Perennial rice are varieties of long-lived rice that are capable of regrowing season after season without reseeding. Although these varieties are genetically distinct and will be adapted for different climates and cropping systems, their lifespan is so different from other kinds of rice that they are collectively called perennial rice. Perennial rice—like many other perennial plants—can spread by horizontal stems below or just above the surface of the soil but they reproduce sexually by producing flowers and seeds; as with any other grain crop, it is the seeds that are eaten by humans. Perennial rice is one of several perennial grains that have been proposed, researched or are being developed, including perennial wheat and sorghum. Agronomists have argued that increasing the amount of agricultural landscapes covered at any given time with perennial crops is an excellent way to stabilize and improve the soil, provide wildlife habitat. Perennial rice breeding was initiated at the International Rice Research Institute and are being developed at the Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, People's Republic of China, other institutions, but are not yet available for distribution.
Domesticated Asian rice, Oryza sativa is a short-lived plant. Most cultivars die after producing seeds, though some can regrow and produce a second crop under favorable conditions. In regions with mild climates, two or three crops of rice may be grown each year. Except for ratoon crops, this means that the dead stalks must be removed, the soil cultivated, new seed sown every few months. In contrast, the wild ancestor of Asian rice, Oryza rufipogon lives for many years, setting seed each year and spreading vegetatively. In addition to these perennial types, some O. rufipogon populations are annuals or intermediate in lifespanOther wild species in the genus Oryza are perennial. While perennial Oryza rufipogon spreads vegetatively by above-ground stems, O. longistaminata, O. officinalis, australiensis, O. rhizomatis spread by underground stems. Farm fields those in the humid tropics, that have been cleared of vegetation or plowed are vulnerable to soil and nutrient loss through wind or water erosion, soil compaction, decline in soil organic matter and microbial biomass.
Eroded fields become less productive and the soil particles and dissolved nutrients cause environmental problems downstream, including hypoxia in oceans and rivers and the silting of reservoirs and waterways. Perennial plants regrow after being harvested, re-establishing a protective cover; the fields do not need to be plowed after the initial planting. Researchers at The International Rice Research Institute believed that perennial rice would "improve the sustainability of food production in the hilly uplands and downstream." A high-yielding, perennial cereal could allow poor farmers around the world to produce food on a plot of land indefinitely. Many subsistence farmers clear plots in the forest for their crops. Once the soil and its nutrients have washed away, the plot is abandoned and a new piece of forest is slashed and burned. Forest may regenerate on the abandoned plot, or weedy grasses may dominate. Environmental impacts of this cropping system include loss of biodiversity, carbon dioxide emissions, increased runoff and decreased rainfall.
Deforestation could be reduced by practices that conserve soil productivity Drought resistance: Annual rice has a shallow root system and is drought susceptible. A long-lived plant has time to develop a deep and extensive root system making it theoretically capable of accessing more moisture than an annual plant. Tilled soil dries out more than untilled Resist weed invasion: Weed pressure has increased in upland rice systems as the fallow period has shortened. Ecologist Jack Ewel wrote: "Weeds are recognized as a major impediment to continuous cropping in the humid tropics, fields are abandoned more because uncontrollable weed populations are anticipated than because of declining fertility or pest buildups." Grassland restoration with perennials results in fewer annual weeds and perennial grasses, sown at appropriate densities, can out-compete perennial weeds once they are established. Plant nutrition: While shallow rooted species, such as rice obtain most of their nutrients from the topsoil, deep rooted perennials can obtain significant proportion of their phosphorus from the subsoil.
"Deep roots are important in nutrient-poor substrates because they increase the volume of soil exploited by the vegetation". Reduce the need for transplanting and other backbreaking labor. More efficient use of applied fertilizer Improved habitat for pests. If fields are not left bare for a portion of the year and insects populations may increase. Burning of the stubble of perennial rice could reduce these populations, but burning may not be permitted in some areas. Furthermore and insects living underground would survive burning, whereas tillage disrupts their habitat. Makes crop rotation more difficult. Crop rotations with perennial systems are possible, but the full rotation will take longer; the slower pace of rotation—compared with annual crops—could allow a greater buildup of pathogens, pests or weeds in the perennial phase of the rotation. Builds soil organic matter at the expense of plant productivity. In the absence of tillage, in soils with depleted organic matter, crops with large root systems may build up organic matter to the point that nearly all of the soil nitrogen and phosphorus is immobilized.
When this happens, productivity may decline until either the organic
Celia Pavey, known professionally as Vera Blue, is an Australian singer-songwriter signed with Mercury Records Australia, part of Universal Music Australia. Her folk-inspired album This Music peaked at number 14 on the Australian ARIA Charts in July 2013. Pavey sings, plays the guitar and the violin, she placed third in season 2 of The Voice Australia. During the 2013 season of The Voice Australia, Pavey auditioned while playing the guitar and received acclaim from the judges and audience, her first audition clip of Simon & Garfunkel's "Scarborough Fair / Canticle" has amassed over 9 million views online. She placed third in the competition. Pavey released her debut studio album This Music in July 2013, which peaked at number 14 in Australia. In 2013, Pavey was nominated for Cosmopolitan Magazine's Fun Fearless Female Awards. Celia Pavey released her debut EP Bodies on 29 August 2014, produced by Eric J. Dubowsky. Pavey toured the east coast of Australia in support of the EP. In August 2015, Pavey announced that she would be releasing music under her new project'Vera Blue'.
Her EP entitled Fingertips was released on 13 May 2016. It features five tracks, including the two singles "Hold" and "Settle". In 2016, she was featured on Australian rapper Illy's song "Papercuts", which peaked at #2 on the ARIA singles charts, her single "Hold" peaked at number 5 on the US Spotify viral top 50 chart and number 1 on the Australian Viral 50 chart. In February 2017, Vera Blue released "Private". In June 2017, Vera Blue announced the release of her second studio album Perennial; the album was peaked at number 6 on the ARIA Charts. Her song "Regular Touch" placed at number 15 on triple j's 2017 Hottest 100. On 26 October 2018, Vera Blue released the single "All The Pretty Girls" after premiering the song a day before on Australian radio station Triple J, she released the live album Lady Powers Live at the Forum. In February 2019, Vera Blue released "Like I Remember You" in partnership with Greenpeace. Describing her involvement, Celia stated "I’m lending my voice to the campaign to stop oil drilling in the Great Australian Bight - for the love of our oceans...
I feel a deep connection to our oceans and I know that the seafloor is no place for risky oil drilling". Vera Blue supported Conrad Sewell on his Australian tour September 2015. In April and May 2016 Vera Blue supported Matt Corby on his Telluric tour. In July 2016 Vera Blue supported Broods on their Australian tour. Vera Blue's own Australian headline Fingertips tour was completed in May 2016, with all 8 dates around the country sold out. Vera Blue's second headline tour commenced in August through to October 2016, hitting metropolitan and regional cities. Vera Blue supported Flume at the 2016 Splendour in the Grass Festival, performing his number one hit Never Be Like You. The'Private' Tour was announced on 16 February 2017 and toured Australia in support of her released single, "Private". After the rising popularity of March 2018 single "Lady Powers", Vera Blue set off on her biggest Australian tour, titled'Lady Powers' in March and June 2018; as lead artist As featured artist Other appearances Official website Instagram Facebook Twitter
Perennial sunflower is a crop of sunflowers that are developed by crossing wild perennial and domestic annual sunflower species. Annual sunflower is a major oilseed crop. Genes from wild perennial relatives may extend the growing season; these upgrades means future varieties with better soil conservation. Globally, sunflowers are the fourth most important oil crop. Most of the sunflower seed crop is crushed for oil, most of the oil is consumed by humans. A major byproduct of crushing is an excellent feed for livestock. A tiny proportion of the global sunflower crop is directly eaten as kernels. There are 82 species of all native to North America. Of these, 38 are perennials. Sunflower breeders have crossed many of these species with the crop sunflower because they are a source of useful genes. Perennial sunflowers survive the winter by storing food in underground freezing-tolerant stems called rhizomes. Rhizomes enable a plant to spread into new territory. Tubers are modified rhizomes. Native Americans domesticated the wild perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus by selecting individuals with larger tubers.
This crop plant was grown for its tubers and not for its seed. The perennial sunflowers being developed as an oilseed crop by modern plant breeders may have tubers, but they will not be harvested. Digging tubers is ecologically sustainable on a small scale. On a large scale, annually disturbing the soil makes it vulnerable to soil erosion. Avoiding annual tillage is one of the main motivations for developing perennial grain crops. Many sunflower species can be artificially hybridized but one group of wild perennial species cross, the hexaploids are easy to cross. Scientists are using this group to make “bridging crosses” that will bring together the genes from the crop sunflower and several other perennial species. Researchers at The Land Institute have made many tetraploid hybrids like the ones shown here. More than 50 are known to be winter-hardy; these plants are remarkably diverse in appearance, including variation for head size, leaf shape, height. Plant breeders at The University of Minnesota have made similar tetraploid hybrids
Perennial is the second studio album by Australian folk musician Vera Blue. The album was announced on 15 June 2017, released on 21 July 2017. Upon announcement, Vera Blue said: "Perennial is a term for plants that come back year after year, I like to relate that to memory and emotions. It's. It's just part of life." The album was recorded between Sydney and Los Angeles and is arranged into three chapters which chronologically trace the development of the songwriter. Vera Blue promoted the album with a national tour across Australia from July to September 2017. Cameron Adams from the Herald Sun said: "Pavey and her creative partners Andy and Thom Mak fire up a deep house beat, where the bass goes low while Pavey's voice hovers above, detailing how with a few billion humans on the earth she can afford to be choosy. "Magazine" and "Regular Touch" are what you could call bangers — it's as if Pavey is cutting out the middle man and remixing herself... and it works." He added: ""First Week" has flashbacks to her Simon and Garfunkel origins, before the gentle verses are punctured by an epic chorus that sounds like New Order playing a gig in a church.
Yet there's still gorgeous harmonies and melodies in the mix and personal lyrics about a bespoke heartbreak song. "Said Goodbye to Your Mother" captures Pavey's precise way with words, a bruised relationship post-mortem, as raw musically as it is while "Fools" follows the Troye Sivan organic electronic blueprint in style. "Pedestal" secures a sweet spot between Kate Bush and Radiohead... But there's brutally tender moments like piano ballad "We Used To" and "Mended" — which manages to pull off being both anthemic and haunting all at once". Annabel Ross from Rolling Stone said "There’s nothing subdued about the dubby organ chorus on "First Week", or the calamitous, whirring sirens on "Private", with Andy and Thom Mak producing, it’s all reasonably tasteful, if reeking a little of artifice. Pavey’s lyrics, are undoubtedly hers. She’s been through a breakup and spends a good few tracks singing about it." Adding "Pavey needn’t forget that her unvarnished voice has always been her biggest asset."Haydon Benfield from Renowned for Sound said "Pavey hasn’t sought to reinvent the wheel she rolled out with the EP.
If anything, she has doubled down on the formula that proved so successful last year." Adding "Knowing that her voice is the drawcard, recognising the value in restraint, Pavey selectively deploys the gorgeous vocal harmonies and layers, the surprising combinations of these with the music, throughout Perennial." Ross Maurice from Beat said "While there is a stylistic distinctiveness between individual tracks, the album is cohesive overall. Perennial is an ambitious debut, it follows a narrative of the initial rawness of a relationship, transformed into a celebration of renewal and vivacity."
Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Society
Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Society is a large national charity in the United Kingdom. It operates under the working name Perennial. Founded in 1839, Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Society is based in Leatherhead, is a registered charity under English and Scottish law, its activities include support for people in the horticultural trade, education in horticulture and preservation of gardens. Perennial maintains two gardens open to the public: York Gate Garden at Adel near Leeds Fullers Mill Garden at West Stow near Bury St Edmunds in SuffolkIn 2015 Sir Roy Strong announced that he would bequeath The Laskett Gardens in Herefordshire to the Society. Royal Horticultural Society Official website
A perennial grain is a grain crop that lives and remains productive for two or more years, rather than growing for only one season before harvest, like most grains and annual crops. While many fruit and forage crops are long-lived perennial plants, all major grain crops presently used in large-scale agriculture are annuals or short-lived perennials grown as annuals. Scientists from several nations have argued that perennial versions of today's grain crops could be developed and that these perennial grains could make grain agriculture more sustainable; the 2005 Synthesis Report of the United Nations’ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment program labeled agriculture the “largest threat to biodiversity and ecosystem function of any single human activity.” Perennial grains could reduce this threat, according to the following logic: Most agricultural land is devoted to the production of grain crops: cereal and legume crops occupy 75% of US and 69% of global croplands. These grains include such crops as wheat and maize.
All these grain crops are annual plants which are planted into cultivated soil. Frequent cultivation puts soil at risk of degradation; this "central dilemma" of agriculture in which current food production undermines the potential for future food production could be escaped by developing perennial grain crops that do not require tilling the soil each year. No-till technology enables short-lived crops to be grown with less intense tillage, but perennial plants provide the most protection for the soil. Three ways of developing perennial grain crops have been proposed: The primary gene pools of several domesticated grain crops include perennial types though these crops are grown as annuals. Pigeon pea is a large-seeded grain legume with both long-season varieties. If the highest-yielding annual varieties were hybridized with the longest-living varieties, robustly perennial, high-yielding varieties could be developed; the secondary or tertiary gene pools of most domesticated grain crops include perennial species.
Gene exchange between such species is possible, though sometimes difficult. Genes enhancing the agronomic traits of wild perennials, increased seed size, for example, could be brought in from domestic grain relatives. Alternately, genes increasing the lifespan of domesticated grains could be obtained by crossing with wild perennial relatives. For example, domestic Asian rice can be crossed with wild perennial rice species to exchange genes for many traits. Wild perennial plants with oil-, carbohydrate- or protein-rich seeds could be domesticated without any wide hybridization. Although our grain crops were all domesticated thousands of years ago, modern genetic theory and molecular genetic techniques may accelerate the process compared with the original process of domestication; the Rodale Institute and The Land Institute have each had plant breeding projects in which a wild, perennial grass, Thinopyrum intermedium was subjected to recurrent cycles of selection for improved grain traits.. The land Institute since has begun marketing their work under the trade name Kernza®.
Several claims have been published: Greater access to resources through a longer season. Perennial plants emerge earlier than annuals in the spring and go dormant in the autumn well after annual plants have died; the longer growing season allows greater interception of sunlight and rainfall. For example, In Minnesota, annual soybean seedlings emerge from the soil in early June. By this time perennial alfalfa has grown so much. Therefore, by the time a soybean crop has just begun to photosynthesize, a field of alfalfa has produced about 40% of the season’s production. Greater access to resources through a deeper rooting zone. Most long—lived plants construct larger, deeper root systems than short-lived plants adapted to the same region. Deeper roots enable perennials to "mine" a larger volume of soil each year. A larger volume of soil available for exploitation per unit of cropland means a larger volume of soil water serves as a reservoir for periods without rainfall. More efficient use of soil nutrients.
Leaching of nitrogen from fertilizer has been found to be much lower under perennial crops such as alfalfa than annual crops such as maize. A similar phenomenon is seen in unfertilized fields harvested for wild hay. While adjacent wheat fields required annual inputs of fertilizer, the wild perennial grasses continued to produce nitrogen-rich hay for 75 to 100 years with no appreciable decline in productivity or soil fertility; the larger root systems of the perennial plants and the microbial community they support intercept and cycle nutrients passing through the system much more efficiently than do the ephemeral root systems of crop plants. Sustainable production on marginal lands. Cassman et al. wrote that for large areas in poor regions of the world, “annual cereal cropping …is not to be sustainable over the longer term because of severe erosion risk. Perennial crops and agroforestry systems are better suited to these environments.” Current perennial crops and agroforestry systems do not produce grain.
Grain provides greater food security than forage or fruit because it can be eaten directly by humans and it can be stored for consumption during the winter or dry season. Reduced Soil erosion U. S. Forest Service et al. cite perennial grasses as a preventative for soil erosion. Perennials of all kinds establish thick root systems which tie up soil and prevent surface erosion by wind and water. Since water runoff is slowed, it has a longer time to enter the groundwater system. N
A perennial candidate is a political candidate who runs for an elected office but wins. The term is not extended to incumbent politicians who defend their seats repeatedly. Perennial candidates can vary in nature; some are independents who lack the support of the major political parties in an area or are members of alternative parties. Others may be mainstream candidates who can win a party's nomination, but because their district is gerrymandered or a natural safe seat for another party, the candidate never gets elected. Still others may run in primary elections for a party's nomination and lose repeatedly. Numerous perennial candidates, although not all, run with the full knowledge of their inability to win elections and instead use their candidacy for satire, to advance non-mainstream political platforms, or to take advantage of benefits afforded political candidates. José Saúl Wermus a.k.a. Jorge Altamira, leader of the trotskyist Workers' Party, has run for President five times, his best performance was with 2.30 % of the votes.
Charles Bellchambers contested the Division of Barton six times between 1966 and 1987 polling a negligible proportion of the vote. Alex Bhathal, a social worker, has unsuccessfully stood for the Greens in the Division of Batman six times between 2001 and 2017, increasing the Greens' percentage of the vote from 4.60% in 1998 to 39.49% in 2017. Ben Buckley, a farmer, has unsuccessfully contested Gippsland in the House of Representatives on 11 occasions, he first contested the seat in 1984, has contested every election since 2001. An independent on six occasions, Buckley ran as a One Nation candidate in 2004, has run as a Liberal Democrat in the past four elections, his best result came in 2010. Shirley de la Hunty, a multiple Olympic gold medallist in athletics, unsuccessfully contested six state elections in Western Australia and seven federal elections, her candidacies spanned from 1971 to 1996, included runs for the lower and upper houses at both state and federal level. She stood a number of times for the Australian Democrats, while the rest of her runs were made as an independent candidate.
Teresa van Lieshout, a resident of Perth, has unsuccessfully contested seven state and federal elections standing for various constituencies in Western Australia. She has stood for the Parliament of Western Australia as a One Nation candidate at the 2005 election, as an independent at the 2006 Victoria Park by-election, 2013 state election, 2014 Vasse by-election. For Federal Parliament, she ran as an independent at the 2004 election and 2014 special senate election, as a Protectionist candidate at the 2013 election. In August 2015, she announced she would be contested an eighth election, the 2015 Canning by-election. Teresa stood for the Senate in NSW in the 2016 Federal Election, as an independent in the 2018 Batman By Election. Bruno Amoussou, leader of the Social Democratic Party, ran for President four times. Due to the complex and intricate political system in Brazil concerning political parties, there are more than 30 political parties. In this scenario, it is useful to have hopeless candidates who can make a good number of votes and beef up the overall votes count of a party.
As a consequence, there are thousands of small perennial candidates for local elections around the country, whose sole purpose is helping others get elected ask for a job in the elected government structure. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva ran for President of Brazil in 1989, 1994 and 1998, ranking second votes on each occasion, he won by landslide in 2002, was reelected in 2006. José Maria Eymael, a fringe political figure, ran for the Presidency four times, he unsuccessfully ran for mayor of São Paulo in 1985 and 1992, though he won two terms on the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil, from 1987 to 1995. Rui Costa Pimenta and founder of the Trotskyist Workers' Cause Party, ran for the Presidency in 2002, 2010 and 2014, he has placed last in all his runs, with his best performance being 0.04% of votes in 2002. Vera Guasso, labor union leader and member of the Unified Socialist Workers Party, ran for the Porto Alegre city assembly, mayor of Porto Alegre, the Brazilian Senate and other positions in a non-stop serial candidacy from the early 90s on.
In her best results, she had numbers of votes in local Porto Alegre elections similar to those of lesser-voted elected candidates, but did not get a seat due to her party's overall voting being small. PSTU traditionally enters elections with no visible chance to "put a leftist set of points in discussion" and "build the party" but has achieved some expressive numbers. Michael Baldasaro of the pro-marijuana Church of the Universe has run on numerous occasions for positions at various levels. Douglas Campbell has run as a fringe candidate for the House of Commons in the 1960s, the leadership of both the Ontario and federal New Democratic Party in the 1970s and 1980s, Mayor of North York, Ontario, he ran for Mayor of Toronto in 2000, 2003 and 2006. Ross Dowson, leader of the Canadian Trotskyist group the Revolutionary Workers Party ran for Mayor of Toronto nine times in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, his best result wa