Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Rostov is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring. It is located on the shores of Lake Nero, 202 kilometers northeast of Moscow. Population: 31,792 . While the official name of the town is Rostov, it is popularly known to Russians as Rostov Veliky to distinguish it from the much larger city of Rostov-on-Don, the name of the town railway station is Rostov Yaroslavsky, due to its position in Yaroslavl Oblast. Rostov was preceded by Sarskoye Gorodishche, which some scholars interpret as the capital of the Finnic Merya tribe, while others believe it was an important Viking trade enclave and fortress guarding the Volga trade route. Scythians were setteled there, it seems that different ethnics like Vikings, Scyths and Finns are the ancestors of todays people in that region. First mentioned in the year 862 as an important settlement, by the 10th century Rostov became the capital city of one of the most prominent Russian principalities, it was incorporated into Muscovy in 1474.
After it lost its independence, Rostov was still an ecclesiastic center of utmost importance. In the 14th century, the bishops of Rostov became archbishops, late in the 16th century, metropolitans. One of those metropolitans, Iona Sysoyevich, commissioned the town's main landmark: the kremlin that many regard as the finest outside of Moscow. Ravaged by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries and the Poles in 1608, Rostov became a medium-sized town; the metropolitan see. Apart from its history, Rostov is renowned for its enamels. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Rostov serves as the administrative center of Rostovsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Rostov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Rostov is incorporated within Rostovsky Municipal District as Rostov Urban Settlement; the central square of Rostov is occupied by the Assumption Cathedral.
It is unknown when the present building was erected, the mid-16th century being the most date. Lower parts of the cathedral walls are dated to the 12th century; the ponderous bell-tower was constructed in the 17th century. Its bells are among the largest and most famous in Russia - each has its own name; the largest bell, cast in 1688, weighs 32,000 kilograms. It is named Sysoy to honor the city's founding father. An area situated between the cathedral square and the lake was chosen by Iona Sysoevich as a place for his fairy-tale residence. All the construction works were carried out between 1667 and 1694. Major buildings include the ornate Savior Church-na-Senyakh, the sombre Church of St. Gregory, the barbican churches of St. John the Apostle and of the Resurrection of Christ; the residence erroneously called kremlin includes eleven ornate tower bells, numerous palaces, several small belfries, the diminutive baroque Church of Our Lady of Smolensk. All the churches are decorated; the cathedral and four tall kremlin churches with their silver "blind" domes were imitated throughout the city.
This is evident in the Savior-on-the-Market church and the cathedral church of the Nativity convent, both dating from the 17th century and situated near the kremlin walls. The oldest church within the town center was consecrated to St. Isidore the Blessed in 1565, they say that Ivan the Terrible had the architect executed, because his church was so much smaller than its predecessor. The kremlin is flanked by two monasteries. To the right from the kremlin stands the Abraham monastery, founded in the 11th century and one of the oldest in Russia, its cathedral, commissioned by Ivan the Terrible in 1553 to commemorate the conquest of Kazan, inspired numerous churches in the region in Yaroslavl. Spaso-Yakovlevsky Monastery, situated to the left from the Kremlin on the town's outskirts, has been venerated as the shrine of St. Dmitry of Rostov. Most of the monastery structures were built in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the fine neoclassical style. There are two 17th-century churches: the Conception of St. Anna, the Transfiguration of Our Savior.
Unlike most other churches in the town, the monastery belongs to the Russian Orthodoxy and houses a theological seminary. The vicinity of Rostov is rich in old architecture. For example, an old wooden church may be seen in Ishnya. One of the best preserved monasteries in Russia, named after the saints Boris and Gleb, is situated in Borisoglebsky, about 20 kilometers west of the town; the monastery was favored by Ivan the Terrible, who supervised the construction of towered walls and bell-tower around an more ancient cathedral. The only addition made to the monastery after Ivan's death is a barbican church, commissioned by the metropolitan Iona Sysoyevich. Jämsä, Finland Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA Peter I, by Vladimir Petov Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future, by Leonid Gaidai Dmitry Borisovich, Russian nobleman Konstantin of Rostov, the eldest son of Vsevolod the Big Nest and Maria Shvarnovna Vasilko Konstantinovich, the first Prince of Rostov Lev
Dmitrov is a town and the administrative center of Dmitrovsky District in Moscow Oblast, located 65 kilometers to the north of Moscow on the Yakhroma River and the Moscow Canal. Population: 61,305 ; the town was founded by Yury Dolgoruky in 1154, where his son Vsevolod was born. Its name is explained by the fact. In the 13th century, the settlement marked a point where the borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and Pereslavl-Zalessky converged; the settlement itself belonged to the princes of Galich-Mersky, located much to the north, until 1364, when it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Both Dmitry Donskoy and his grandson Vasily II granted Dmitrov as an appanage to their younger sons, so Dmitrov was the capital of a tiny principality. In 1374, it was given town rights; the reign of Ivan III's son Yury Ivanovich inaugurated the golden age of Dmitrov. It is during his reign that the black-domed Assumption Cathedral in the kremlin and a smaller monastery cathedral of Sts. Boris and Gleb were built.
Thereafter, the town passed to Andrey of Staritsa. In 1569, it was seized from Vladimir of Staritsa, added to the Oprichnina and went into a decline; the town suffered further damage during the Time of Troubles. In 1812, Dmitrov was occupied by the Grande Armée but in 1941 the Wehrmacht soldiers were stopped on the outskirts of the town; the Anarchist prince Peter Kropotkin spent his last years there. In the 1930s, the local kremlin was excavated by Soviet archaeologists. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Dmitrov serves as the administrative center of Dmitrovsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with eighty rural localities, incorporated within Dmitrovsky District as the Town of Dmitrov. As a municipal division, the Town of Dmitrov is incorporated within Dmitrovsky Municipal District as Dmitrov Urban Settlement. Dmitrov is a railway junction of the Moscow -- the Dmitrov -- Alexandrov branch; the railway provides an efficient service to Moscow. Dmitrov is a cargo port on the Moscow Canal.
Bus routes connect Dmitrov with Moscow, Sergiyev Posad, Taldom, Lobnya and other destinations. Dmitrov is twinned with: Maryina Horka, Belarus Spanish, Canada Schorndorf, Germany Rîbnița, Moldova/Transnistria Almere, Netherlands Bytom, Poland Berkeley, United States Dmitrov's altitude above sea level is 179 meters. In a national competition in 2005, Dmitrov was recognized as the best-run town in Russia. T. A. T.u. Shot their video for Nas Ne Dagoniat in Dmitrov Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г.. Московская областная Дума. Закон №74/2005-ОЗ от 28 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Дмитровского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований», в ред.
Закона №54/2013-ОЗ от 6 июня 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Дмитровского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №44, 12 марта 2005 г.. Pictures of Dmitrov
Bayors, Swedish: baijorer, ryssbaijorer, a Swedish transmogrification of Russian: бояринъ ‘boyar’, designating in the early modern era all Russian noblemen in general, a group of Russian noble families who had entered Swedish service in the late sixteenth–early seventeenth centuries and were incorporated into the Swedish nobility. Of these, the most notable were the families Rosladin Baranoff Aminoff Kalitin/Callentin Butterlin Zebotaioff/Sabotaioff, one branch known as Apolloff Pereswetoff-Morath Clementeoff Nassokin Golawitz Rubzoff,which were all immatriculated at the Swedish House of Nobility. In 1818, those families resident east of the Bothnian were immatriculated at the Finnish House of Nobility in the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland; the coats-of-arms granted by the kings of Sweden invariably allude to military prowess and tend to include weaponry, regarded as'Muscovite', mounted warriors and ‘northern’ animals. Of particular importance as a model, was the coat-of-arms of the Aminoffs.
During the seventeenth century, most of the bayor families were associated with the province of Ingria, where they were supposed to constitute a part of the ruling class that might be more acceptable to the Orthodox, to a large extent Russian, population than was the Lutheran Swedish and German nobility. However, the bayors were expected to raise their sons as good Lutherans in order to retain an ‘eligibility’ to offices in the state and in the army; this fact led to nearly full integration into the Swedish nobility by the end of the seventeenth century, although at home, among the women and syncreticism may still have been widespread. The bayor families practiced endogamy to a large extent in the seventeenth century, which might have allowed Russian traditions to live on ‘at home’ but show less outwardly; this is to be contrasted with the state of affairs in c.1640 when all bayors would have regarded – and showed – themselves as Orthodox, as the elderly still did in the 1660s. Till the mid-century they interceded for the protection of Orthodox institutions.
The French Ingrian family Baron, several of whose members spoke Russian and were used as interpreters, was added to the group on a par with the ‘true’ bayors. In the early decades of Swedish Ingria, there were at a social level higher than the peasantry but below the bayors by far: the Russian townspeople of the city of Ivangorod and the townships of Jama, Caporie and Nöteborg, with some well-off individuals. A measure of their integration with Sweden may be had from a glance at the considerable number of officers from the bayor families who fought in the Swedish armies during the Great Northern War on the Baltic front; the officers were: Corporal in the Drabant corps Adam Johan Aminoff, † 1702 Klissow Captain Major, Carl Johan Aminoff Captain of the Guard Christoffer Henrik Aminoff, † 1709 Poltava Lieutenant Major, Detlof Fredrik Aminoff, prisoner Perevolochna 1709 Captain Major, Esaias Aminoff, prisoner Perevolochna 1709 Lieutenant Captain, Georg Aminoff, prisoner Viborg 1710 Captain Lieutenant-Colonel, Gregori Aminoff, prisoner Perevolochna 1709 Ensign Captain, Gregori Aminoff Lieutenant General-in-Chief in Finland, Henrik Johan Aminoff, prisoner while carrying message from Lesnaya to the king 1708 Colonel Joachim Aminoff Captain Major, Johan Aminoff, prisoner Dünamünde 1710 Drabant Peter Aminoff Captain Lieutenant-Colonel, Stephan Gustaf Aminoff, prisoner Narva 1704.
Died a Russian prisoner 1742 after again having been made POW 1741 at Villmanstrand. Commandant of Viborg, Colonel Zacharias Aminoff, † 1710 Viborg. Captain Major, Gregori Apolloff, Ensign Herman Reinhold Apolloff, † 1710 in the plague. Commandant of Nyenskans, Colonel Johan Apolloff, prisoner in Narva 1704, † 1706 in Russia Lieutenant Magnus Johan Apolloff, † 1704 Narva Ensign Reinhold Gustaf Apolloff, prisoner 1713 Tönning Commandant at Caporie, Captain Wasili Apolloff, † 1709 Viborg Ensign Zacharias Fredrik Apolloff, prisoner 1710 Viborg Lieutenant Carl Fredrik Baranoff Lieutenant Detlof Johan Baranoff Captain Fredrik Baranoff Lieutenant Georg Christoffer Baranoff Lieutenant Major, Georg Johan Baranoff, prisoner Perevolochna 1709 Lieutenant Gotthard Fredrik Baranoff, prisoner 1708 Lesnaya, returned 1709, † 1718 during the campaign in Norway Captain Johan Baranoff Lieutenant Magnus Reinhold Baranoff, prisoner Narva 1704, † 1715 in Russia. Lieutenant Casimir Johan Clementeoff, prisoner 1702 Poritz in Ingria Captain
Nyenschantz was a Swedish fortress at the confluence of the Neva River and Okhta River, the site of present-day Saint Petersburg, Russia. Nyenschantz was built in 1611 to establish Swedish rule in Ingria, annexed from the Tsardom of Russia during the Time of Troubles; the town of Nyen, which formed around Nyenschantz, became a wealthy trading center and a capital of Swedish Ingria during the 17th century. In 1702, Nyenschantz and Nyen were conquered by Russia during the Great Northern War, the new Russian capital of Saint Petersburg was established by Peter the Great in their place the following year. In 1609, the Vyborg Treaty was signed by Sweden and Tsardom of Russia as a package of military agreements that were supposed to be mutually beneficial to both countries, it was signed by King Charles IX of Sweden and Vasili IV of Russia in the Swedish city of Vyborg, located on the Karelian Isthmus close to Russian territory. The treaty came at an unstable period in Russian history known as the Time of Troubles, where the death of Tsar Feodor I in 1598 led to decades of civil war.
In 1605, following the death of de facto ruler Boris Godunov, Vasily Shuisky came to power, triggering a conflict with a pretender to the Russian throne, False Dmitry II. Additionally, Russia began fighting the Polish–Muscovite War following invasion of the country by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the same year. Sweden themselves were fighting against the Poles in the Polish–Swedish War, viewed their eastward expansion into Russian lands as a security threat; the terms of the Vyborg Treaty stipulated that Sweden would supply a corps of mercenaries to Shuisky to fight False Dmitry II and the Poles, in exchange for Swedish control of the nearby strategic Korela Fortress, as well as its town Kexholm and the respective county. Shuisky was an unpopular ruler with little power. Shortly after signing the Vyborg Treaty, Russia's fortunes began to rise, Shuisky was forced out of power in 1610. A coalition between Swedish general Jacob de la Gardie and Russian princes launched the De la Gardie Campaign defeating False Dmitry II.
The Ingrian War was triggered in 1610 as the new stability of Russia led to increased resistance to Polish occupation and Swedish influence in the country. As the Poles were defeated in Moscow, Russia began to resist the Swedish influence as they sought to regain control over occupied territories, including the province of Ingria, which Sweden insisted on keeping based on Russia violating conditions in the Vyborg Treaty. Sweden constructed a fortress in Ingria at a strategic position at the confluence of the prominent Neva River and one of its tributaries, the Okhta River; the new fort was named Nyenskans, derived from the Swedish terms Nyen-, the name for the Neva, -skans meaning "bastion", was capable of housing 500 people. The Ingrian War ended in Swedish victory in 1617 after the signing of the Treaty of Stolbovo, resulting in Russia ceding the territories to Sweden. In 1632, the settlement of Nyen was developed across the Okhta from Nyenskans, granted town privileges and became the administrative centre of Swedish Ingria in 1642.
By the mid-17th century, Nyen had prospered as a trading hub and had a population of around 2,000 people, making it much larger and wealthier than Swedish Ingria's new capital, Nöteborg. According to church records, the town's population was made up of Finns, secondarily Swedes, some Germans. Around this time, Nyen's governor, John Geselia the Younger, banned Orthodox Christian Swedish subjects from settling in or near the town following tensions with Lutherans; the ban of Orthodox residents cleansed Nyen of ethnic Russian and Karelian inhabitants. In 1656, Nyenskans was attacked by Russia during an invasion led by Pyotr Potemkin; the attack was repelled, but Nyen was badly damaged by the attack and Sweden moved the administrative centre of Swedish Ingria from Nöteborg to Narva. In 1677, the defences of Nyenskans and Nyen were enforced by a ring of new fortifications consisting of lunettes with batteries and moats. By the end of the 17th century, Nyenskans entered its final form after it had been modernized by an extensive project led by engineer Heinrich von Soylenberg.
The fort was expanded to house 600 people, converted into a star fort featuring five wooden and earthen bastions, two additional ravelins, crownworks along the bastions not pointing towards the rivers, a smaller accompanying half-fort built on the opposite bank of the Neva. Upon the completion of the project, Nyenskans was thought by Sweden to be the most modern fortress in the world at the time. By the turn of the 18th century, numerous Swedish and Finnish suburban manors were built outside of the Nyen fortification ring. Most were along the Neva. In 1700, danger of Russian invasion increased following the beginning of the Great Northern War, which resumed formal hostilities between Sweden and Russia. In October 1702, Sweden feared an imminent Russian invasion of Nyen, evacuating the city's population and burning it down to prevent the Russians from taking it. On May 1, 1703, Sweden lost Nyenskans to the Russians when the fortress was taken by Peter the Great during the Ingrian campaign of the Great Northern War.
The site of Nyenskans and Nyen was reformed by Peter into the new city of Schlötburg, meaning "Neck-town" in German, a reference to the long narrow section of the Neva where it was located, with "Schlöt" corresponding to " neck, chimney". Schlötburg stood in contrast to Shlisselburg, the new name for Nöteborg at the other end of the N
Historical Ingria is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west. The Orthodox Izhorians, along with the Votes, are the indigenous people of historical Ingria. With the consolidation of the Kievan Rus and the expansion of the Republic of Novgorod north, the indigenous Ingrians became Greek Orthodox. Ingria became a province of Sweden in the Treaty of Stolbovo in 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia. After the Swedish conquest of the area in 1617 the Ingrian Finns, descendants of 17th-century Lutheran emigrants from present-day Finland, became the majority in Ingria. In 1710, following a Russian conquest, Ingria was designated as the Province of St. Petersburg. In the Treaty of Nystad, Sweden formally ceded Ingria to Russia. In 1927 the Soviet authorities designated the area as Leningrad Province. Deportations of the Ingrian Finns started in late 1920s, Russification was nearly complete by the 1940s.
As of 2015, Ingria forms the northwestern anchor of Russia—its "window" on the Baltic Sea—with Saint Petersburg as its centre. Ingria as a whole never formed a separate state; this notwithstanding, many people still recognize their Ingrian heritage. Historic Ingria covers the same area as the Gatchinsky, Kirovsky, Tosnensky and Vsevolozhsky districts of modern Leningrad Oblast as well as the city of Saint Petersburg. In the Viking era, from the 750s onwards, Ladoga served as a bridgehead on the Varangian trade route to Eastern Europe. A Varangian aristocracy developed that would rule over Novgorod and Kievan Rus'. In the 860s, the warring Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled under Vadim the Bold, but asked the Varangians under Rurik to return and to put an end to the recurring conflicts between them; the Swedes referred to the ancient Novgorodian land of Vod as "Ingermanland", Latinized to "Ingria". Folk etymology traces its name to Ingegerd Olofsdotter, the daughter of the Swedish king Olof Skötkonung.
Upon her marriage to Yaroslav I the Wise, Grand Prince of Novgorod and Kiev, in 1019, she received the lands around Ladoga as a marriage gift. They were administered by Swedish jarls, such as Ragnvald Ulfsson, under the sovereignty of the Novgorod Republic. In the 12th century, Western Ingria was absorbed by the Republic. There followed centuries of frequent wars, chiefly between Novgorod and Sweden, involving Denmark and Teutonic Knights as well; the Teutonic Knights established a stronghold in the town of Narva, followed by the Russian castle Ivangorod on the opposite side of the Narva River in 1492. Although Sweden and Novgorod had fought for the Ingrian lands more or less since the Great Schism of 1054, the first actual attempt to establish Swedish dominion in Ingria appears to date from the early 14th century, when Sweden first founded the settlement of Viborg in Karelia and the fortress Landskrona at the confluence of the Ohta and Neva rivers. However, Novgorod destroyed it. Ingria became a Swedish dominion in the 1580s, but the Treaty of Teusina returned it to Russia in 1595.
Russia in its turn ceded Ingria to Sweden in the Treaty of Stolbova after the Ingrian War of 1610-1617. Sweden's interest in the territory was strategic: the area served as a buffer zone against Russian attacks on the Karelian Isthmus and on present-day Finland the eastern half of the Swedish realm; the townships of Ivangorod, Caporie and Nöteborg became the centres of the four Ingrian counties, consisted of citadels, in the vicinity of which were small boroughs called hakelverk - before the wars of the 1650s inhabited by Russian townspeople. The degree to which Ingria became the destination for Swedish deportees has been exaggerated. Ingria remained sparsely populated. In 1664 the total population amounted to 15,000. Swedish attempts to introduce Lutheranism, which accelerated after an initial period of relative religious tolerance, met with repugnance on the part of the majority of the Orthodox peasantry, who were obliged to attend Lutheran services; the proportion of Lutheran Finns in Ingria comprised 41.1% in 1656, 53.2% in 1661, 55.2% in 1666, 56.9% in 1671 and 73.8% in 1695, the remainder being Russians and Votes.
Ingermanland was to a considerable extent enfiefed to noble military and state officials, who brought their own Lutheran servants and workmen. However, a small number of Russian Orthodox churches remained in use until the end of the Swedish dominion, the forceful conversion of ethnic Russian Orthodox forbidden by law. Nyen became the main trading centre of Ingria after Ivangorod dwindled, in 1642 it was made the administrative centre of the province. In 1656 a Russian attack badly damaged the town, the administrative centre moved to Narva. In the early
House of Nobility (Sweden)
The House of Nobility in Stockholm, Sweden is a corporation and a building, that maintains records and acts as an interest group on behalf of the Swedish nobility. The name is translated as House of Knights, as the knights belong to the higher ranks of the Swedish nobility, sometimes together with titles as count and baron. All esquires are represented in the corporation; this is a tradition from the Middle Ages when Sweden during the Kalmar Union only had one knight: Sten Sture. Between the 17th and the 19th century the House of Nobility was a chamber in the Riksdag of the Estates, as such, a Swedish equivalent to the British House of Lords. In the 18th century, the building was used for public concerts. From 1731, public concerts were performed here by Kungliga Hovkapellet. Elisabeth Olin is believed to have debuted here in the 1750s, foreign artists performed such as Elisabetta Almerighi, Giovanni Ansani and Rosa Scarlatti. After 1866, when the old Parliament of the Estates was replaced by the new Parliament of Sweden, the Swedish House of Nobility served as a quasi-official representative body for the Swedish nobility, regulated by the Swedish government.
Since 2003, it has been a private institution which maintains records and acts as an interest group on behalf of the Swedish nobility, its main purpose being to maintain old traditions and culture. The Riddarhuset is the name of the building maintained by the corporation in Stockholm old town; the French-born architect Simon De la Vallée started the planning of the building, but was killed by a Swedish nobleman in 1642. The plans were finished by his son, Jean De la Vallée, in 1660; the south end of the building carries the Latin inscription CLARIS MAIORUM EXEMPLIS, after the clear example of the forefathers, holds a statue of Gustav Vasa. North of the building is a park in, a statue of Axel Oxenstierna; the architecture of the old main library in Turku, Finland was influenced by the Swedish House of Nobility. List of Swedish noble families Finnish House of Nobility Riddarhustorget Riddarholmen Ointroducerad Adels Förening Official Riddarhuset website Riddarhuset.se: Archives