Perennial plant

A perennial plant or perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. Some sources cite perennial plants being plants; the term is used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are technically perennials. Perennials—especially small flowering plants—that grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, return in the spring from their rootstock, are known as herbaceous perennials. However, depending on the rigors of local climate, a plant, a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings or from divisions. Tomato vines, for example, live several years in their natural tropical/subtropical habitat but are grown as annuals in temperate regions because they don't survive the winter. There is a class of evergreen, or non-herbaceous, including plants like Bergenia which retain a mantle of leaves throughout the year.

An intermediate class of plants is known as subshrubs, which retain a vestigial woody structure in winter, e.g. Penstemon; the local climate may dictate whether plants are treated as perennials. For instance, many varieties of Fuchsia are shrubs in warm regions, but in colder temperate climates may be cut to the ground every year as a result of winter frosts; the symbol for a perennial plant, based on Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, is, the astronomical symbol for the planet Jupiter. Perennial plants can be short-lived or they can be long-lived, as are some woody plants like trees, they include a wide assortment of plant groups from ferns and liverworts to the diverse flowering plants like orchids and grasses. Plants that flower and fruit only once and die are termed monocarpic or semelparous. However, most perennials are polycarpic. Perennials grow structures that allow them to adapt to living from one year to the next through a form of vegetative reproduction rather than seeding; these structures include bulbs, woody crowns, rhizomes plus others.

They might have specialized stems or crowns that allow them to survive periods of dormancy over cold or dry seasons during the year. Annuals produce seeds to continue the species as a new generation while the growing season is suitable, the seeds survive over the cold or dry period to begin growth when the conditions are again suitable. Many perennials have developed specialized features that allow them to survive extreme climatic and environmental conditions; some have adapted to survive cold temperatures. Those plants tend to invest a lot of resource into their adaptations and do not flower and set seed until after a few years of growth. Many perennials produce large seeds, which can have an advantage, with larger seedlings produced after germination that can better compete with other plants; some annuals produce many more seeds per plant in one season, while some perennials are not under the same pressure to produce large numbers of seeds but can produce seeds over many years. Dividing perennial plants is something that gardeners do around the months of October.

The point of doing the division at this time is to allow 6 weeks for adequate root growth prior to the ground reaching a freezing temperature. Due to the leaves falling from trees, as well as the excessive amount of rain received in most places during the fall weeks, the ground has adequate moisture for rapid growth; each type of plant must be separated differently. However, plants such as Irises have a root system known as a Rhizomes, these root systems should be planted with the bulb of the plant just above ground level, with leaves from the following year showing; the point of dividing perennials is to increase the amount of a single breed of plant in your garden. The more you divide your perennial plants every year, the more vast your garden will grow. In warmer and more favorable climates, perennials grow continuously. In seasonal climates, their growth is limited to the growing season. In some species, perennials retain their foliage all year round. Other plants are deciduous perennials, for example, in temperate regions a perennial plant may grow and bloom during the warm part of the year, with the foliage dying back in the winter.

In many parts of the world, seasonality is expressed as wet and dry periods rather than warm and cold periods, deciduous perennials lose their leaves in the dry season. With their roots protected below ground in the soil layer, perennial plants are notably tolerant of wildfire. Herbaceous perennials are able to tolerate the extremes of cold in temperate and Arctic winters, with less sensitivity than trees or shrubs. Perennial plants can be differentiated from annuals and biennials in that perennials have the ability to remain dormant over long periods of time and continue growth and reproduction; the meristem of perennial plants communicates with the hormones produced due to environmental situations and stage of development to begin and halt the ability to grow or flower. There is a distinction between the ability to grow and actual task of growth. For example, most trees regain the ability to grow in the midst of winter but do not initiate physical growth until the spring and summer months.

The start of dormancy can be seen in perennials plant


WPUT was a radio station licensed to Brewster, New York, United States. The station was operated by Townsquare Media; the station operated on a Class D license and was in operation during daytime hours only, to protect Class-A clear-channel station WLAC in Nashville, Tennessee at night. In December 2012, WPUT and WINE became affiliates of CBS Sports Radio. On August 30, 2013, a deal was announced in which Townsquare Media would acquire 53 Cumulus Media stations, including WPUT, for $238 million; the deal was part of Cumulus' acquisition of Dial Global. The sale to Townsquare was completed on November 14, 2013. WPUT signed off the air on November 5, 2014 at 3:42 PM. Townsquare Media would return WPUT's license to the FCC on May 18, 2015; the WPUT tower was taken down and Townsquare sold the Prospect Hill Rd property to a tree service company. FCC History Cards for WPUT

Richard M. Sims Jr.

Richard Maury Sims Jr. was an American judge, Associate Justice of the California First District Court of Appeal, Division One from 1940–78 and the District Attorney of Marin County from 1950–53. Born in Berkeley, Sims attended Stanford University, where he received his bachelor's degree and was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, he went on to obtain his law degree from Harvard Law School. After law school, Sims joined the law firm of Boland & Reardon in San Francisco, he left the firm to enter the United States Navy during World War II. After leaving the Navy as a lieutenant commander, Sims moved to Marin County, where he became Assistant County Counsel and became County Counsel. Sims was elected District Attorney of Marin County in 1950, he left that post in 1953 having been elected a Judge of the Marin Municipal Court in 1952. He occupied that office until he was appointed a Judge of the Marin County Superior Court in 1960 by Governor Pat Brown. In 1964, Brown appointed Sims as an Associate Justice of the California First District Court of Appeal, Division One, a position he held until 1978.

He died on 19 November 1985 of a heart attack while hiking near his home in Ross. His son, Richard M. Sims III, was appointed to the Placer County Superior Court in 1980 and to the Third District Court of Appeal in 1982, receiving both appointments from Governor Jerry Brown