 2005 John Walsh Scott Lamb The Executive Director answers to the party President, is responsible for the day-to-day management and operations of the party. From February 2009 to December 2013, the Executive Director was Dan Hilton. Dimitri Soudas was named the new Executive Director in December 2013. On 30 March 2014, Soudas was told to resign or be fired from the position after interfering with the nomination contest taking place in his fiancée's riding. In July 2014, Dustin Van Vugt was brought in as the Deputy Executive Director – a position created for him; some media agencies, such as the CBC, suggested that this was a way for Thompson to begin handing over the work for the top job to Van Vugt, until his promotion to Executive Director could be formally ratified by the party's National Council.
In October 2014, Van Vugt's position was unanimously ratified by the party's National Council, Thompson became the Chief Operations Officer. The Director of Political Operations reports to the Executive Director, is one of the most important positions within the party; the person filling this role has direct access to the party leader, due to their responsibilities for organizing the party's work on the ground and in preparing for the next election. With Stephen Harper as Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader, the Director of Political Operations has moved from party positions to the Prime Minister's and other Minister's Offices, back to the party's headquarters, depending on the identified needs. Doug Finley was the Director of Political Operations until 2009, when Finley was appointed to the Senate and Jenni Byrne Finley's Deputy, became the Director. In August 2013, Byrne left the job to become the co-Deputy Chief of Staff in the Prime Minister's O
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
An all-terrain vehicle known as a quad, three-wheeler, four-track, four-wheeler, or quadricycle, as defined by the American National Standards Institute is a vehicle that travels on low-pressure tires, with a seat, straddled by the operator, along with handlebars for steering control. As the name implies, it is designed to handle a wider variety of terrain than most other vehicles. Although it is a street-legal vehicle in some countries, it is not street-legal within most states and provinces of Australia, the United States or Canada. By the current ANSI definition, ATVs are intended for use by a single operator, although some companies have developed ATVs intended for use by the operator and one passenger; the passenger is not required to have a helmet. These ATVs are referred to as tandem ATVs; the rider sits on and operates these vehicles like a motorcycle, but the extra wheels give more stability at slower speeds. Dirt bikes are considered to be ATVs as that they were designed for off road use only.
Although most are equipped with three or four wheels, six-wheel models exist for specialized applications. Engine sizes of ATVs for sale in the United States, range from 49 to 1,000 cc. Royal Enfield built and sold the first powered quadracycle in 1893, it had many bicycle components, including handle bars. The Royal Enfield resembles a modern ATV-style quad bike but was designed as a form of horseless carriage for road use; the term "ATV" was coined to refer to non-straddle ridden six-wheeled amphibious ATVs such as the Jiger produced by the Jiger Corporation, the Amphicat produced by Mobility Unlimited Inc, the Terra Tiger produced by the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company in the mid 1960s and early 1970s. With the introduction of straddle ridden ATVs, the term AATV was introduced to define the original amphibious ATV category; the first three-wheeled ATV was the Sperry-Rand Tricart. It was designed in 1967 as a graduate project of John Plessinger at the Cranbrook Academy of Arts near Detroit.
The Tricart was straddle-ridden with a sit-in rather than sit-on style. In 1968 Plessinger sold the Tricart patents and design rights to Sperry-Rand New Holland who manufactured them commercially. Numerous small American manufacturers of 3-wheelers followed; these small manufacturers were unable to compete when larger motorcycle companies like Honda entered the market in 1969. Honda introduced their first sit-on straddle-ridden three-wheeled ATVs in 1969, which were famously portrayed in the James Bond movie, Diamonds Are Forever and other TV shows such as Magnum, P. I. and Hart to Hart. These were dubbed the US90. Influenced by earlier ATVs, it featured large balloon tires instead of a mechanical suspension. By the early 1980s, suspension and lower-profile tires were introduced; the 1982 Honda ATC200E Big Red was a landmark model. It featured both suspension and racks, making it the first utility three-wheeled ATV; the ability to go anywhere on terrain that most other vehicles could not cross soon made them popular with US and Canadian hunters, those just looking for a good trail ride.
Soon other manufacturers introduced their own models. Sales of utility machines skyrocketed. Sport models were developed by Honda, which had a virtual monopoly in the market due to effective patents on design and engine placement; the 1981 ATC250R was the first high-performance three-wheeler, featuring full suspension, a 248 cc air cooled two-stroke engine, a five-speed transmission with manual clutch, a front disc brake. For the sporting trail rider, the 1983 ATC200X was another landmark machine, it used an easy-to-handle 192 cc four-stroke, ideal for new participants in the sport. The ATC200X was the first high-performance four-stroke ATV that featured full suspension and rear disc brakes with single piston calipers, an 18-horsepower engine, sporty looks and is considered one of the best ATVs produced. Today, ATC200Xs can be found on the market in all conditions and prices, is still regarded and followed by the aftermarket community. In 1985, Honda introduced the new ATC350X; the ATC350X was another high-performance three-wheeler, similar to the ATC200X, but as an new machine.
The 350X featured a 26-horsepower oil cooled 350 cc four-stroke engine with a 4-valve head. The engine was so good, it found its way into many hybrid race four-wheelers in years; the engine was a torque monster, Honda wasn't afraid to call the 350X "the King of the Hill" in its marketing of the machine. The suspension was a step in between the all new ATC250R and the ATC200X, with 8.5 inches of travel in the front forks. The 350X featured disc brakes with dual piston brake calipers for superb stopping power. However, the 350X suffered in handling with an underbuilt chassis which made the machine unpopular with racers, except for those who chose to be different by racing a four-stroke machine as two-strokes were the engine of choice at the time; the aftermarket came out with a custom gusset kit that strengthens the frame at its weakest points for riders that wish to build a race machine. In 1986, the ATC200X got a complete redesign; the machine shared nothing in common with its predecessor than the name.
It got an all new 199 cc four-stroke engine, wh