Fages was born in Guissona, Lérida/Lleida province, Spain. In 1762 he entered the infantry in Catalonia in 1762. In May 1767 Fages, commissioned as a lieutenant in the newly formed Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia, set sail from Cádiz along with a company of light infantry and he and his men served under Domingo Elizondo in Sonora. In 1769, Fages was selected by visitador José de Gálvez to lead the portion of the Gaspar de Portolá-led expedition to found San Diego. Lieutenant Fages sailed from Guaymas to the Baja California port of La Paz, on January 9,1769, he boarded the galleon San Carlos, captained by Vicente Vila and bound for San Diego. Also on board were Franciscan friar Fernando Parrón, engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó, surgeon Pedro Prat, after sailing nearly 200 miles beyond San Diego due to cartography errors, the San Carlos doubled back south. It finally arrived in San Diego Bay on April 29, with scurvy-ridden troops, in his letter reporting to Gálvez, Fages observed of the local Kumeyaay Indians, …They appear to be docile and alert.
We have made good friends with them and we are never lacking some little rabbits, hares. We give them some glass beads, but they value very highly any kind of cloth — no matter how poor it might be — since in exchange for some that I had, I received some furs and nets. Costansó, while branding the Kumeyaay as lazy idlers, noted that they have bestowed great affection upon Don Pedro Fages and they have invited him at various times to be with their women, an expression of friendship that the rest have not merited. Fages ordered a leather target erected at a practical distance, the Indians fired their arrows, which had only a mild effect on the leather. Fages ordered his best marksmen to shoot at the same target, upon hearing the noise and seeing the destruction so close at hand, the Indians changed their expressions and some of the more timid ones left, giving very clear signs of their surprise and fear. On July 14,1769, Fages set out from San Diego with a party of 74 men on the Portolá expedition to locate Monterey Bay.
The party included Catalonian volunteers, leather-jacketed soldiers, Christian Indians from Baja California, during this time he was promoted to captain. Although the party failed to recognize Monterey Bay as they passed it, the 74 men returned exhausted to San Diego on January 24,1770, having had to slaughter and eat their mules on the return trek south. In March 1770 Felipe de Barri, in Baja California, was governor of both Baja and Alta California. But, since Monterey was far away, Fages had free rein to run Alta as acting governor, taking charge of constructing the Spanish presidio in Monterey, Fages imposed strict discipline on his soldier laborers. He decided the amount of work they had to do in a certain time, heavy rains punctuated the spring and winter of 1770-1, but Fages permitted no let-up in the work
Guaymas is a city located in Guaymas Municipality in the southwest part of the state of Sonora in northwestern Mexico. The city is located 117 km south of the capital of Hermosillo, and 242 miles from the U. S. border. The municipality is located in the Sonora Desert and has a hot, the municipality’s formal name is Guaymas de Zaragoza and the city’s formal name is the Heróica Ciudad de Guaymas. The city proper is mostly an industrial port, with nearby San Carlos being the major tourist attraction for its beaches, the city has a well-attended annual carnival, which has been held since 1888. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the now known as Guaymas was dominated by the Guaymas, Seri. In 1539, two Spanish ships, the Santa Agueda and El Trinidad, arrived in Guaymas Bay. They were commanded by Francisco de Ulloa, who called the area “the port of ports. ”Some small Jesuit missions in the area were founded in the 1610s and 1620s, the Seri strongly opposed the settlement of Europeans and resisted fiercely until 1769.
Juan María de Salvatierra and Eusebio Kino asked for permission to evangelize the area, in 1701, Salvatierra came to this area and established the Loreto mission somewhat inland from where Guaymas is now. To receive supplies by ship and evangelize the Guaymas Indians, the Jesuits founded another small mission on the bay and it was headed by Manuel Diaz. The Seri repeatedly attacked the San José mission, forcing it to be abandoned, the last time this mission was abandoned was in 1759. In 1767, Viceroy Marqués de Croix ordered a military offensive. After doing so, the Spanish colonials built a fort with four towers in Guaymas. No traces of the fort today, but the San José mission is marked by a church located on the road leading to Empalme. Around the same time, the colonists formally mapped the Guaymas Bay, despite the decree, no colonists settled there until the early 19th century. In the late 18th and early 19th century, there was only one inhabitant in Guaymas, called “Tio Pepe”, who was said to be a drunk.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the village began to be populated by farmers and ranchers, farming was on a subsistence level. In 1811, commercial traffic was authorized, and customs were established in 1823. Guaymas received the name San Fernando de Guaymas in 1820, ships visited the bay intermittently but only one house was here for customs purposes
New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy.
Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540
Miquelets or Micalets were irregular Catalan and Valencian mountain light troops. They enjoyed a certain prominence in the wars in the Iberian Peninsula during the 17th and 18th centuries, the name is a diminutive of Michael, it is claimed it comes from Miquel or Miquelot de Prats, a Catalan mercenary captain in the service of Cesare Borgia. The term was used for many unconnected groups of Catalans who took up arms in many wars, regiments of Miquelets were integrated in the Spanish army and fought in other places of the Spanish Empire, outside Spain. For example, the First Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia and its captain, Pere dAlberní i Teixidor, received military decorations and even was appointed Interim Governor of California in 1800. The police forces of the governments of Biscay and Gipuzkoa were known as Miqueletes. Their homologous police forces in Álava and Navarre, called Miñones and Policía foral, managed to survive beyond the Spanish Civil War for the siding of these provinces with the military uprising
Monterrey, is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, in Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation, Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the base of many significant international corporations. It is one of the wealthiest cities in Mexico with a GDP PPP of 130.7 billion dollars in 2012, Monterreys GDP PPP per capita is of approximately 32,000 dollars. It is considered a Beta World City and competitive, rich in history and culture, Monterrey is considered one of the most developed cities in the entire country and often regarded as the most americanized in Mexico. A. Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery and Heineken, which features Norteño capital and Grupo ALFA, Monterrey is located in northeast Mexico, at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey starts in 1596, with its founding by Diego de Montemayor, in the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center.
With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced a great industrial growth, prior to the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation state, and the population instead consisted of some indigenous semi-nomad groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey, Huachichiles and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as the Extremadura Valley, in 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey. The New Kingdom of León extended westwards from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, Monterrey was the point of emigration from Europe, people from Portugal, France, Russia went to Monterrey seeing it as a good place to live in. Most of the Monterrey people descent from a creole Spanish heritage, during the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens.
The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio and from Saltillo to the center of the country, tampicos port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the foreign colonies. In 1824, the New Kingdom of León became the State of Nuevo León, in 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling U. S. forces during the first few advances on the city, the battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center. Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua, during the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry.
In 1986, several games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup were hosted. In 1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused great damage to the city, the conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperation
Mexico City, or City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an alpha global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas and it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities, the 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The Greater Mexico City has a domestic product of US$411 billion in 2011. The city was responsible for generating 15. 8% of Mexicos Gross Domestic Product, as a stand-alone country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America—five times as large as Costa Ricas and about the same size as Perus. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, Mexico City served as the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire.
After independence from Spain was achieved, the district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them, in recent years, the local government has passed a wave of liberal policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. On January 29,2016, it ceased to be called the Federal District and is now in transition to become the countrys 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. According to legend, the Mexicas principal god, Huitzilopochtli indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco, when the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.
After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the native peoples. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him, the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died, the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521, for three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island, the Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order and he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown
The Pima /ˈpiːmə/ are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. They are closely related to other people, the Ak-Chin Oodham. They are related to the Sobaipuri, whose descendants reside on the San Xavier Indian Reservation or Wa, k, and in the Salt River Indian Community. Together with the kindred Tohono Oodham of Eastern Papagueria, and the Hia C-ed Oodham of the Western Papagueria, the Akimel Oodham form the Upper Ootham or Upper Pima. The short name, Pima, is believed to have come from the phrase pi añi mac or pi mac, meaning I dont know, the latter referred to them as the Pima. This term was adopted by English speakers, traders and settlers, the Pima Indians called themselves Othama until the first account of interaction with non-Native Americans was recorded. Spanish missionaries recorded Pima villages known as Kina and Uturituc, European Americans corrupted the miscommunication into Pimos, which was adapted to Pima river people.
The Akimel OOtham are a subgroup of the Upper Ootham or Upper Pima and they are thought to be culturally descended from the group classified in archaeology as the Hohokam. The term Hohokam is a derivative of the Ootham word Huhugam, the Pima Alto or Upper Pima groups were subdivided by scholars on the basis of cultural and linguistic differences into two main groupings, One was known commonly as the Pima or River Pima. Since the late 20th century, they have called by their own name, or autonym, Akimel Ootham Akimel Ootham Onk Akimel Oodham. Keli Akimel Ootham, now known as the Gila River Indian Community Ak-Chin OOdham, Ak-Chin Indian Community Sobaipuri, in the early 18th century, they were gradually driven out of the lower San Pedro River valley. In the middle of the century, their settlements along the upper San Pedro River were broken up by Arivaipa. They moved west, seeking refuge among the Tohono Oodham and Akimel Oodham, the other people was known commonly as the Papago or Desert Pima.
The people are now known by their own name or autonym, Tohono Oodham, the neighboring Akimel Oodham called them Pahpah Au-Authm or Ba, bawĭkoʼa - eating tepary beans, which was pronounced Papago by the Spanish. The villages were set up as a group of houses with familial groups sharing a central ramada. Brush olaskis were built around this central area, the Ootham are matrilocal, with daughters and their husbands living with and near the daughters mother. Familial groups tended to consist of extended families, the Akimel Ootham lived seasonally in temporary field houses in order to tend their crops. The Oodham language, variously called Oʼodham ñeʼokĭ, Oʼodham ñiʼokĭ or Oʼotham ñiok, is spoken by all Oodham groups, there are certain dialectal differences, but they are mutually intelligible and all Oodham groups can understand one another
New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico.
The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico.
New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the state
Tepic is the capital and largest city of the western Mexican state of Nayarit. It is located in the part of the state, at 21°30′30″N 104°53′35″W. It stands at an altitude of 915 metres above sea level, on the banks of the Río Mololoa, nearby are the extinct Sangangüey volcano and its crater lake. Tepic is the urban center of this rich agricultural region, major crops include sugarcane, tobacco. The city was founded in 1531 as Villa del Espíritu Santo de la Mayor España, Tepic has the second largest indigenous population in ths State of Nayarit, with 4.375. The most prominent among them are the Huichol, Cora 527, catholicism is the most prominent religion in Tepic with 94, 2% of the population. Juan Escutia, Boy hero of the Battle of Chapultepec, born in Tepic, between 1828 and 1832, on the morning of 13 September 1847, he fought to prevent invading U. S. forces from capturing Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City. After a brave defense, he is reported to have wrapped himself in the national flag, luis Ernesto Franco, Mexican actor Nayarit had small stadiums built for football and baseball.
Both now demolished, they have a project to make new and bigger stadiums, there are multiple football fields and places to play cascaritas, indoor football courts, a basketball center and gym, several volleyball courts, and a bowling alley. In addition to sports, in the citys main park there is an olympic swimming pool. In Tepic, tennis is a sport, but the most popular is soccer. The city has a bullring, as do most Mexican cities, Tepic has several state teams, one or more for each sport. Both the soccer and the teams are named Coras. Futsal is played in the city. Tepic has a subtropical climate, with most rain falling in the wet season from June to October
Irregular military is any non-standard military, that is, distinct from that of the regular army. Being defined by exclusion, there is significant variance in what comes under the term and it can refer to the type of military organization, or to the type of tactics used. An irregular military organization is one which is not part of the army organization. Without standard military unit organization, various more general names are used, such organizations may be called a troop, unit, band. Irregulars are soldiers or warriors that are members of these organizations and this applies to irregular troops, irregular infantry and irregular cavalry. Irregular warfare is warfare employing the tactics used by irregular military organizations. This involves avoiding large-scale combat, and focusing on small, hit, the words regular and irregular have been used to describe combat forces for hundreds of years, usually with little ambiguity. Due to a chain of command requirements, the regular army is very well defined.
In cases where the legitimacy of the army or its opponents is questioned, the Third Geneva Convention of 1949, uses regular armed forces as a critical distinction. The ICRC provided commentary saying that armed forces satisfy four Hague Conventions conditions. The term irregular military describes the how and what, but it is common to focus on the why. Bypassing the legitimate military and taking up arms is an extreme measure, the motivation for doing so is often used as the basis of the primary label for any irregular military. Different terms come in and out of fashion, based on political and emotional associations that develop, here is a list of such terms, organized more or less from oldest to latest. Auxiliaries - foreign or allied troops supplementing the regular army, organized from provincial or tribal regions, in the Imperial Roman army it became common to maintain a number of auxiliaries about equal to the legionaries. Levies - feudal peasants and freemen liable to be called up for military duty.
Revolutionary — someone part of a revolution, whether military or not, Guerrilla — someone who uses unconventional military tactics, tends to refer to groups engaged in open conflict rather than underground resistance. Term coined during the Peninsula War in Spain against France, franc-tireur — French irregular forces during the Franco-Prussian War. But is used in legal cases as a synonym for unprivileged combatant
Within Spain there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the countrys complex history and diverse culture. There are several commonly spoken languages, most notably Basque. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain, the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of languages, with the exception of Basque. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads, in the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was conquered. In parallel, a wave of emigration began to the Americas began with over 16 million people emigrating to the Americas during the colonial period. In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas, particularly Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico, as a result, Spanish-descendants in Latin America number in the hundreds of millions.
Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people, the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is became increasingly diverse due to recent immigration, the earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35, 000–40,000 years ago. In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC, initially settling along the Mediterranean coast, celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age. Some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain. The seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries, the Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought mainly in what is now Spain and Portugal.
The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces, hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, the Suebi became the first Germanic kingdom to convert officially to Roman Catholicism in 447 AD. under king Rechiar. After two centuries of domination by the Visigothic Kingdom, the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by a Muslim force under Tariq Bin Ziyad in 711 and this army consisted mainly ethnic Berbers from the Ghomara tribe, which were reinforced by Arabs from Syria once the conquest was complete. Muslim Iberia became part of the Umayyad Caliphate and would be known as Al-Andalus, the Berbers of Al Andalus revolted as early as 740 AD, halting Arab expansion across the Pyrenees into France