A database is a well organized collection of data. It is the collection of schemas, queries, views, a database management system is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, querying, well-known DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, MariaDB, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, SAP HANA, MemSQL and IBM DB2. Sometimes a DBMS is loosely referred to as a database, formally, a database refers to a set of related data and the way it is organized. The DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information, because of the close relationship between them, the term database is often used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of information technology, the term database is often used to refer to any collection of related data. This article is concerned only with databases where the size and usage requirements necessitate use of a management system.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data, retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications. The retrieved data may be available in a form basically the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a database model. Database system refers collectively to the model, database management system. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS, Database servers are usually multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage. RAID is used for recovery of data if any of the disks fail, hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications, DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs typically rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions.
Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors often take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans, databases are used to support internal operations of organizations and to underpin online interactions with customers and suppliers. Databases are used to hold information and more specialized data. A DBMS has evolved into a software system and its development typically requires thousands of human years of development effort. Some general-purpose DBMSs such as Adabas, Oracle and DB2 have been undergoing upgrades since the 1970s, general-purpose DBMSs aim to meet the needs of as many applications as possible, which adds to the complexity
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of California, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.
In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.
In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War.
In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives
Concurrency (computer science)
In computer science, concurrency is the decomposability property of a program, algorithm, or problem into order-independent or partially-ordered components or units. This means that if the concurrent units of the program, algorithm, or problem are executed out-of-order or in partial order. This allows for execution of the concurrent units, which can significantly improve overall speed of the execution in multi-processor. The ensuing decades have seen a growth of interest in concurrency—particularly in distributed systems. Looking back at the origins of the field, what stands out is the role played by Edsger Dijkstra. Concurrent use of shared resources can be a source of indeterminacy leading to such as deadlocks. Concurrency theory has been a field of research in theoretical computer science. One of the first proposals was Carl Adam Petris seminal work on Petri Nets in the early 1960s, in the years since, a wide variety of formalisms have been developed for modeling and reasoning about concurrency. g.
Some of these are based on passing, while others have different mechanisms for concurrency. The proliferation of different models of concurrency has motivated some researchers to develop ways to unify these different theoretical models, various types of temporal logic can be used to help reason about concurrent systems. Some of these logics, such as linear temporal logic and computational tree logic, such as action computational tree logic, Hennessy-Milner logic, and Lamports temporal logic of actions, build their assertions from sequences of actions. The principal application of these logics is in writing specifications for concurrent systems, concurrent programming encompasses programming languages and algorithms used to implement concurrent systems. The base goals of concurrent programming include correctness and robustness, concurrent systems such as Operating systems and Database management systems are generally designed to operate indefinitely, including automatic recovery from failure, and not terminate unexpectedly.
Because they use shared resources, concurrent systems in general require the inclusion of some kind of arbiter somewhere in their implementation, the use of arbiters introduces the possibility of indeterminacy in concurrent computation which has major implications for practice including correctness and performance. Some concurrent programming models include coprocesses and deterministic concurrency, in these models, threads of control explicitly yield their timeslices, either to the system or to another process. Tanenbaum, Andrew S. Van Steen, Maarten, a Practical Theory of Reactive Systems. Concurrency, State Models and Java Programming, concurrent Systems at The WWW Virtual Library Concurrency patterns presentation given at scaleconf
Alameda is a city in Alameda County, United States. It is located on Alameda Island and Bay Farm Island, and is adjacent to and south of Oakland and east of San Francisco across the San Francisco Bay. Bay Farm Island, a portion of which is known as Harbor Bay Isle, is not actually an island. The citys estimated 2016 population was 79,277, Alameda is a charter city, rather than a general law city, allowing the city to provide for any form of government. Alameda became a city and adopted a council–manager government in 1916. The island Alameda occupies what was originally a peninsula connected to Oakland, much of it was low-lying and marshy, but on higher ground than the peninsula and adjacent parts of what is now downtown Oakland were home to one of the largest coastal oak forests in the world. The area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for forest of evergreen oak, Alameda is Spanish for grove of poplar trees or tree-lined avenue, and was chosen in 1853 by popular vote. The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a band of the Ohlone tribe.
The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted in 1820 to Luis Peralta by the Spanish king who claimed California, the grant was confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain. Over time, the became known as Bolsa de Encinal or Encinal de San Antonio. The city was founded on June 6,1853, and the town contained three small settlements. Eventually, the Central Pacifics ferry pier became the Alameda Mole, the first post office opened in 1854. The first school, Schmermerhorn School, was opened in 1855, the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad opened the Encinal station in 1864. The Encinal area was known as Fasskings Station in honor of Frederick Louis Fassking. Encinals own post office opened in 1876, was renamed West End in 1877, the West End area was originally called Bowmans Point in honor of Charles G. Bowman, an early settler. The Alameda Terminal was the site of the arrival of the first train via the First Transcontinental Railroad into the San Francisco Bay Area on September 6,1869, the transcontinental terminus was switched to the Oakland Mole two months later, on November 8,1869.
The borders of Alameda were made coextensive with the island in 1872, mark Twain described Alameda as being The Garden of California. In 1917, an attraction called Neptune Beach was built in the now known as Crab Cove
Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Embedded and Windows Phone, defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows 10 Mobile is an active product, unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20,1985, Microsoft Windows came to dominate the worlds personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold and this comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel. Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. The latest version is Windows 10, the main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple Inc. for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server 2016.
Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers. The latest version is Windows PE10.0.10586.0, Windows Embedded, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating system
NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution, a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It was the second open-source BSD descendant formally released after it forked from the 386BSD branch of the BSD source-code repository. It continues to be developed and is available for many platforms, including large-scale server systems, desktop systems, and handheld devices. The NetBSD project focuses on code clarity, careful design, netBSDs source code is openly available and permissively licensed. The NetBSD project began as a result of frustration within the 386BSD developer community with the pace and they aimed to produce a unified, multi-platform, production-quality, BSD-based operating system. The name NetBSD was suggested by de Raadt, based on the importance and growth of such as the Internet at that time. The NetBSD source code repository was established on 21 March 1993 and this was derived from 386BSD0.1 plus the version 0.2.2 unofficial patchkit, with several programs from the Net/2 release missing from 386BSD re-integrated, and various other improvements.
The first multi-platform release, NetBSD1.0, was made in October 1994, in 1994, for disputed reasons, one of the founders, Theo de Raadt, was removed from the project. He founded a new project, OpenBSD, from a version of NetBSD1.0 near the end of 1995. In 1998, NetBSD1.3 introduced the pkgsrc packages collection, until 2004, NetBSD1. x releases were made at roughly annual intervals, with minor patch releases in between. The previous minor releases are now divided into two categories, x. y stable maintenance releases and x. y. z releases containing only security, as the projects motto suggests, NetBSD has been ported to a large number of 32- and 64-bit architectures. These range from VAX minicomputers to Pocket PC PDAs, as of 2009, NetBSD supports 57 hardware platforms. The kernel and userland for these platforms are all built from a central unified source-code tree managed by CVS, unlike other kernels such as μClinux, the NetBSD kernel requires the presence of an MMU in any given target architecture.
NetBSDs portability is aided by the use of hardware abstraction layer interfaces for low-level hardware access such as bus input/output or DMA, using this portability layer, device drivers can be split into machine-independent and machine-dependent components. This makes a single driver easily usable on several platforms by hiding hardware access details, and reduces the work to port it to a new system. This permits a device driver for a PCI card to work without modifications, whether its in a PCI slot on an IA-32, PowerPC, SPARC. Also, a driver for a specific device can operate via several different buses, like ISA, PCI. In comparison, Linux device driver code often must be reworked for each new architecture, as a consequence, in porting efforts by NetBSD and Linux developers, NetBSD has taken much less time to port to new hardware
Within the market of desktop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows. Launched in 2001 as Mac OS X, the series is the latest in the family of Macintosh operating systems, Mac OS X succeeded classic Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS9 in 1999. An initial, early version of the system, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999, the first desktop version, Mac OS X10.0, followed in March 2001. In 2012, Apple rebranded Mac OS X to OS X. Releases were code named after big cats from the release up until OS X10.8 Mountain Lion. Beginning in 2013 with OS X10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after landmarks in California, in 2016, Apple rebranded OS X to macOS, adopting the nomenclature that it uses for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version of macOS is macOS10.12 Sierra, macOS is based on technologies developed at NeXT between 1985 and 1997, when Apple acquired the company.
The X in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced ten, macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV, Apple used to have a separate line of releases of Mac OS X designed for servers. Beginning with Mac OS X10.7 Lion, the functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 can run only on the PowerPC-based Macs from the time period, Mac OS X10.5 Leopard was released as a Universal binary, meaning the installer disc supported both Intel and PowerPC processors. In 2009, Apple released Mac OS X10.6 Snow Leopard, in 2011, Apple released Mac OS X10.7 Lion, which no longer supported 32-bit Intel processors and did not include Rosetta. All versions of the system released since run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs, the heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985.
There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and launched in 1989 and its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, called OPENSTEP, previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, e. g. Mac OS8 and Mac OS9. The letter X in Mac OS Xs name refers to the number 10 and it is therefore correctly pronounced ten /ˈtɛn/ in this context. However, a common mispronunciation is X /ˈɛks/, consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API, the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X10.0. Reviews were variable, with praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2015, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and Saint Paul anchor the second-largest economic center in the Midwest, after Chicago. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul. It was once the worlds flour milling capital and a hub for timber, the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Chicago and Seattle, with Minneapolis proper containing Americas fifth-highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies. As an integral link to the economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city. Noted for its music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. The name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the citys first schoolteacher, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, and polis, Dakota Sioux had long been the regions sole residents when French explorers arrived around 1680.
For a time relations were based on fur trading, gradually more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Dakota. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired this territory from France, fort Snelling was built in 1819 by the United States Army, and it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized present-day Minneapolis as a town in 1856 on the Mississippis west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago. It joined with the city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River, forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, sashes.
Due to the hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s. The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the citys thirty-four flour mills, a father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from the Hungarians by William de la Barre, pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods. The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that Minneapolis
Graphical user interface
GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces, which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard. The actions in a GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements, beyond computers, GUIs are used in many handheld mobile devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices and smaller household and industrial controls. Designing the visual composition and temporal behavior of a GUI is an important part of application programming in the area of human–computer interaction. Its goal is to enhance the efficiency and ease of use for the logical design of a stored program. Methods of user-centered design are used to ensure that the language introduced in the design is well-tailored to the tasks. The visible graphical interface features of an application are sometimes referred to as chrome or GUI, users interact with information by manipulating visual widgets that allow for interactions appropriate to the kind of data they hold.
The widgets of an interface are selected to support the actions necessary to achieve the goals of users. A model–view–controller allows a structure in which the interface is independent from and indirectly linked to application functions. This allows users to select or design a different skin at will, good user interface design relates to users more, and to system architecture less. Large widgets, such as windows, usually provide a frame or container for the main presentation content such as a web page, smaller ones usually act as a user-input tool. A GUI may be designed for the requirements of a market as application-specific graphical user interfaces. By the 1990s, cell phones and handheld game systems employed application specific touchscreen GUIs, newer automobiles use GUIs in their navigation systems and multimedia centers, or navigation multimedia center combinations. Sample graphical desktop environments A GUI uses a combination of technologies and devices to provide a platform that users can interact with, a series of elements conforming a visual language have evolved to represent information stored in computers.
This makes it easier for people with few computer skills to work with, the most common combination of such elements in GUIs is the windows, menus, pointer paradigm, especially in personal computers. The WIMP style of interaction uses a virtual device to represent the position of a pointing device, most often a mouse. Available commands are compiled together in menus, and actions are performed making gestures with the pointing device, a window manager facilitates the interactions between windows and the windowing system. The windowing system handles hardware devices such as pointing devices, graphics hardware, window managers and other software combine to simulate the desktop environment with varying degrees of realism. Smaller mobile devices such as personal assistants and smartphones typically use the WIMP elements with different unifying metaphors, due to constraints in space
Rogue Wave Software
Rogue Wave Software is an American software development company. It provides cross-platform software development tools and embedded components for parallel, data-intensive, the company was founded in 1989 in Seattle, moved to Corvallis, Oregon in 1990 and is now based in Louisville, Colorado. In November 1996, they had an Initial Public Offering NASDAQ, in 2003, they were acquired by Quovadx, Inc NASDAQ, QVDX, which was in turn acquired by private equity firm Battery Ventures in July 2007. Rogue Wave Software is now an independent company again, in 2009, the company acquired Visual Numerics, a provider of advanced analytics software, and TotalView Technologies, which provides debugging tools for C, C++ and Fortran. In 2010, the company acquired Acumem, a multicore performance software company, iLOGs Java and Flex visualization products were acquired in September 2014. In August 2013, the company acquired OpenLogic, and Klocwork in January 2014, in October 2015 Rogue Wave Software announced the acquisition of Zend Technologies, a maker of tools and provider of services for the PHP technology.
In November 2016 Rogue Wave Software announced the acquisition of Akana, Rogue Wave began by producing a C++ class library in 1989 called Math. h++. In 1990 they produced Tools. h++, which predated the Standard Template Library, the. h++ products were combined in 2001 into the product family SourcePro C++. More recently, Rogue Wave Software has offered products focusing on parallel development, in 2010 they acquired Acumem, adding ThreadSpotter for performance optimization. In October 2015, Rogue Wave Software acquired Zend Technologies, in November 2016, Rogue Wave Software acquired Akana
In computing, a plug-in is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program. When a program supports plug-ins, it enables customization, the common examples are the plug-ins used in web browsers to add new features such as search-engines, virus scanners, or the ability to use a new file type such as a new video format. Applications support plug-ins for many reasons, types of applications and why they use plug-ins, Audio editors use plug-ins to generate, process or analyse sound. Ardour and Audacity are examples of such editors, email clients use plug-ins to decrypt and encrypt email. Pretty Good Privacy is an example of such plug-ins, graphics software use plug-ins to support file formats and process images. Media players use plug-ins to support file formats and apply filters, foobar2000, GStreamer, Quintessential, VST, Winamp, XMMS are examples of such media players. Packet sniffers use plug-ins to decode packet formats, omniPeek is an example of such packet sniffers.
Remote sensing applications use plug-ins to process data from different sensor types, Visual Studio itself can be plugged into other applications via Visual Studio Tools for Office and Visual Studio Tools for Applications. Web browsers use browser extensions to expand their functionality, examples include Adobe Flash Player, Java SE, QuickTime, Microsoft Silverlight and Unity. The host application provides services which the plug-in can use, including a way for plug-ins to register themselves with the host application, plug-ins depend on the services provided by the host application and do not usually work by themselves. Programmers typically implement plug-in functionality using shared libraries installed in a place prescribed by the host application, HyperCard supported a similar facility, but more commonly included the plug-in code in the HyperCard documents themselves. Thus the HyperCard stack became a self-contained application in its own right, programs may implement plugins by loading a directory of simple script files written in a scripting language like Python or Lua.
In Mozilla Foundation definitions, the words add-on, extension and plug-in are not synonyms, add-on can refer to anything that extends the functions of a Mozilla application. Extensions comprise a subtype, albeit the most common and the most powerful one, Mozilla applications come with integrated add-on managers that, similar to package managers, install and manage extensions. The term, Plug-in, strictly refers to NPAPI-based web content renderers, the plug-in program could make calls to the editor to have it perform text-editing services upon the buffer that the editor shared with the plug-in. The Waterloo Fortran compiler used this feature to allow interactive compilation of Fortran programs edited by EDT, very early PC software applications to incorporate plug-in functionality included HyperCard and QuarkXPress on the Macintosh, both released in 1987. In 1988, Silicon Beach Software included plug-in functionality in Digital Darkroom and SuperPaint, and Ed Bomke coined the term plug-in
AIX is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms. AIX is based on UNIX System V with 4. 3BSD-compatible extensions and it is one of five commercial operating systems that have versions certified to The Open Groups UNIX03 standard. The AIX family of operating systems debuted in 1986, became the operating system for the RS/6000 series on its launch in 1990. It is currently supported on IBM Power Systems alongside IBM i, Unix started life at AT&Ts Bell Labs research center in the early 1970s, running on DEC minicomputers. By 1976, the system was in use at various academic institutions, including Princeton. This port would grow out to become UTS, a mainframe Unix offering by IBMs competitor Amdahl Corporation, IBMs own involvement in Unix can be dated to 1979, when it assisted Bell Labs in doing its own Unix port to the 370. In the process, IBM made modifications to the TSS/370 hypervisor to better support Unix and it took until 1985 for IBM to offer its own Unix on the S/370 platform, IX/370, which was developed by Interactive Systems Corporation and intended by IBM to compete with Amdahl UTS.
AIX Version 1, introduced in 1986 for the IBM6150 RT workstation, was based on UNIX System V Releases 1 and 2, in developing AIX, IBM and Interactive Systems Corporation incorporated source code from 4.2 and 4.3 BSD UNIX. Among other variants, IBM produced AIX Version 3, based on System V Release 3, since 1990, AIX has served as the primary operating system for the RS/6000 series. AIX Version 4, introduced in 1994, added symmetric multiprocessing with the introduction of the first RS/6000 SMP servers and continued to evolve through the 1990s, culminating with AIX4.3.3 in 1999. Version 4.1, in a modified form, was the standard operating system for the Apple Network Server systems sold by Apple Computer to complement the Macintosh line. IBM maintains that their license was irrevocable, and continued to sell, AIX was a component of the 2003 SCO v. IBM lawsuit, in which the SCO Group filed a lawsuit against IBM, alleging IBM contributed SCOs intellectual property to the Linux codebase. The SCO Group, who argued they were the owners of the copyrights covering the Unix operating system.
In March 2010, a jury returned a finding that Novell, not the SCO Group. AIX6 was announced in May 2007, and it ran as an open beta from June 2007 until the availability of AIX6.1 on November 9,2007. Major new features in AIX6.1 included full role-based access control, workload partitions, enhanced security, AIX7.1 was announced in April 2010, and an open beta ran until general availability of AIX7.1 in September 2010. Several new features, including better scalability, enhanced clustering and management capabilities were added, AIX7.1 includes a new built-in clustering capability called Cluster Aware AIX. AIX is able to organize multiple LPARs through the communications channel to neighboring CPUs