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Pereyaslav Council

The Pereyaslav Council, was an official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Muscovy in the town of Pereyaslav in January 1654. The ceremony took place concurrently with ongoing negotiations that started on the initiative of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky to address the issue of Cossack Hetmanate with the ongoing Khmelnytsky Uprising against Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and which concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav; the treaty itself was finalized in Moscow in April 1654. According to the Russian historiography, Khmelnytsky secured the military protection of the Tsardom of Russia in exchange for allegiance to the Tsar. An oath of allegiance to the Russian monarch from the leadership of Cossack Hetmanate was taken, shortly thereafter followed by swearing allegiance by other officials and inhabitants of the Hetmanate; the exact nature of the relationship stipulated by the agreement between the Hetmanate and Russia is a matter of scholarly controversy.

The council of Pereyaslav was followed by exchange of official documents the March Articles and the Tsar's Declaration. The Council was attended by a delegation from Moscow headed by Vasiliy Buturlin; the event was soon thereafter followed by the adoption in Moscow of the so-called March Articles that stipulated an autonomous status of the Hetmanate within the Russian state. The agreement precipitated the Russo-Polish War; the definitive legal settlement was effected under the Eternal Peace Treaty of 1686 concluded by Russia and Poland that re-affirmed Russia's sovereignty over the lands of Zaporizhian Sich and left-bank Ukraine, as well as the city of Kiev. In January 1648, a major anti-Polish uprising led by Bohdan Khmelnytskyi began in the Zaporizhia lands. Supported by popular masses and by Crimean Kahnate the rebels won a number of victories over the government forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth seeking the increase of Cossack registry, weakening of the Polish aristocratic oppression, oppression by the Jews who governed estates as well as recovery of positions of the Orthodox Church in own lands.

However, the autonomy obtained by Khmelnytsky found itself squeezed between three Great powers: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Tsardom of Russia and Ottoman Empire. Being the main leader of the uprising, Bohdan Khmelnytskyi was not able to declare independence, because he was not a legitimate monarch and there was not such a candidate among other leaders of the uprising. Taking into consideration the economic and human resources, the uprising was taking place in backward regions of the Polish Crown, Kijow and Braclaw voivodeships; the Crimean Khan, the only ally, was not interested in a decisive victory of Cossacks. It is believed that negotiations to unite the Zaporizhia land with Russia started as early as in 1648; such idea is common among Soviet historians of Russia such as Mykola Petrovsky. Many other Ukrainian historians among which are Ivan Krypiakevych, Dmitriy Ilovaisky, Myron Korduba, Valeriy Smoliy and others interpret negotiations as an attempt to attract the Tsar to military support of Cossacks and motivate him to struggle for the Polish Crown which became available after the death of Władysław IV Vasa.

June 18, 1648 – the first known official letter of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi to the Tsar Alexis I. June 18, 1648 – letter of Khmelnytskyi to the Muscovite voivode of Siveria, Leontiev. Mention of favorable attitude of the Cossacks to the Tsar; the issue of allegiance to the Tsar is not raised. July 21, 1648 – letter of Khmelnytskyi to the Muscovite voivode of Putivl, Pleshcheyev. Mention of motivation of the Tsar of Muscovy to the struggle for the Polish Crown; the issue of allegiance to the Tsar is not raised. End of December 1648 – departing of Khmelnytskyi delegation to Moscow; the delegation included the chief envoy Syluyan Patriarch Paisius I of Jerusalem. January 1649 – in Moscow Patriarch Paisius convinced the Tsar of Khmelnytskyi's intentions "...striking with forehead to your Imperial Majesty, so the emperor ordered to grant him and all the Zaporizhian Host adoption under His high imperial hand...", but in the Muzhylovsky's notes is mentioned only request for military assistance, while the issue of allegiance to the Tsar was not raised.

April 1649 – meeting of Khmelnytskyi with the Tsar's envoy Grigoriy Unkovsky in Chyhyryn. Hetman emphasized on the kinship of Ukraine with Moscow: "...from the baptizing by St. Vladimir we had with Moscow our one pious Christian faith and one power..." and asked for military assistance. May 1649 – deportation of Khmelnytskyi's envoys to Moscow headed by Chyhyryn Colonel Fedir Veshnyak. In accreditation letter it was expressed petition for protectorate of the Muscovite Tsar. "...take under own mercy and defense... whole Ruthenia" At the same time, similar delegation was sent to the Prince of Transylvania George II Rákóczi to encourage him to fight for the Polish Crown. August 16, 1649 – hollow victory at the Battle of Zboriv. Betrayed by Crimean Tatars, Bohdan Khmelnytskyi blamed Moscow for not sending help. Cossack-Moscow relations worsened. Hetman and his associates resorted to diplomatic pressure on Moscow: expressed about the need for campaign onto Muscovites and refused to give impostor Timofey Akudinov who claimed to be the son of Moscow Tsar Vasili IV of Russia.

March 1650 – Khmelnytskyi

Public Health Film Society

The Public Health Film Society, is a charity registered in the UK. It was established in 2014 by four public health specialist from Oxford - Dr Uy Hoang, Dr Olena Seminog, Dr Sam Williamson and Dr Stella Botchway, most of whom had been involved in the Oxford Public Health Film Club; the charity was set up with the aim of'bringing together people from many different backgrounds, to encourage them to share their knowledge and experience, be inspired through the medium of film to understand public health, work towards overcoming the public health challenges we all face'. PHFS constitution was adopted in 2014 and it was registered with the Charity Commission in 2015, it is the first and only independent film society devoted to films about health. The first president was Dr Stella Botchway, she oversaw the adoption of the constitution and the launch of the first Public Health Film Festival in the UK. She would go on to become a researcher at The Oxford Research Centre in the Humanities; the second and current president is Dr Uy Hoang.

He oversaw the 2nd and 3rd editions of the Public Health Film Festival and the launch of the International Public Health Film Competition. He is a health researcher at the University of Oxford. In addition to helping to organise the Public Health Film Festival and the International Public Health Film Competition, the PHFS undertakes a number of other works to promote conversations between the health and artistic communities about public health messages in film, to promote transparency in the portray of health messages to the general public; this work includes the distribution of correspondence and peer-reviewed research on health films. The PHFS is an affiliate member of the British Federation of Film Societies

1848 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1848 in Australia. Governors of the Australian colonies: Governor of New South WalesSir Charles Augustus FitzRoy Governor of South AustraliaLieutenant Colonel Frederick Holt Robe Sir Henry Fox Young Governor of TasmaniaSir William Denison Governor of Western Australia as a Crown ColonyLieutenant-Colonel Frederick Irwin. Letters Patent of Queen Victoria declaring Melbourne a city are read on the steps of St Peters, Eastern Hill church. 13 February – The first non-British ship carrying immigrants to arrive in Victoria was from Germany. Many of those on board were political refugees and known as Forty-Eighters. 3 April – Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt was last seen on the Darling Downs. On that date he wrote a letter from Cogoon. Leichhardt had set off for Swan River. 11 March – The Savings Bank of South Australia opens with a single employee, trading from a room provided rent-free. 29 August – The Cape Otway lighthouse in Victoria is lit for the first time.

17 February – Louisa Lawson, writer and suffragette 24 February – Andrew Inglis Clark, Tasmanian politician John Langdon Bonython George Chaffey John Winthrop Hackett John Heaton Edward Hutton Alexander Leeper Alexander Macleay Walter Madden John Mather William Shiels Edward Stirling John Cadman Frederick Garling Maurice Charles O'Connell William Sorell

Aandhali Koshimbir

Aandhali Koshimbir is a 2014 Marathi comedy film directed by Aditya Ingale and starring Ashok Saraf, Vandana Gupte and Anand Ingale. Aandhali Koshimbir is about his son Ranga; the story tells about the lonely woman Shanti and her landlord Marne, a lawyer and a bad poet, madly in love with her. For monetary reasons and his friend, decides to bring home Shanti to meet Bapu to get them to start a quarrel; because she is more powerful in quarrel, Ranga thinks she will win over Bapu in the quarrel, that Bapu will lose his confidence, they will therefore have their problem solved by getting money from Bapu. They tell each of Bapu and Shanti both that the other one is mentally out of control and that their lost spouses were same looking as Bapu and Shanti, if they come and have a big quarrel, the other patient might get cured; as planned, Shanti comes home to have a quarrel with Bapu, Bapu get ready to do the same. But instead of having quarrels, the two lonely souls Bapu and Shanti fall in love. Bapu invites Shanti to stay at his place for a few days, the situation becomes more complicated for Ranga and Vashya, Marne too, as he can not recite his poems to Shanti.

At the Bapu house, all the lonely characters come together and become a family. But Marne becomes a villain; as he comes to know of Ranga's plan, he blackmails him and lodges a court case against Bapu and Shanti. While siding with Marne, Ranga still helps Bapu and Shanti to get rid of Marne, who in the end becomes insane. Aandhali Koshimbir was met with favorable reviews. Marathimovieworld gave it 3.5 out of 5 stars, calling it "a neat and clean comedy". gave it 3 out of 5 stars and had the verdict "A quarreling contest gone wrong." Ashok Saraf as Bapu Sadavarte Vandana Gupte as Shanti Chitnis Anand Ingale as Adv. Marne Aniket Vishwasrao as Ranga Hemant Dhome as Vashya Hrishikesh Joshi as Goraksha Priya Bapat as Manju Mrunmayee Deshpande as Radhika Official website

Ithiyapuram kaavu

Sree Vana Sastha Sree Vana Durga Temple, Ithiyapuram Kaavu, Swamiyar madam. Sree Vana Sastha Sree Vana Durga Temple, Ithiyapuram Kaavu, Swamiyar madam; this ancient temple is situated in the National Highway NH-47 which runs from Kanyakumari to Thiruvananthapuram. It is located about 30 km from Nagercoil and about 52 km from Thiruvananthapuram and is on the Swamiyarmadam-Verkilambi road, near the Kovikal Bridge, its exact age is unknown. However, its age should be greater than an eon. In this temple the prime god is Sree Vana Sastha and the prime goddess is Sree Vana Durga; the gods Bala Ganapati, Naga Yakshi, Naga Kanni, Sree Krishna, Sree Eeshvarakala Boothathaan are available. In this shrine Sree Vana Sastha, Sree Vana Durga and Bala Ganapathy gods are self-manifested. There, in this shrine, Goddess Sree Vana Durga is in the state of Penance, God Sree Bala Ganapathy is regaining his original form on his own day by day. There are golden-colored snakes, white colored snakes and King Cobras are in the forest, in the back side of this temple and many have witnessed it long time ago.

The gigantic trees which are surrounding the temple is a vital sign for this temple's eon. And no one is permitted to go into the forest area, behind the temple. Long ago, Travancore King Marthanda Varma ran via this place to save his life and after becoming the King he handedover a copper record of legal documents as a gift to this temple and was said by the people during his period. There was lying dilapidated. In the reason past this temple was well maintained because of the action taken by the local public and regular workships are taking place. During every Pankuni Uthram a festival of five days is grandly celebrated in this temple. In the month of Karthigai Mandala Pooja of 41 days, Powrnami Pooja, Aayilya Pooja are taking place. During every evenings Santhya Pooja is taking place as a Nithya Pooja, it is believed that Goddess Sree Vana Durga came all the way from the dense jungle of Pechiparai and in protection to her God Sree Vana Sastha and snakes troops came there to this place. During every powrnami days one could have a dharshan of Nager without fail.

Official website

Stapleton (surname)

Stapleton is an English surname dating back to the times of Anglo-Saxon tribes of Britain. It is a habitation name. Notable people and characters with the surname include: Chris Stapleton, American singer-songwriter Cyril Stapleton, British violinist and band leader Fergal Stapleton, Irish artist Jacinta Stapleton, Australian actress Jean Stapleton, American actress Liam Stapleton, Australian radio presenter Maureen Stapleton, American actress Nicola Stapleton, English actress Oliver Stapleton, English cinematographer Peter Stapleton, New Zealand musician Rita Stapleton, a heroine on the CBS soap opera The Guiding Light during the 1970s and early'80sRobin Thick Robyn Stapleton, Scottish singer Steven Stapleton, British musician Sullivan Stapleton, Australian actor Bob Stapleton, American entrepreneur Patrick J. Stapleton III, member of the Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board, son of Patrick J. Stapleton, Jr. Thomas Stapleton, English landowner Walker Stapleton, American businessman and state treasurer Deryck Stapleton, British bomber pilot and Air Vice Marshal Gerald Stapleton, British fighter pilot Miles Stapleton, English knight Miles Stapleton of Bedale, English knight Benjamin F. Stapleton, American politician Craig Roberts Stapleton, U.

S. ambassador John Stapleton Patrick J. Stapleton Jr. U. S. politician in Pennsylvania, father of Patrick J. Stapleton III Philip Stapleton, English politician Richard F. Stapleton, American politician Sheryl Williams Stapleton, American politician Thomas J. Stapleton, Democratic member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives Walker Stapleton, American politician Walter King Stapleton, American federal judge William Stapleton, MP for Carlisle William Stapleton see List of colonial governors of Nevis Sir William Stapleton, 4th Baronet, English politician, son of the governor Dave Stapleton, baseball player who played with the Boston Red Sox 1980–86 Dave Stapleton, baseball player who played with the Milwaukee Brewers 1987–88 Frank Stapleton, Irish association and Manchester United football player Paul Stapleton, English football executive Rory Stapleton, Irish Gaelic football player Clay Stapleton, American football player and coach Darnell Stapleton, American football player Mike Stapleton, American ice hockey player Pat Stapleton, Canadian ice hockey player Tim Stapleton, American ice hockey player Brett Stapleton, Australian rugby union player Craig Stapleton, Australian rugby league footballer Eddie Stapleton, Australian rugby union player Harold Stapleton, Australian cricketer Jim Stapleton, Irish hurler Paddy Stapleton, Irish hurler Thomas Stapleton, Irish hurler Tom Stapleton, Australian rules footballer Tom Stapleton, Irish athlete John Stapleton, English journalist John Stapleton Sally Stapleton, American photojournalist Ruth Carter Stapleton, American Christian evangelist Theobald Stapleton, Irish Roman Catholic priest Thomas Stapleton, English Catholic controversialist Augustus Stapleton, British biographer and political pamphleteer Craig Stapleton, several persons Dave Stapleton, several persons John Stapleton, several persons Patrick Stapleton, several persons Thomas Stapleton, several persons William Stapleton, several persons Jack and Beryl Stapleton, characters from The Hound of the Baskervilles The Stapleton family, the main characters in a series of historical novels by Thomas Fleming